Pre-requisites: Successful completion of 4th grade science and the 4th grade science assessment.

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1 Throughout each unit, assessments are incorporated into lessons. These assessments are activities that occur within the context of each lesson providing the guidelines for assessing students' progress. Additional teacher-created assessments are used to highlight concepts being taught. A performance assessment, also teacher-created, can be implemented to observe and evaluate the processes and products of each. Pre-requisites: Successful completion of 4th grade science and the 4th grade science assessment. Learning science is a cumulative process. According to the National Science Education Standards, learning is n Human Body Systems Week 1 CONTENT / SKILLS Key concepts: The human body is made up of systems, which are made up of organs, which are made up of tissues, which are made up of cells; Organs belong to body systems; Every system contributes to life and good health. Students attach (and label) organs on human body poster. APPLICATIONS / IDEAS Lesson 1 - Human Body Systems, a Preassessment Week 2 Key concepts: Peristalsis; Mechanical and Chemical Digestion; Mucus. Students make a model of the digestive system and simulate movement of food through the system using peristalsis. Lesson 2 - Moving Through the Digestive Tract

2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: More on mechanical and Lesson 4 - Digestion in the Mouth chemical digestion; Enzymes help facilitate chemical digestion; digestive enzymes are specific; Saliva contains salivary amylase; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch Key concepts: More on peristalsis; Lesson 5 - Digestion in the Stomach chemical digestion of protein begins in the stomach due to gastric juice (pepsin and HCl); pepsin is an enzyme; it only works in the presence of HCl; mucus protects stomach wall from being digested. Students use pepsin, HCl, and pepsin+hcl to investigate the digestion of protein (egg white). Diffusion (passive transport) - gases reach Lesson 6 - Diffusion and Active Transport the nose and pass through a semi permeable membrane; Active transport occurs only if cells provide energy; Certain substances cannot pass through a semi permeable membrane; Many functions of the body involve diffusion or active transport; Chemical digestion of food is completed in the small intestine. Students perform chemical testing for diffusion of sugar and starch.

3 Week 3 Week 7 Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: Absorption (nutrients pass Lesson 7 - Surface Area and Absorption through the walls of the small intestine); amount of absorption depends on surface area; structure of small intestine (folds, villi, microvilli) provides a large surface area so the body's need for nutrients can be met; excess water is absorbed into the bloodstream through the large intestine; solid wastes are stores in large intestine until they are eliminated from the body. Week 8 Week 9 Review of digestion; Digestion Test and Lab Assessment Students research a disease or explore a health career. Lesson 8 - The Digestive Systems; An Assessment Lesson 9 - Anchor Activity; Diseases and Health Careers Week 10 Key concepts: Breathing is the mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs; the bloodstream releases waste carbon dioxide into the lungs while it picks up oxygen; models have strengths and limitations. Students design a model respiratory system using a balloon, syringe and water. Lesson 10 - Assessing Breathing Models

4 Week 3 Week 10 cont. Week 11 Week 11 cont. Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: Residual volume, vital Lesson 11 - How Much Air Can You Exhale? capacity, total lung capacity. Many internal and external factors influence lung capacity. Students explore lung capacity with a partner and discuss possible factors leading to differences. Key concept: Oxidation; combustion is a Lesson 12 - Recipe for Energy - Cellular form of oxidation that occurs outside the Respiration body and cellular respiration occurs inside the body. Energy, CO2 and water are products of cellular respiration. CO2and heat are eliminated from the body during exhalation; exhaled aire contains more CO2 than inhaled air; CO2 can pass through a membrane. Demonstrate oxidation; students explore waste products of cellular respiration. Key concepts: A calorie is a unit of Lesson 13 - Releasing Energy From Food measure of heat energy; one phase of cellular respiration is the oxidation of nutrients in cells to release energy; different foods have different caloric value. Students explore the caloric value of a walnut and a marshmallow.

