Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A."

Transcription

1 Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Dead organisms and waste products do not play any role within the carbon cycle. B. Factories do not emit any amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. C. Both plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during cellular respiration. D. 2. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

2 3. The diagram below depicts the water cycle. Which process is represented by the number 3? A. condensation B. evaporation C. surface runoff D. precipitation

3 4. The diagram below depicts the water cycle. Which process is represented by the number 1? A. condensation B. precipitation C. evaporation D. surface runoff

4 5. The water cycle shows the continuous movement of Earth's water. During which of the following water cycle processes does water move from living, organic matter to abiotic resources? A. transpiration B. precipitation C. condensation D. vapor transport 6. Which of the following processes returns carbon to the atmosphere? A. evaporation B. photosynthesis C. respiration D. transpiration

5 7. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, in what way do farmers contribute nitrates to the soil? A. by cutting down trees B. by driving tractors C. by feeding cows hay D. by using fertilizer

6 8. A diagram of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following is exclusively a natural source of carbon dioxide? A. decomposition B. photosynthesis C. coal power plants D. clearing land with fire 9. Which of the following statements is true about the cycling of oxygen in a pond ecosystem? A. Fish create oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. B. Oxygen cannot cycle because it binds irreversibly to other elements. C. Cycling of oxygen is independent from cycling of carbon and hydrogen. D. Oxygen cycles through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 10. If a farmer wants to increase the health of his crops, he could apply a nitrogen-based fertilizer. Why is nitrogen important to plants? A. Nitrogen is needed to build proteins and enzymes. B. Nitrogen controls the uptake of water through plant roots. C. Nitrogen is the only element that plants need.

7 D. Nitrogen is a primary component of glucose sugar. 11. Why is it important for water to be recycled in an ecosystem? A. Recycling water allows organisms to create more water. B. The water cycle is a closed system, and recycling water is the only way to replenish it for an ecosystem. C. Recycling water allows organisms to create less water. D. If water isn't recycled, there will be too much of it on Earth. 12. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to the diagram, how is nitrogen returned to the soil from animals? A. assimilation and ammonification B. fertilizer and nitrogen-fixing bacteria C. urine and decomposition following death D. fossil fuels and denitrification 13. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

8 14. Most of the Earth's oxygen occurs in the form of minerals in the crust and mantle. The oxygen that is available in the atmosphere is used primarily by plants, animals, and bacteria to perform cellular respiration. Why is running out of oxygen still not a real concern? A. The Sun creates more than enough new oxygen atoms in the atmosphere by splitting phosphate molecules. Lightning creates large quantities of ozone, which quickly breaks down into oxygen molecules. B. Oxygen is recycled through the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. C. Oxygen can easily be mined from rocks and sand and then be released into the atmosphere. D. 15. Carbon is the basis of all life and is constantly being cycled through ecosystems. In which form is carbon passed along from plants to animals? A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. lipids D. all of these 16. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, what is a major contributing factor to dissolved nitrogen found in rain? A. emissions from industries as they burn fossil fuels B. urine and dead animals and plants C. nitrogen-fixing bacteria in plant roots and soil D. decomposers such as bacteria and fungi

9 17. Peas, beans, and peanuts are all examples of legumes. Legumes are a specific type of plant which possess nodules on their roots, as shown below. What is the purpose of these nodules? The nodules contain pumps which allow water to enter the roots using reverse osmosis. A. The nodules store plant sugars which are created during the process of photosynthesis. B. The nodules contain bacteria which can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. C. The nodules contain chemicals which repel insects, like ants and beetles. D. 18. When glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released, and carbon dioxide and water are produced. What is this process called? A. glycolysis B. nitrogen fixation C. respiration D. photosynthesis 19. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

10 20. Carbon is the basis of all life and is constantly being cycled through ecosystems. In which form is carbon passed along from plants to animals? A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. lipids D. all of these 21. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 22. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, which of the following organisms is primarily responsible for nitrogen-fixation? A. trees B. bacteria C. cows D. fungi 23. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, through which of the following processes are dead animals and plants converted into ammonia? A. denitrification B. nitrogen-fixation C. ammonification D. assimilation

