Biochemistry of Cells

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1 Biochemistry of Cells 1

2 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds

3 Carbon is a Versatile Atom It has four electrons in an outer shell that holds eight Carbon can share its electrons with other atoms to form up to four covalent bonds

4 Shape of Organic Molecules Each type of organic molecule has a unique three-dimensional shape The shape determines its function in an organism

5 Giant Molecules - Polymers Large molecules are called polymers Polymers are built from smaller molecules called monomers Biologists call them macromolecules

6 Most Macromolecules are Polymers Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid Monomer

7 Linking Monomers Cells link monomers by a process called condensation or dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water) H 2 O Forms Remove H Remove OH This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar

8 Breaking Down Polymers Cells break down macromolecules by a process called hydrolysis (adding a molecule of water) Water added to split a double sugar

9 Macromolecules in Organisms There are four categories of large molecules in cells: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

10 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules in soft drinks Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes

11 Called simple sugars Include glucose, fructose, & galactose Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas C 6 H 12 O 6 Monosaccharides:

12 Monosaccharides Glucose is found in sports drinks Fructose is found in fruits Honey contains both glucose & fructose Galactose is called milk sugar -OSE ending means SUGAR

13 Rings In aqueous (watery) solutions, monosaccharides form ring structures

14 Cellular Fuel Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work ATP

15 Disaccharides A disaccharide is a double sugar They re made by joining two monosaccharides Involves removing a water molecule (condensation) Bond called a GLYCOSIDIC bond

16 Disaccharides Common disaccharides include: Sucrose (table sugar) Lactose (Milk Sugar) Maltose (Grain sugar)

17 Disaccharides Sucrose is composed of glucose + fructose Maltose is composed of 2 glucose molecules Lactose is made of galactose + glucose GLUCOSE

18 Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates Composed of many sugar monomers linked together Polymers of monosaccharide chains Copyright Cmassengale 18

19 Examples of Polysaccharides Glucose Monomer Starch Glycogen Cellulose

20 Starch Starch is an example of a polysaccharide in plants Plant cells store starch for energy Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet

21 Glycogen Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen Glycogen is similar in structure to starch because BOTH are made of glucose monomers

22 Cellulose Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth It forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plants It is a major component of wood It is also known as dietary fiber Copyright Cmassengale 22

23 Lipids Lipids are hydrophobic water fearing Do NOT mix with water Includes fats, waxes, steroids, & oils FAT MOLECULE

24 Function of Lipids Fats store energy, help to insulate the body, and cushion and protect organs

25 Types of Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (all single bonds between carbons) Unsaturated fatty acids have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons (a double bond between carbons)

26 Types of Fatty Acids Single Bonds in Carbon chain Double bond in carbon chain

27 Triglyceride Monomer of lipids Composed of Glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains Glycerol forms the backbone of the fat Organic Alcohol (-OL ending)

28 Triglyceride Glycerol Fatty Acid Chains

29 Fats in Organisms Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids & exist as solids at room temperature (butter, margarine, shortening)

30 Fats in Organisms Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids & exist as liquids at room temperature (oils)

31 Fats Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Condensation links the fatty acids to Glycerol

32 Proteins Proteins are polymers made of monomers called amino acids All proteins are made of 20 different amino acids linked in different orders Proteins are used to build cells, act as hormones & enzymes, and do much of the work in a cell

33 Four Types of Proteins Storage Structural Contractile Transport

34 20 Amino Acid Monomers

35 Structure of Amino Acids Amino acids have a central carbon with 4 things boded to it: Amino group R group Carboxyl group Amino group NH 2 Carboxyl group -COOH Hydrogen -H Side group -R Leucine -hydrophobic Side groups Serine-hydrophillic

36 Linking Amino Acids Cells link amino acids together to make proteins The process is called condensation or dehydration Peptide bonds form to hold the amino acids together Amino Carboxyl Side Group Peptide Bond Dehydration Synthesis

37 Proteins as Enzymes Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions by weakening bonds, thus lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction

38 Enzyme + Substrate = Product

39 Primary Protein Structure The primary structure is the specific sequence of amino acids in a protein Called polypeptide Amino Acid

40 Other Important Proteins Blood sugar level is controlled by a protein called insulin Insulin causes the liver to uptake and store excess sugar as Glycogen The cell membrane also contains proteins Receptor proteins help cells recognize other cells

41 INSULIN Cell membrane with proteins & phospholipids

42 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information Contain information for making all the body s proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA

43 Copyright Cmassengale 43

44 Nucleic Acids Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T) Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides Phosphate Phosphate group Sugar (deoxyribose) Thymine (T) Sugar Nucleotide Base

45 Nucleotide Nucleic acid monomer Copyright Cmassengale 45

46 Bases Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases: Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)

47 DNA Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix Base pair Double helix

48 ATP Cellular Energy ATP is used by cells for energy Adenosine triphosphate Made of a nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups

49 Summary of Key Concepts

50 Nucleic Acids

51 Macromolecules

52 Macromolecules

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