5 Week 3 Week 12 Week 13 Week 13 cont. Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: The Heart is a two-pump Lesson 14 - The Pumping Heart system - one sense blood to the lungs and the other sends blood to the body; human circulatory system is a closed system; valves within heart prevent the backward flow of blood; models have strengths and limitations. Students explore the two pump process. Key concepts: Heart rate can be Lesson 15 - Factors Affecting Heart Rate determined by measuring pulse; heart rate can be influenced by a number of factors including exercise and weight. Key concepts: Blood pressure measures Lesson 16 - The Heart Meets Resistance the resistance of walls of blood vessels to the flow of blood generated by contractions of the heart; the heart must work harder to pump blood through arteries narrowed by plaque or hardened by age; students explore different levels of resistance Week 14 Key concepts: Design an experiment to measure the effect of exercise and extra weight on heart rate. Complete Poster Assessment Activity. Lesson 17 - The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems - An Assessment

6 Week 3 Week 15 Week 16 continued Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: The muscular, skeletal and nervous systems interact to allow movement to occur; skeletal muscles can only contract, or pull; most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs; connective tissue includes tendons, ligaments and bone. Key concepts: Fibrous joints allow little movement; synovial joints can move freely and allow different types of movement - review different types of joints in the body. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 18 - The Musculoskeletal System - An Overview Lesson 19 - Joints and Movement Week 17 Week 17 continued Key concepts: The size of a muscle group may be an indication of its strength; the force exerted by muscles is a measure of their strength. Lesson 20 - Muscle Size and Strength Human Body Systems Unit Test Ecosystems

7 Week 3 Week 1 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concept - Inderdependence; all living things exist in a community of living oranisms (ecosystem); students investigate examples of interdependence among living things in a riverbank environment as well as non-living things that support them Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 1 - Thinking About Ecosystems 7.1a A population consists of all individuals of a species that are found together at a given place and time. Populations living in one place form a community. The community and the physical factors with which it interacts compose an ecosystem. 7.1c In all environments, organisms interact with one another in many ways. Relationships among organisms may be competitive, harmful, or beneficial. Some species have adapted to be dependent upon each other with the result that neither could survive without the other. 7.1b Given adequate resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase. Lack of resources, habitat destruction, and other factors such as predation and climate limit the growth of certain populations in the ecosystem. 7.1d Some microorganisms are essential to the survival of other living things. Week 1 continued Terrarium - land environment; students construct a terrarium to house terrestrial plants and animals; students observe and record the properties of seeds (mustard, rye, alfalfa) and plant them. Lesson 2 - Setting Up the Terrarium

8 Week 3 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Aquarium - a water environment; students construct an aquarium to house aquatic plants and animals; students learn how plants support the animals (food, shelter, exchange of gases) and investigate the properties of algae, duckweek and elodea. Guppies and snails are added to the aquariums; students investigate properties of the animals and learn about their behaviors. Students observe examples of interdependence in the aquarium; germination of seeds in terrariums is observed and recorded; students learn about factors that affect germination. Crickets and isopods are added to the terrarium; students investigate properties of the animals and learn about their behaviors. The aquarium and terrarium are connected to complete the ecosystem; food chains are explored (producers, consumers and scavengers) and students predict how one ecosystem might influence the other. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 3 - Setting Up the Aquarium 7.1c In all environments, organisms interact with one another in many ways. Relationships among organisms may be competitive, harmful, or beneficial. 7.1d Some microorganisms are essential to the survival of other living things. Lesson 4 - Adding Animals to the Aquarium Lesson 5 - Observing the Completed Aquarium Lesson 6 - Adding Animals to the Terrarium Lesson 7 - Joining the Terrarium and Aquarium

9 Week 3 Week 7 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Key concepts: stable vs. disturbed environments; natural vs. manmade disturbances; students explore one of three sources of pollution (fertilizer, acid rain and rock salt) and its impact on the environment and plan a class presentation. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 8 - Upsetting the Stability 7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in longterm gradual changes (ecological succession). 7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources. 7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe.