11 24. In the carbon cycle, carbon is taken in by plants A. as ammonia in the process of assimilation. B. as carbon dioxide in the process of decomposition. C. as water vapor in the process of photosynthesis. D. as carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. 25. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, which of the following contributes ammonia to the soil? A. atmospheric nitrogen B. dissolved nitrogen in rain C. urine and dead plants and animals D. all of these 26. Which substance is removed from the atmosphere so that plants can carry out photosynthesis? A. nitrogen B. carbon dioxide C. water vapor D. oxygen 27. Plants transfer carbon in the carbon cycle A. through assimilation of carbon from the soil. B. through fixation of carbon in the soil. C. when carbon transpires from their stomatae. D. when they are eaten by animals. 28. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 29. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 30. Which of the following types of organisms break down dead plant and animal matter and return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere? A. producers B. decomposers C. consumers

12 D. scavengers Answers 1. D A 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. D 10. A 11. B 12. C C 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. C D B 23. C 24. D 25. D 26. B 27. D B Explanations 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. Objects, mathematical relationships, plans, schemes, and computer simulations are all examples of scientific models. Based on the carbon cycle model, it can be determined that both plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Plants also take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, but in order to use the food produced during photosynthesis, plants perform cellular respiration During the water cycle, surface runoff (step 1) flows into rivers, lakes, and streams. Sunlight causes this water to undergo evaporation (step 2). Water vapor can also be released from plants through transpiration. The water vapor remains in the atmosphere until it undergoes condensation (step 3) and returns to the ground in the form of precipitation (step 4).

13 Energy from the Sun drives the water cycle. Without the Sun's heat, water would not be able to evaporate, which means that the other processes also would not occur. 4. During the water cycle, surface runoff (step 1) flows into rivers, lakes, and streams. Sunlight causes this water to undergo evaporation (step 2). Water vapor can also be released from plants through transpiration. The water vapor remains in the atmosphere until it undergoes condensation (step 3) and returns to the ground in the form of precipitation (step 4). Energy from the Sun drives the water cycle. Without the Sun's heat, water would not be able to evaporate, which means that the other processes also would not occur. 5. During the water cycle, water that evaporates from Earth's surface is transported throughout the atmosphere. At cooler temperatures, the water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into precipitation. The precipitation is then absorbed by the soil, or it runs off into bodies of water. Then, the water evaporates to begin the cycle again. Transpiration is a process in the water cycle that specifically involves the evaporation of water from plants. Since plants are living and the atmosphere is nonliving, transpiration is the process in which water moves from living, organic matter to abiotic resources. 6. The process of respiration involves the breakdown of glucose. During this process, glucose and oxygen combine, and carbon dioxide and water are produced. The carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. 7. Farmers primarily contribute nitrates to the soil by using fertilizers in their fields. One risk of using fertilizers, however, is nitrogen pollution. When an excess amount of nitrates are added to an environment, it can unnaturally increase the quantity of local vegetation. For example, an increase in nitrogen levels can cause an increase in a population of algae in an aquatic ecosystem. This is known as an algal bloom. 8. According to the diagram, sources of carbon dioxide include: cellular respiration, decomposition, combustion, erosion, and burning trees. Of these sources, only combustion and burning trees (in fireplaces, to clear brush, etc.) can be man-made sources of carbon dioxide. Natural sources of carbon dioxide include cellular respiration, decomposition, erosion, and burning trees (i.e., natural forest fires). 9. In the pond ecosystem, as in other ecosystems, oxygen cycles through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe. But on Earth, over 99% of all oxygen can be found in the Earth's crust and mantle. Only 0.01% circulates through the biosphere the portion of the air, water, and land where life can be found. Because the amount of oxygen in the biosphere is limited, it is important that oxygen is recycled. Animals and photosynthetic organisms are therefore dependent on one another. The reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration, and the reactants of cellular respiration are the products of photosynthesis. 10. Plants require many different elements in order to maintain their health. Nitrogen is important to plants because it is a major component in

