HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June

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1 HASPI Medical Life Science Core Labs Summary As funding is available, many of the supplies needed to implement the following labs will available for purchase through HASPI. Visit for updates, additional resources, and purchasing information. Lab 01 (MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, MS-ETS1-4) Science as a Process a. Science Is a Process Even in Medicine! Students will learn about the engineering and scientific processes as they apply to healthcare. Students act as physicians to use the diagnostic process (scientific method) to diagnose and test simulated patients. The activity is set up as patient rooms (stations) with 5 patient information sheets, and four diagnostic tests that can be performed. Students will use inquiry and the scientific method to analyze patient symptoms and perform tests to determine a diagnosis for each patient. Lab 02 (MS-LS1-1, MS-LS1-2, MS-LS1-3) Cells a. Identifying Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells In this activity students will use a compound microscope to compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They will have the opportunity to view bacteria from yogurt cultures, plant cells from an onion, and animal cells from the student s own cheek. Students will also be given the opportunity to view various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types by identifying living protists, bacteria and algae in pond water samples. Students are given a scenario in which they need to look at a water sample from a local stream that patient drank before becoming very ill. Students will be trying to determine if one of the organisms in the water is what has caused the illness. An overview of diseases that can be caused by protists or algae will be explored in the analysis. b. Cell Transport & Dialysis In this activity students will simulate hemodialysis to observe how some molecules move through a semi-permeable membrane, and others do not. The simulated set-up will demonstrate how salt, glucose, and urine freely diffuse through the dialysis machine and/or kidney, while red blood cells and proteins do not. Background information will highlight the structure of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane and its selective permeability. The difference between passive transport and active transport will also be discussed, as well as kidney function in relation to a filtering machine and what happens when the kidneys are not functioning properly. HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June

2 c. Body Systems Card Sort In this activity students will perform a card sort to learn about the different organs and organ systems in the human body. Lab introduction will discuss the levels of cellular organization (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, whole organism), highlighting the 4 different types of tissues found in the human body (connective, nervous, epithelial, muscle). During the card sort activity, students will be asked to group cards that contain images of the 11 major body systems in the human body, the main functions of each system, the main organs of each system, medical conditions associated with each system, and explanations of how each system works with other systems to maintain overall well-being of the human body. After sorting the cards, students will be asked to record the information they will learn on a graphic organizer. Lab 03 (MS-LS1-6, MS-LS1-7) Photosynthesis and Respiration a. Photosynthesis & Respiration: The Reactants & Products Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are closely related. They are dependent on one another. Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars), and requires an energy input from sunlight to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form glucose and release oxygen. Cellular respiration in plants and animals involve chemical reactions with oxygen that release stored energy. In these processes, glucose and oxygen are used to produce carbon dioxide and water. In this activity, students will have the opportunity to model these reactions and how they relate to one another. b. Visualizing Photosynthesis & Respiration The chemical reactions that occur during photosynthesis and cellular respiration are microscopic, and therefore very difficult to visualize. In this activity, students will use an aquatic plant that will remove carbon dioxide from the water through photosynthesis. They will also use aquatic snails that will produce carbon dioxide and add it to the water through cellular respiration. An indicator, called bromothymol blue, will be added to the water. The indicator will appear green in a neutral solution, turns yellow in an acid, and blue in a base. If photosynthesis occurs, carbon dioxide is removed from the water and it will become basic, turning blue. If cellular respiration occurs, carbon dioxide will be added to the water and it will become acidic, turning yellow. In this way, students can visualize the occurrence of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. c. Energy In & Energy Out Now that students have learned about the chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, how do they apply to our health? Photosynthesis produces the energy and molecules (glucose and oxygen) needed for cellular respiration to occur. We breathe in the oxygen and consume food that is broken down by our digestive system into small units that can be used in cellular respiration. Of these small units, glucose is the most common one used in cellular respiration. If glucose is not available, our bodies are also capable of using the subunits of fat and protein to produce energy. When we consume less food than our body requires we do not produce enough energy and will lose weight. When we consume more food than our body requires it gets stored for later use and will lead to weight gain. Consistently over consuming more food than our body can break down and use for energy can lead to obesity. Obesity is the leading cause of health issues worldwide. In this activity, students will examine how much energy you consume in the form of Calories, calculate how much energy you currently store in 2 HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June 2015

