Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

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1 Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Dead organisms and waste products do not play any role within the carbon cycle. B. Factories do not emit any amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. C. Both plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during cellular respiration. D. 2. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

2 3. The diagram below depicts the water cycle. Which process is represented by the number 3? A. condensation B. evaporation C. surface runoff D. precipitation

3 4. The diagram below depicts the water cycle. Which process is represented by the number 1? A. condensation B. precipitation C. evaporation D. surface runoff

4 5. The water cycle shows the continuous movement of Earth's water. During which of the following water cycle processes does water move from living, organic matter to abiotic resources? A. transpiration B. precipitation C. condensation D. vapor transport 6. Which of the following processes returns carbon to the atmosphere? A. evaporation B. photosynthesis C. respiration D. transpiration

5 7. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, in what way do farmers contribute nitrates to the soil? A. by cutting down trees B. by driving tractors C. by feeding cows hay D. by using fertilizer

6 8. A diagram of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following is exclusively a natural source of carbon dioxide? A. decomposition B. photosynthesis C. coal power plants D. clearing land with fire 9. Which of the following statements is true about the cycling of oxygen in a pond ecosystem? A. Fish create oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. B. Oxygen cannot cycle because it binds irreversibly to other elements. C. Cycling of oxygen is independent from cycling of carbon and hydrogen. D. Oxygen cycles through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 10. If a farmer wants to increase the health of his crops, he could apply a nitrogen-based fertilizer. Why is nitrogen important to plants? A. Nitrogen is needed to build proteins and enzymes. B. Nitrogen controls the uptake of water through plant roots. C. Nitrogen is the only element that plants need.

7 D. Nitrogen is a primary component of glucose sugar. 11. Why is it important for water to be recycled in an ecosystem? A. Recycling water allows organisms to create more water. B. The water cycle is a closed system, and recycling water is the only way to replenish it for an ecosystem. C. Recycling water allows organisms to create less water. D. If water isn't recycled, there will be too much of it on Earth. 12. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to the diagram, how is nitrogen returned to the soil from animals? A. assimilation and ammonification B. fertilizer and nitrogen-fixing bacteria C. urine and decomposition following death D. fossil fuels and denitrification 13. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

8 14. Most of the Earth's oxygen occurs in the form of minerals in the crust and mantle. The oxygen that is available in the atmosphere is used primarily by plants, animals, and bacteria to perform cellular respiration. Why is running out of oxygen still not a real concern? A. The Sun creates more than enough new oxygen atoms in the atmosphere by splitting phosphate molecules. Lightning creates large quantities of ozone, which quickly breaks down into oxygen molecules. B. Oxygen is recycled through the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. C. Oxygen can easily be mined from rocks and sand and then be released into the atmosphere. D. 15. Carbon is the basis of all life and is constantly being cycled through ecosystems. In which form is carbon passed along from plants to animals? A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. lipids D. all of these 16. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, what is a major contributing factor to dissolved nitrogen found in rain? A. emissions from industries as they burn fossil fuels B. urine and dead animals and plants C. nitrogen-fixing bacteria in plant roots and soil D. decomposers such as bacteria and fungi

9 17. Peas, beans, and peanuts are all examples of legumes. Legumes are a specific type of plant which possess nodules on their roots, as shown below. What is the purpose of these nodules? The nodules contain pumps which allow water to enter the roots using reverse osmosis. A. The nodules store plant sugars which are created during the process of photosynthesis. B. The nodules contain bacteria which can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. C. The nodules contain chemicals which repel insects, like ants and beetles. D. 18. When glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released, and carbon dioxide and water are produced. What is this process called? A. glycolysis B. nitrogen fixation C. respiration D. photosynthesis 19. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format.

10 20. Carbon is the basis of all life and is constantly being cycled through ecosystems. In which form is carbon passed along from plants to animals? A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. lipids D. all of these 21. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 22. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, which of the following organisms is primarily responsible for nitrogen-fixation? A. trees B. bacteria C. cows D. fungi 23. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, through which of the following processes are dead animals and plants converted into ammonia? A. denitrification B. nitrogen-fixation C. ammonification D. assimilation

11 24. In the carbon cycle, carbon is taken in by plants A. as ammonia in the process of assimilation. B. as carbon dioxide in the process of decomposition. C. as water vapor in the process of photosynthesis. D. as carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. 25. The diagram above depicts the nitrogen cycle. According to this diagram, which of the following contributes ammonia to the soil? A. atmospheric nitrogen B. dissolved nitrogen in rain C. urine and dead plants and animals D. all of these 26. Which substance is removed from the atmosphere so that plants can carry out photosynthesis? A. nitrogen B. carbon dioxide C. water vapor D. oxygen 27. Plants transfer carbon in the carbon cycle A. through assimilation of carbon from the soil. B. through fixation of carbon in the soil. C. when carbon transpires from their stomatae. D. when they are eaten by animals. 28. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 29. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 30. Which of the following types of organisms break down dead plant and animal matter and return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere? A. producers B. decomposers C. consumers

12 D. scavengers Answers 1. D A 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. D 10. A 11. B 12. C C 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. C D B 23. C 24. D 25. D 26. B 27. D B Explanations 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. Objects, mathematical relationships, plans, schemes, and computer simulations are all examples of scientific models. Based on the carbon cycle model, it can be determined that both plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Plants also take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, but in order to use the food produced during photosynthesis, plants perform cellular respiration During the water cycle, surface runoff (step 1) flows into rivers, lakes, and streams. Sunlight causes this water to undergo evaporation (step 2). Water vapor can also be released from plants through transpiration. The water vapor remains in the atmosphere until it undergoes condensation (step 3) and returns to the ground in the form of precipitation (step 4).