10 Week 3 Week 7 continued Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Students report on their pollutant; record notes as other presentations are given. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 9 - Reporting on Pollutants 7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in longterm gradual changes (ecological succession). 7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources. 7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe.

11 Week 3 Week 8 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Students use the scientific process and work collaboratively in a group to design and conduct an experiment to test the effect of one pollutant on a stable ecosystem; concept of "control" is introduced. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 10 - Planning Pollution Experiments; Lesson 11 - Setting Up Our Pollution Experiments; Lesson 12 - Observing Early Effects of Pollution (may need more time before changes are noticeable) 7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in longterm gradual changes (ecological succession). 7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources. 7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe.

12 Week 3 Week 8 continued Week 9 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Students observe changes in the aquarium based on presence of pollutants in the terrarium. Students report on their team experiments; draw conclusions about the effects of each pollutant; read about the Chesapeake Bay. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 13 - Where Do the Pollutants Go? 7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in long-term gradual changes (ecological succession). 7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources. 7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe. Lesson 14 - Drawing Conclusions Abour Our Experiments

13 Week 3 Week 10 Key concepts: Major food types (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced. Students work collaboratively in groups to consider the pollution of the Chesapeake Bay from different points of view. Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates Lesson 15 - Examining a Real Environmental Problem 7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources. 7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe.

14 Week 3 Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced.

15 Week 3 Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced.

16 Week 3 Key concepts: Major food types Lesson 3 - Exploring Carbohydrates (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats); Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body; Two major types of carbohydrates are sugar and starch; students perform chemical testing for sugar and starch; concept of "control" is introduced.

17 e assessment. ion Standards, learning is not necessarily an outcome of teaching. KEY IDEA / PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 1.2a Each system is composed of organs and tissues which perform specific functions and interact with each other, e.g., digestion, gas exchange, excretion, circulation, locomotion, control, coordination, reproduction, and protection from disease. 1.2c The digestive system consists of organs that are responsible for the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. The breakdown process results in molecules that can be absorbed and transported to cells.

18 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 1.2b Tissues, organs, and organ systems help to provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal. 1.2a Each system is composed of organs and tissues which perform specific functions and interact with each other, e.g., digestion, gas exchange, excretion, circulation, locomotion, control, coordination, reproduction, and protection from disease. 1.2b Tissues, organs, and organ systems help to provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal.

19 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 1.2b Tissues, organs, and organ systems help to provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal. 1.2e The excretory system functions in the disposal of dissolved waste molecules, the elimination of liquid and gaseous wastes, and the removal of excess heat energy. 1.2j Disease breaks down the structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of failures of the system. Other diseases are the result of damage by infection from other organisms (germ theory). Specialized cells protect the body from infectious disease. The chemicals they produce identify and destroy microbes that enter the body. 1.2d During respiration, cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food. The respiratory system supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

20 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 5.2d Energy in foods is measured in Calories. The total caloric value of each type of food varies. The number of calories a person requires varies from person to person. 5.2d Energy in foods is measured in Calories. The total caloric value of each type of food varies. The number of calories a person requires varies from person to person.

21 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 1.2f The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands. 1.2f The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands. 1.2f The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands.

22 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 1.2g Locomotion, necessary to escape danger, obtain food and shelter, and reproduce, is accomplished by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems, and coordinated by the nervous system. 1.2g Locomotion, necessary to escape danger, obtain food and shelter, and reproduce, is accomplished by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems, and coordinated by the nervous system. 1.2g Locomotion, necessary to escape danger, obtain food and shelter, and reproduce, is accomplished by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems, and coordinated by the nervous system.

23 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

24 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism. 7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment. 7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment. 7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment. 7.1b Given adequate resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase. Lack of resources, habitat destruction, and other factors such as predation and climate limit the growth of certain populations in the ecosystem.7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment.

25 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

26 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

27 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

28 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

29 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

30 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

31 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

32 5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

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