14 amino acids and therefore needed to build proteins that support plant structures and enzymes that play a role in plant metabolism. chlorophyll which is used by plants to capture sunlight for photosynthesis. nucleic acids, such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Animals also require nitrogen for the same reasons, with the exception of chlorophyll. 11. The total amount of water is fixed. Water is not created in an ecosystem it must be recycled to support the processes in the ecosystem that need it. 12. Nitrogen is a primary component of urine. So, when animals excrete urine, they return nitrogen to the soil. Also, when an animal dies, the decomposition of its body following death returns many elements, including nitrogen, to the soil More than 99% of the Earth's oxygen is bound in minerals, which are found in the crust and mantle. However, atmospheric oxygen is not being depleted. The levels are kept relatively constant through the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Cyanobacteria, algae, and land-based plants perform photosynthesis. As starting material, they use the carbon dioxide that is breathed out by plants, animals, and aerobic bacteria. Photosynthesis produces glucose that plants and the animals that eat them can use to generate cellular energy. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen as a waste product. The waste oxygen enters the atmosphere, where plants, animals, and aerobic bacteria use it as starting material for performing cellular respiration. 15. During photosynthesis, plants transform light energy into chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules a simple carbohydrate. Plants can break down the glucose molecules for energy needed for cellular processes. Plants can also use the glucose made during photosynthesis to create other biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. When animals consume plants, they take in all of these substances. 16. Nitrogen dissolves in rain primarily in the form of nitrates and nitrites. Many of these nitrates and nitrites come from emissions from industries as they burn fossil fuels. Volcanoes can also contribute nitrates and nitrites to the atmosphere. 17. Plants need nitrogen for a variety of structural and metabolic reasons. However, plants are unable to use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Instead, they must first convert the nitrogen into other compounds, such as ammonia. The nodules found on the roots of legumes contain bacteria which can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. This conversion process is known as nitrogen-fixation. 18. Respiration is the process through which organisms break down glucose molecules. Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water and releases energy During photosynthesis, plants transform light energy into chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules a simple carbohydrate. Plants can break down the glucose molecules for

15 energy needed for cellular processes. Plants can also use the glucose made during photosynthesis to create other biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. When animals consume plants, they take in all of these substances Plants can only use nitrogen in certain forms, such as nitrates (NO 3 - ). Plants cannot directly use atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ). Thus, atmospheric nitrogen must undergo a process called nitrogen-fixation in order to be changed into a form that is usable to plants. Bacteria found in soil and in the roots of plants are important to the nitrogen cycle because they are primarily responsible for nitrogen-fixation. 23. Nitrates are taken up by plants through the process of assimilation. Dead animals and plants are converted into ammonia through the process of ammonification. Nitrates are returned to the atmosphere through the process of denitrification. 24. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight to make food. 25. Ammonia is contributed to the soil from a variety of sources, including atmospheric nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen in rain, and urine and dead plants and animals. 26. When photosynthesis occurs, water and carbon dioxide are combined to produce glucose. The carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere, and the carbon is used to produce glucose. 27. Carbon transfers from plants to animals when animals eat plants Decomposers, such as worms, bacteria, and fungi, are an important part of the carbon cycle, since they break down dead plant and animal matter. In doing so, the carbon contained in the dead plant and animal matter is returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?)

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss

More information

Objectives. Key Terms

Objectives. Key Terms Objectives Summarize the basic pattern of chemical cycling. Describe how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe the movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem. Describe the processes

More information

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology THE WATER CYCLE Water is the most abundant substance in living things. The human body, for example, is composed of about 70% water, and jellyfish are 95% water. Water participates in many important biochemical

More information

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element Carbon the Element The element carbon is one of the most essential elements on our planet. All living organisms contain carbon, making it a critical component of all life on planet earth. In fact, the

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Soak Up the Sun How do organisms get energy and matter? Energy is the ability to do work. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms need energy and matter to live, grow, and reproduce.

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3

Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3 Cycles of Matter Chapter 13- Lesson 3 What processes are involved in the water cycle? Matter in an ecosystem includes water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other substances. The water cycle is the

More information

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers.

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers. APES Miller 17th ed. Chapter 3 Questions 5. Describe the 2 chemical equations used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to gain energy for chemical functions. Compare/contrast respiration to fossil fuel combustion

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems In order to have a firm understanding of how nitrogen impacts our ecosystems, it is important that students fully understand how the various forms of nitrogen cycle through

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres

What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres Essential Questions What are the 4 spheres of the Earth? How do these spheres interact? What are the major cycles of the Earth? How do humans impact

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through.

