Grade EOC Biology STAAR and STAAR-M Fall 2012 by Objective

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1 TEKS: (4) The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells. Objective: (A) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 1. Loriciferans are microscopic multicellular animals that live in various marine sediments. Scientists have discovered genera of Loriciferans in a deepsea habitat that lacks oxygen. Before this discovery, some prokaryotes and some unicellular eukaryotes were known to inhabit anaerobic environments. Among the newly discovered Loriciferans is Spinoloricus sp. nov., which is pictured below. 1. Loriciferans are microscopic multicellular animals. A newly discovered Loriciferan, Spinoloricus sp. nov., is pictured below Scientists determined that organisms of the genus Spinoloricus were eukaryotes and not prokaryotes because Spinoloricus cells have A flagella B hereditary material Organisms of the genus Spinoloricus are eukaryotes and not prokaryotes because Spinoloricus cells have A flagella B hereditary material C a nucleus C cell walls D nuclear membranes

2 TEKS: (4) The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells. Objective: (B) investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules. 2. The diagram below shows how a paramecium maintains homeostasis. A paramecium normally lives in a hypotonic environment in which water continually diffuses into the cell. To maintain homeostasis, the paramecium must pump out large amounts of water using its contractile vacuole. No Comparable Question If the paramecium is then placed in a hypertonic environment, which of the following will occur? A Water will diffuse into the paramecium. B Water will diffuse out of the paramecium. C Salt will be pumped out of the paramecium by the vacuole. D Salt will be pumped into the paramecium by the vacuole.

3 TEKS: (9) The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. Objective: (A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 2. Like complex carbohydrates, proteins are biomolecules that serve many functions and can be chemically broken down and restructured. Both proteins and complex carbohydrates are which of the following? A Polymers of smaller subunits B Sequences of sugars C Lipids of large molecules 2. Proteins and complex carbohydrates are molecules produced by living organisms (biomolecules). Biomolecules can be chemically broken down. Both proteins and complex carbohydrates are A larger compounds of smaller subunits B sequences of sugars C lipids of large molecules D Nucleotides of DNA

4 TEKS: (6) The student knows the mechanisms of genetics, including the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian genetics. Objective: (E) Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes. 3. A mutation is least likely to affect a cell when the mutation A reverses the order of bases in a DNA strand B allows the total number of bases in a DNA sequence to remain the same C replaces a base with its complementary base 3. A mutation in a DNA strand is least likely to affect a cell when the mutation A reverses the order of bases B replaces a base with its complementary base C results in the formation of the same amino acid D produces a triplet that codes for the same amino acid as the original triplet

5 TEKS: (6) The student knows the mechanisms of genetics, including the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian genetics. Objective: (G) Recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction The diagram below shows the process of meiosis. The diagram above shows the process of meiosis. The segregation that occurs during meiosis results in a A decrease in the total number of cells per organism B reduction in the number of chromosomes per cell C single fertilized egg cell D group of genetically identical cells The chromosome separation that occurs during meiosis results in a A reduction in the number of chromosomes per cell B single fertilized egg cell C group of genetically identical cells

6 TEKS: (7) The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Objective: (A) Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental The diagram below shows the evolutionary relationship of some species of animals. The diagram above shows a model of species divergence among some primates. If this model is correct, the greatest genetic differences would be found in the DNA sequences of which two species? A Tarsius bancanus and Cebus albifrons Based on this model, the greatest genetic differences would be found between which two species? A Macaca sylvanus and Macaca mulatta B Hylobates lar and Pongo pygmaeus C Pan troglodytes and Lemur catta B Macaca sylvanus and Macaca mulatta C Hylobates lar and Pongo pygmaeus D Pan troglodytes and Lemur catta

7 TEKS: (7) The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Objective: (D) Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success. 6. Genetic variation can aid in the survival of species when the environment changes. Which of the following is the best example of an organism with a genetic variation that could improve survival chances over time? 6. Genetic variation can help a species survive when the environment changes. What is the best example of an organism with a genetic variation that could improve its chances to survive over time? A An ant that is resistant to pesticide B A wasp that is infected with parasites C A cactus that has no spines A An ant that is resistant to pesticide B A wasp that is infected with parasites C A mouse that has learned to avoid mousetraps D A mouse that has learned to avoid mousetraps

8 TEKS: (8) The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms, and can change as new discoveries are made. Objective: (C) Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. 7. Methanogens, thermophiles, and halophiles are some of the most primitive life-forms found on Earth and thrive in very harsh environments. These unicellular, prokaryotic organisms most likely belong to which of the following kingdoms? A Fungi B Eubacteria C Protista D Archaebacteria 7. The list below describes an organism. Characteristics of an Organism Unicellular Prokaryotic Lives in very harsh environments Based on this list, in which kingdom should the organism be classified? A Fungi B Protista C Archaebacteria

9 TEKS: (10) The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. Objective: (A) Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals. 8. In the process of deamination, the liver converts amino acids to compounds that can be used in energy metabolism. The liver removes the amino groups from amino acids to produce urea. Then the urea is removed from the body as urine. During this process, the liver works in conjunction with which body system? A Endocrine B Excretory 8. Urea is produced when amino acids are broken down in the liver. Urea is removed from the body as urine. After the liver produces urea, which body system is involved in removing the urea from the body? A Excretory B Nervous C Respiratory C Nervous D Respiratory

10 TEKS: (11) The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. Objective: (A) Describe the role or internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis. 9. The diagram shows part of one of the many feedback loops required to maintain homeostasis in the human body. 9. The diagram below shows part of one of the many feedback loops needed to maintain homeostasis in the human body. This diagram suggests that which of the following could cause a low red-blood-cell count? A The growth of new bone tissue B Chronic kidney disease C Decreased levels of metabolic waste D An increased breathing rate Based on this diagram, what could most likely cause a low red-blood-cell count? A The growth of new bone tissue B Chronic kidney disease C An increased breathing rate

11 TEKS: (12) The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. Objective: (A) Interpret relationships, including predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, and competition among organisms. 11 A lichen is composed of two organisms, a fungus and a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides a growing surface, moisture, and nutrients to the cyanobacterium. The cyanobacterium provides food to the fungus. This relationship is considered to be an example of which of the following? A Commensalism B Mutualism C Neutralism D Parasitism 10. A lichen is made up of two organisms, a fungus and a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides a growing surface, moisture, and nutrients to the cyanobacterium The cyanobacterium provides food to the fungus. Which term best describes the relationship between the fungus and the cyanobacterium? A Commensalism B Mutualism C Parasitism

12 TEKS: (12) The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. Objective: (C) Analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids Look at the diagram of an ocean food chain and the energy pyramid below. An ocean food chain is shown in the diagram above. Which organism represents the trophic level containing approximately 1% of the initial amount of solar energy acquired by the phytoplankton? A Copepods B Sand eels C Herring D Humans Which organism represents the trophic level containing approximately 1% of the initial amount of solar energy absorbed by the phytoplankton? A Copepods B Sand eels C Herring

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