3 the form of your body mass index (BMI), and come up with a plan to balance your energy input and output to prevent obesity. Lab 04 (MS-LS1-8) The Nervous System a. Sensory Receptor Stations In this activity students will explore 8 different stations that highlight some of the different types of sensory receptors in the body. Students will discover chemoreceptors that aid in the sense of taste and smell through a blind taste test with jellybeans and by sampling PTC, thiourea, and sodium benzoate paper. Students will complete a few scenarios to find their blind spot in each eye and take the Ishihara color test to learn about electromagnetic radiation receptors in the retina of the eyes. To learn about mechanoreceptors, students will create a model eardrum and conduct a skin sensitivity test on each other. They will also manipulate the knee jerk reflex and test their reaction times to so how quickly the nervous system can react to certain stimuli. b. Central Nervous System Webquest In this computer-based activity students will access different websites to learn about the central nervous system. They will be asked to identify and describe the functions of different regions of the brain and spinal cord. The will be given the opportunity to look into how the brain develops with age and how it is affected by different drugs, diseases, and disorders. c. Memory Game When learning new tasks and memorizing new information the brain creates new connections and establishes new pathways between neurons. To exemplify these actions that occur in the central nervous system, students will play a game of memory using game cards that contain vocab terms and their corresponding definitions and descriptions. Lab 05 (MS-LS2-1, MS-LS2-2, MS-LS2-3) Ecological Interactions a. Bacteria of the Body In this activity students will grow and analyze samples of normal flora collected from different parts of the body. They will use swab applicators to collect samples from 3 areas of the body of their choice (mouth, nose, behind the ear, palm, underneath fingernails, bottom of foot, between toes, forehead, elbow, and armpit) and grow cultures on nutrient agar petri plates. The lab background will discuss the diverse community of microorganisms found in and on the human body as well as the symbiotic relationship between the two. The lab background will also expand on the levels of organization in multicellular organisms that were discussed in Lab 02c: Body Systems Card Sort (organelles à cells à tissues à organs à organ systems à organisms) and explain the levels of organization found in nature (organisms à populations à communities à ecosystems). The difference between biotic and abiotic factors, as well as the different types of relationships (predation, competition, mutualism, commensalism and parasitism) between species in a community will also be discussed. HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June

4 b. Energy and Matter in an Ecosystem In this activity students will be given cards of 9 common bacteria found on the skin of the human body and will be asked to create a food web to show the connections between them. Each card will have the name of one of the nine bacteria, a picture of what it looks like, and what it eats (all bacteria mentioned in this activity may not have the listed food sources in nature. The diets listed have been altered for ease of use and creating this artificial food web. Some of the bacteria listed in this activity have the potential to be pathogenic). Students will be asked to identify the producers and consumers of each trophic level after completion. They will also be asked to explain what would happen to the organisms in the food web if populations of certain organisms were altered. Lab 06 (MS-LS2-4, MS-LS2-5) Changes, Biodiversity, & Health a. Effects of Soil Contamination Soil contamination can come in many different forms, from acid rain caused by air pollution to dumping of toxic waste and accidental spills. These pollutants can have a drastic effect on the physical composition of soil and can greatly impact the livelihood of the living organisms in it. In this lab students will set up an experiment in which they will plant grass seeds while exposing them to different concentrations of acid, salt, oil, detergent, or trash. In setting up their own experiments, students will decide how to control their experiment and quantitatively and qualitatively collect data. b. Biodiversity & the Irish Potato Famine Human health ultimately depends on products and services provided by the ecosystems in which we live as our wellbeing is subject to the availability of fresh water, food, and fuel sources. Loss in biodiversity can have significant direct human health impacts if ecosystems can no longer provide for social needs. In this class activity students will simulate what happened during the Irish Potato Famine between 1845 and They will demonstrate the spread of blight through a field of genetically identical potatoes as well as through a field of genetically diverse vegetables. Lab introduction will discuss the delicate balance between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem and will highlight the four basic needs that all living things need to survive on Earth: sunlight, water, air, and food. Since the amount of each of these needs, the form in which they are needed, and the way in which they are utilized vary from organism to organism, ecosystems allow for the survival of all kinds of types of life. Lab 07 (MS-LS3-1, MS-LS3-2, MS-LS3-5) Genetic Mutations, Reproduction, & Medical Technologies a. Genes, Proteins, & Mutations Understanding DNA structure is important in understanding genes, chromosomes, proteins, and their function. In addition, it is necessary to recognize DNA structure in order to understand how changes, or mutations, in that structure can affect an individual. In the first part of this activity students will have the opportunity to explore the structure and function of DNA, genes, chromosomes, and proteins. Following this exploration, they will get to make a model of DNA structure from a portion of the human hemoglobin protein. In the last part of the activity, students will get to explore and model mutations and how they can impact DNA and protein structure. 4 HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June 2015