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Ilya Ehrenburg Energy Flow in Ecosystems For most living organisms the sun

More information

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology Studying organisms in their environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Respiration By Cindy Grigg

Respiration By Cindy Grigg By Cindy Grigg 1 Did you know there are two kinds of respiration? One kind of respiration is when we breathe air in and out of our lungs. The other kind happens in both plant and animal cells, including

More information

Carbon/Oxygen Cycle. Zain Aamer, Christine Pak, Lorrin Stone, Vivian Xu

Carbon/Oxygen Cycle. Zain Aamer, Christine Pak, Lorrin Stone, Vivian Xu Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Zain Aamer, Christine Pak, Lorrin Stone, Vivian Xu Step One - Carbon Dioxide Carbon is released into the atmosphere through the form of carbon dioxide due to combustion and respiration

More information

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration 1. Base your answer to the following question on the chemical reaction represented below and on your knowledge of biology. If this reaction takes place in an organism that requires sunlight to produce

More information

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism Ecology List some limiting factors that would affect a plant (such as a corn plant) population. Light, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, nutrients in soil, water List some limiting factors that

More information

The Nitrogen Cycle. What is Nitrogen? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle. How does the nitrogen cycle work?

The Nitrogen Cycle. What is Nitrogen? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle. How does the nitrogen cycle work? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle Heather McGraw, Mandy Williams, Suzanne Heinzel, and Cristen Whorl, Give SIUE Permission to Put Our Presentation on E-reserve at Lovejoy Library. What is Nitrogen?

More information

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 6, 7 & 8 Time: 3 hours With the pond as a model, students explore how energy that originates from the sun keeps changing shape and form as

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients CHAPTER 5 ECOSYSTEMS 5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients Did anyone ever ask you the question: Where do you get your energy? Energy enters our world from the Sun but how does the Sun s energy become

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

Name Date. Cycling WebQuest

Name Date. Cycling WebQuest Name Date Cycling WebQuest Directions: Visit the following websites and answer the related questions. Your goal is to gain a better understanding of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Background: In biogeochemical

More information

Effective June 2008 All indicators in Standard B-6 1 / 16

Effective June 2008 All indicators in Standard B-6 1 / 16 B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. Taxonomy Level: 2.7-B Understand

More information

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy Assessment Bank Matter and Energy in Living Things SC.8.L.18.4 1. What is energy? A. anything that takes up space B. anything that has mass C. the ability to conduct current D. the ability to do work 2.

More information

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types

More information

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Hot Seat Hot Seat Instructions You are competing against classmates in your row (across the classroom). The hot seat is the seat in each row closest to the outside

More information

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13 Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

More information

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Ecosystems: The Role of Abiotic Factors from the series Biology: The Science of Life

Ecosystems: The Role of Abiotic Factors from the series Biology: The Science of Life Ecosystems: The Role of Abiotic Factors from the series Biology: The Science of Life Teacher's Guide by Joseph Sitko, Ph.D. Distributed by... 800.323.9084 FAX 847.328.6706 www.unitedlearning.com This video

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab Name: HR: Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab Introduction: Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants capture energy from sunlight and use it to make food molecules like glucose.

More information

Students will describe the carbon cycle and the journey a carbon atom might take on its way through this cycle after participating in a simulation.

Students will describe the carbon cycle and the journey a carbon atom might take on its way through this cycle after participating in a simulation. Pre-Visit Activity #3 The Carbon Cycle Overview Objectives Subjects Earth has a fixed number of carbon atoms which circulate among air, plants, animals, soil, and minerals by way of the carbon cycle. This

More information

Dynamics of Ecosystems

Dynamics of Ecosystems Dynamics of Ecosystems A- Trophic Relationships - Describes the trophic levels (producers, consumers, decomposers) - Explains the relationships between the trophic levels of a food web 1. a) What is a

More information

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors Ecosystem Ecology Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors 1 Matter and Energy Matter has mass and occupies space: it is the stuff you and everything else is made of. Energy is what you