13 Energy from the Sun drives the water cycle. Without the Sun's heat, water would not be able to evaporate, which means that the other processes also would not occur. 4. During the water cycle, surface runoff (step 1) flows into rivers, lakes, and streams. Sunlight causes this water to undergo evaporation (step 2). Water vapor can also be released from plants through transpiration. The water vapor remains in the atmosphere until it undergoes condensation (step 3) and returns to the ground in the form of precipitation (step 4). Energy from the Sun drives the water cycle. Without the Sun's heat, water would not be able to evaporate, which means that the other processes also would not occur. 5. During the water cycle, water that evaporates from Earth's surface is transported throughout the atmosphere. At cooler temperatures, the water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into precipitation. The precipitation is then absorbed by the soil, or it runs off into bodies of water. Then, the water evaporates to begin the cycle again. Transpiration is a process in the water cycle that specifically involves the evaporation of water from plants. Since plants are living and the atmosphere is nonliving, transpiration is the process in which water moves from living, organic matter to abiotic resources. 6. The process of respiration involves the breakdown of glucose. During this process, glucose and oxygen combine, and carbon dioxide and water are produced. The carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. 7. Farmers primarily contribute nitrates to the soil by using fertilizers in their fields. One risk of using fertilizers, however, is nitrogen pollution. When an excess amount of nitrates are added to an environment, it can unnaturally increase the quantity of local vegetation. For example, an increase in nitrogen levels can cause an increase in a population of algae in an aquatic ecosystem. This is known as an algal bloom. 8. According to the diagram, sources of carbon dioxide include: cellular respiration, decomposition, combustion, erosion, and burning trees. Of these sources, only combustion and burning trees (in fireplaces, to clear brush, etc.) can be man-made sources of carbon dioxide. Natural sources of carbon dioxide include cellular respiration, decomposition, erosion, and burning trees (i.e., natural forest fires). 9. In the pond ecosystem, as in other ecosystems, oxygen cycles through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe. But on Earth, over 99% of all oxygen can be found in the Earth's crust and mantle. Only 0.01% circulates through the biosphere the portion of the air, water, and land where life can be found. Because the amount of oxygen in the biosphere is limited, it is important that oxygen is recycled. Animals and photosynthetic organisms are therefore dependent on one another. The reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration, and the reactants of cellular respiration are the products of photosynthesis. 10. Plants require many different elements in order to maintain their health. Nitrogen is important to plants because it is a major component in

14 amino acids and therefore needed to build proteins that support plant structures and enzymes that play a role in plant metabolism. chlorophyll which is used by plants to capture sunlight for photosynthesis. nucleic acids, such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Animals also require nitrogen for the same reasons, with the exception of chlorophyll. 11. The total amount of water is fixed. Water is not created in an ecosystem it must be recycled to support the processes in the ecosystem that need it. 12. Nitrogen is a primary component of urine. So, when animals excrete urine, they return nitrogen to the soil. Also, when an animal dies, the decomposition of its body following death returns many elements, including nitrogen, to the soil More than 99% of the Earth's oxygen is bound in minerals, which are found in the crust and mantle. However, atmospheric oxygen is not being depleted. The levels are kept relatively constant through the interrelated processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Cyanobacteria, algae, and land-based plants perform photosynthesis. As starting material, they use the carbon dioxide that is breathed out by plants, animals, and aerobic bacteria. Photosynthesis produces glucose that plants and the animals that eat them can use to generate cellular energy. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen as a waste product. The waste oxygen enters the atmosphere, where plants, animals, and aerobic bacteria use it as starting material for performing cellular respiration. 15. During photosynthesis, plants transform light energy into chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules a simple carbohydrate. Plants can break down the glucose molecules for energy needed for cellular processes. Plants can also use the glucose made during photosynthesis to create other biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. When animals consume plants, they take in all of these substances. 16. Nitrogen dissolves in rain primarily in the form of nitrates and nitrites. Many of these nitrates and nitrites come from emissions from industries as they burn fossil fuels. Volcanoes can also contribute nitrates and nitrites to the atmosphere. 17. Plants need nitrogen for a variety of structural and metabolic reasons. However, plants are unable to use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Instead, they must first convert the nitrogen into other compounds, such as ammonia. The nodules found on the roots of legumes contain bacteria which can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. This conversion process is known as nitrogen-fixation. 18. Respiration is the process through which organisms break down glucose molecules. Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water and releases energy During photosynthesis, plants transform light energy into chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules a simple carbohydrate. Plants can break down the glucose molecules for

15 energy needed for cellular processes. Plants can also use the glucose made during photosynthesis to create other biological molecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. When animals consume plants, they take in all of these substances Plants can only use nitrogen in certain forms, such as nitrates (NO 3 - ). Plants cannot directly use atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ). Thus, atmospheric nitrogen must undergo a process called nitrogen-fixation in order to be changed into a form that is usable to plants. Bacteria found in soil and in the roots of plants are important to the nitrogen cycle because they are primarily responsible for nitrogen-fixation. 23. Nitrates are taken up by plants through the process of assimilation. Dead animals and plants are converted into ammonia through the process of ammonification. Nitrates are returned to the atmosphere through the process of denitrification. 24. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight to make food. 25. Ammonia is contributed to the soil from a variety of sources, including atmospheric nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen in rain, and urine and dead plants and animals. 26. When photosynthesis occurs, water and carbon dioxide are combined to produce glucose. The carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere, and the carbon is used to produce glucose. 27. Carbon transfers from plants to animals when animals eat plants Decomposers, such as worms, bacteria, and fungi, are an important part of the carbon cycle, since they break down dead plant and animal matter. In doing so, the carbon contained in the dead plant and animal matter is returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

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