5 b. Sexual & Asexual Reproduction In part A of the activity students have the opportunity to compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction. In part B, students will have the opportunity to observe asexual reproduction in yeast. Yeast are a type of fungus that reproduce asexually through budding. c. Genetic Technologies Changing the Face of Medicine Humans have been altering the reproductive behaviors of animals through selective breeding for thousands of years. As our technology has advanced, so has our ability to direct what type of genetic traits we want to see in our animals, plants, and even in ourselves. As our understanding of DNA has increased, so has our understanding of how to manipulate and use DNA to improve organisms. This has and will continue to have a profound affect on diseases, medicine, and our health. At the same time, many people question whether this is ethical. In this project, students will have the opportunity to research, develop, and present a PowerPoint presentation on a genetic engineering topic. Lab 08 (MS-LS1-4, MS-LS1-5) Behavior, Reproduction, and the Environment a. Animal Behavior & Plant Growth Students design and carry out their own experiment to observe the impact of animal behavior and specialized plant structures on the probability of successful reproduction. Students will use sampling methods, data collection, and observation of animal behavior or plant structures in response to stimuli. b. Genes & The Environment Students will watch a NOVA video on Epigenetics to learn about how environmental and genetic factors can influence human growth. Following the video, students will simulate how environmental choices or exposure can impact a gene, and may increase the risk or occurrence of diseases, illnesses, and disorders. Lab 09 (MS-LS4-4, MS-LS4-6) Modeling Natural Selection a. Modeling Natural Selection in the Human Microbiome The human microbiome is made up of a variety of microbes including bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Most of these microbes do not cause harm to their human host, and are in fact beneficial and necessary for us to survive. More than 10,000 different species of microbes live on or in the human body. In this activity, students will simulate natural selection between different populations of a microbe species that lives within your body. Lab 10 (MS-LS4-1, MS-LS4-2, MS-LS4-3) Evolutionary Relationships a. Hominid Skull Comparisons Hominid species changed over periods of hundreds of thousands of years, adapting to new environmental conditions. In order to understand human evolution, scientists analyzed fossils they discovered, analyzed them, and categorized them based on similarities and differences. They were able to find trends among species and better understand how they came to be. In this activity, which was adapted from an ENSI (Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes) activity, students will examine images of 7 different model skulls to find similarities and differences between different members of the hominid family. They will be asked to compare cranium size, forehead shape, foramen magnum position, brow and nasal structures, chin shape, and dental trends. HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June

6 b. Homologous Structures In this activity students will recreate the bone structures of the limbs of 4 different mammals: bat, whale, cat, and human. Their task is to cut out, identify, and assemble the different limb bones as they identify similarities in homologous structures. The activity introduction will explain how comparative anatomy provides evidence for evolution. The intro will also briefly discuss the difference between homologous structures and analogous structures. c. Embryology Darwin wrote that this uniformity observed in embryo development is evidence for evolution. To highlight this idea, students will complete the PBS NOVA activity: Timing is Everything. In this activity they will be given illustrations of embryos from a fish, chick, pig, calf, and human. Their task will be to analyze the similarities and differences of each embryo and identify the correct order of development for each of the animals. The lab introduction will discuss the idea of common descent that was first proposed by Charles Darwin in his book, On the Origin of Species. It will also introduce how comparative anatomy, genetic similarities, embryology, and the fossil record provide strong evidence for evolution. The influence of evolutionary principals on modern medicine will also be discussed. 6 HASPI Medical Life Science Summary; Revised June 2015

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