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy. The Biosphere Matter of Energy, Interdependence in Nature Q: How do Earth s living and nonliving parts interact and affect the survival of organisms? 3.1 How do we study life? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information

An Introduction to the Nitrogen Cycle

An Introduction to the Nitrogen Cycle 1 + An Introduction to the Nitrogen Cycle Grade Level: 5-9 Activity Duration: 45 minutes Overview: I. Introduction to the nitrogen cycle II. Nitrogen Cycle Game III. Discussion Literacy Connection Leopold,

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Questions/ Main Ideas 8 1 Energy and Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Nearly every activity in modern society depends on one kind of energy or

More information

Cell Processes. Chapter Review

Cell Processes. Chapter Review Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound

More information

XII. Biology, Grade 10

XII. Biology, Grade 10 XII. Biology, Grade 10 Grade 10 Biology Pilot Test The spring 2004 Grade 10 MCAS Biology Test was based on learning standards in the Biology content strand of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering

More information

B4 Learning Outcome Questions

B4 Learning Outcome Questions Question Name 4 collection methods: What is the formula used to estimate the population size of an organism: What assumptions need to be made when using capture-recapture data? What could affect the distribution

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems

Chapter 55: Ecosystems Name Period Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? 2. Where does energy enter most ecosystems? How is it converted to chemical energy and then passed through the ecosystem? How is it lost? Remember this: energy

More information

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B.

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B. Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid. Which of the following best explains why the number of organisms at each level decreases while moving up the energy pyramid? The

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs Section 4: Food Chains and Food Webs Chapter 13- Food chains and webs KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. VOCABULARY food chain herbivore carnivore omnivore

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE

THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE Material: The Water Cycle Nomenclature The Water cycle Model Water Ice Heat Source (lamp with a clamp) Tables Presentation 1: Key Experience 1. Say, Today we are going

More information

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy I. Introduction A. In eukaryotes, cellular respiration 1. harvests energy from food 2. yields large amounts of ATP 3. B. A similar process takes place in many prokaryotic

More information

Photosynthesis Notes

Photosynthesis Notes Photosynthesis Notes Energy and Living Things: All living organisms must have energy to survive. Organisms get this energy from food. Organisms either make their own food or consume other organisms to

More information

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY!

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Biology I Cellular Respiration Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Now, we need a place to disassemble the molecule

More information

5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation. Key Concepts. Fundamental Questions. Pre-Assessment: Assigned February 9 th Due February 13 th, 2015

5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation. Key Concepts. Fundamental Questions. Pre-Assessment: Assigned February 9 th Due February 13 th, 2015 5.9B Food Webs Student Expectation The student is expected to describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food

More information

Photosynthesis, Cycling of Matter Through an Ecosystem

Photosynthesis, Cycling of Matter Through an Ecosystem Science 1. Cameron grew a snow pea plant from a seed at school. He brought the plant home in the hopes of getting some pea pods to eat. He forgot to water it for a whole week and the plant died. Based

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection:

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: UEvolutionU Difference between macroevolution and microevolution Sexual reproduction and natural selection are mechanisms of microevolution

More information

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants.

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. Name: ate: 1. Which molecule supplies the energy for cellular functions?. TP. oxygen. N. water 2. Photosynthesis The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. What happens

More information

ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE

ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE MODULE - 4 Atmosphere Composition and Structure 9 ATMOSPHERE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE Earth is a unique planet because the life is found only on this planet. The air has a special place among the conditions

More information

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers:

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Overview: Hierarchy of

More information

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science 1. What is ecology the study of? Then and now Questions from page 234 of 2. Why did Maori and European settlers burn forests and drain wetlands? 3. Give figures for four examples of a change that has occurred

More information

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51 8-3 The of Photosynthesis 1 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts

More information

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Answers Chapters 8 & 9 Review Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis: 1. What is the term for the ability to perform work? Energy 2. Organisms that make their own food are called producers

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Energize! How do the cells in an organism function? Cells must capture and use energy or they will die. Without energy, living things cannot replace

More information

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Teacher Information

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Teacher Information STO-122 Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Teacher Information Summary Students use simple snap beads to model the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Optional

More information

The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)].

The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)]. Dissolved Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Every atmospheric gas is in equilibrium with that gas dissolved in ocean water. The concentrations of two of these are particularly important. The concentration of oxygen

More information

The Nitrogen Cycle in the Planted Aquarium. Raymond Wise. The nitrogen cycle in the aquarium as related to a balanced aquatic ecosystem.

The Nitrogen Cycle in the Planted Aquarium. Raymond Wise. The nitrogen cycle in the aquarium as related to a balanced aquatic ecosystem. The Nitrogen Cycle in the Planted Aquarium Raymond Wise The nitrogen cycle in the aquarium as related to a balanced aquatic ecosystem. What is the Nitrogen Cycle? The nitrogen cycle is simply the process

More information

LESSON 4. Ecosystem Extravaganza NUTSHELL BIG IDEAS BACKGROUND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES SUBJECT AREAS LESSON/ACTIVITY TIME TEACHING SITE

LESSON 4. Ecosystem Extravaganza NUTSHELL BIG IDEAS BACKGROUND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES SUBJECT AREAS LESSON/ACTIVITY TIME TEACHING SITE LESSON 4 Ecosystem Extravaganza BIG IDEAS Ecosystem structure consists of different types of organisms (i.e., producers, consumers, decomposers) interacting with one another and their environment. Humans

More information

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Cellular Basis of Life Q: How do plants and other organisms capture energy from the sun? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 8.1 How do organisms store energy? 8.2 What cellular structures

More information

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step

More information

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy.

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. Earth Systems Overview of Earth s Spheres The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. LITHOSPHERE: The solid, rocky shell of the Earth is the

More information

Cells capture and release energy.

Cells capture and release energy. Page of 8 KEY CONCEPT Cells capture and release energy. BEFORE, you learned The cell is the basic unit of all living things Plant cells and animal cells have similarities and differences Plants and animals

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

4.3 Physical Variables

4.3 Physical Variables CHAPTER 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE CONNECTIONS 4.3 Physical Variables You have read about the compounds that make up living things. The presence and amount of other compounds like oxygen and water are variables

More information

Ecology Review Questions

Ecology Review Questions 1. The food chain above shows (A) one autotroph and two heterotrophs (B) one producer, one autotroph, and one decomposer (C) one producer and two omnivores (D) one heterotroph and two autotrophs 2. Assume

More information

Workshop 6: Energy and Ecosystems

Workshop 6: Energy and Ecosystems : Energy and Ecosystems DESCRIPTION In this program participants are shown that light energy that has been absorbed by plants during photosynthesis and transformed into chemical energy can now be transferred

More information

Energy: the capacity to do work. Living matter cannot function without it. (Fig 13.1)

Energy: the capacity to do work. Living matter cannot function without it. (Fig 13.1) Chapter 13: Life in the Ocean Energy: the capacity to do work. Living matter cannot function without it. (Fig 13.1) Laws of Thermodynamics: First Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

QUESTIONSHEET 1. The diagram below shows a vertical section through a leaf as seen under a light microscope.

QUESTIONSHEET 1. The diagram below shows a vertical section through a leaf as seen under a light microscope. QUESTIONSHEET 1 The diagram below shows a vertical section through a leaf as seen under a light microscope. A B C (a) Name the parts A, B & C. A:... [1] B:... [1] C:... [1] (b) In which part would you

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. SECTION 13.1 KEY CONCEPT ECOLOGISTS STUDY RELATIONSHIPS Study Guide Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. VOCABULARY ecology community MAIN IDEA: Ecologists study

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Student Exploration: Cell Energy Cycle

Student Exploration: Cell Energy Cycle Name: Date: Student Exploration: Cell Energy Cycle Vocabulary: aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, ATP, cellular respiration, chemical energy, chlorophyll, chloroplast, cytoplasm, glucose, glycolysis,

More information

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 1. Which substances are inorganic compounds? A. water and salts B. proteins and carbohydrates C. fats and oils D. enzymes and hormones 2. Which substance is an inorganic

More information

Photosynthesis (Life from Light)

Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy o Heterotrophs (consumers) Animals, fungi, most bacteria Get their energy from other organisms

More information