Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids"

Transcription

1 Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids Most are polymers of smaller molecules called monomers SUBUNITS OF MACROMOLECULES Proteins: combinations of 20 Carbohydrates: sugar monomers ( monosaccharides ) are linked to form polysaccharides Nucleic acids: 4 kinds of nucleotide monomers Lipids: noncovalent forces maintain interactions between lipid monomers FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Groups of atoms with specific chemical properties and consistent behavior A single macromolecule may contain many different functional groups. ISOMERES Molecules with the same chemical formula, but atoms are arranged differently Structural isomers: differ in how their atoms are joined together Optical isomers occur when a carbon atom has four different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it. Some biochemical molecules that can interact with one optical isomer are unable to fit the other. Biochemical unity: the four kinds of macromolecules are present in roughly the same proportions in all living organisms, and have similar functions Organisms can obtain required macromolecules by eating other organisms CONDENSATION REACTIONS Polymers are formed in condensation reactions. Monomers are joined by covalent bonds. Water is removed; so they are also called dehydration reactions.

2 HYDROLYSIS Polymers are broken down into monomers in hydrolysis reactions. (hydro, water ; lysis, break ) FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS enzymes catalytic proteins defensive proteins (e.g. antibodies) hormonal and regulatory proteins control physiological processes receptor proteins receive and respond to molecular TYPES OF PROTEINS Storage proteins store amino acids. Structural proteins provide physical stability and movement. Transport proteins carry substances within the organism (e.g., hemoglobin ) Genetic regulatory proteins regulate when, how, and to what extent a gene is expressed. AMINO ACIDS Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups so they function as both acid and base. The α carbon atom is asymmetrical. Amino acids exist in two isomeric forms: D-amino acids (dextro, right ) L-amino acids (levo, left ) this form is found in organisms The terminal SH group of cysteine can react with another cysteine side chain to form a disulfide bridge, or disulfide bond ( S S ). These are important in protein folding. Figure 3.5 A Disulfide Bridge PEPTIDE BONDS Amino acids bond together covalently in a condensation reaction by peptide linkages (peptide bonds). A polypeptide chain is like a sentence: The capital letter is the amino group of the first amino acid the N terminus The period is the carboxyl group of the last amino acid the C terminus

3 PROTEINS SHAPE Proteins can consist of more than one type of polypeptide chain. Chains are folded into specific three dimensional shapes defined by the sequence of the amino acids. Hemoglobin has 4 chains that are folded separately and come together to make the functional protein. The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids. The sequence determines secondary and tertiary structure how the protein is folded. The number of different proteins that can be made from 20 amino acids is enormous! Figure 3.7 The Four Levels of Protein Structure (Part 1) 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions Secondary structure: α helix right-handed coil resulting from hydrogen bonding between N H groups on one amino acid and C=O groups on another. β pleated sheet two or more polypeptide chains are aligned; hydrogen bonds from between the chains. Tertiary structure: Bending and folding results in a macromolecule with specific three-dimensional shape. The outer surfaces present functional groups that can interact with other molecules. Tertiary structure is determined by interactions of R-groups: Disulfide bridges Hydrogen bonds Aggregation of hydrophobic side chains van der Waals forces Ionic bonds DENATURATION If a protein is heated, the secondary and tertiary structure is broken down; the protein is said to be denatured. Quaternary structure results from the interaction of subunits by hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals forces, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds. Each subunit has its own unique tertiary structure.

4 Conditions that affect secondary and tertiary structure: High temperature ph changes High concentrations of polar molecules Nonpolar substances Chaperones: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are the general class of stress-induced chaperone proteins. They are made by most eukaryotic cells, and many also enhance protein folding. Figure 3.12 Chaperones Protect Proteins from Inappropriate Binding CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates have the general formula C n (H 2 O) n Source of stored energy Transport stored energy Carbon skeletons for many other molecules Monosaccharides: simple sugars Disaccharides: two simple sugars linked by covalent bonds Oligosaccharides: three to 20 monosaccharides Polysaccharides: hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides starch, glycogen, cellulose GLUCOSE All cells use glucose (monosaccharide) as an energy source. Exists as a straight chain or ring form. Ring form exists as α- or β-glucose Hexoses: six carbons structural isomers Pentoses: five carbons Monosaccharides bind together in condensation reactions to form glycosidic linkages. Glycosidic linkages can be α or β. Oligosaccharides may include other functional groups. Often covalently bonded to proteins and lipids on cell surfaces and act as signals. Human blood groups get specificity from oligosaccharide chains. Polysaccharides Are giant polymers of monosaccharides. Starch:

5 Glycogen: Cellulose: Carbohydrates can be modified by the addition of functional groups: Sugar phosphate Amino sugars Chitin LIPIDS Nonpolar hydrocarbons. When sufficiently close together, weak but additive van der Waals forces hold them together. Not polymers in the strict sense, because they are not covalently bonded. Fats and oils store energy Phospholipids structural role in cell membranes Carotenoids and chlorophylls capture light energy in plants Steroids and modified fatty acids hormones and vitamins Animal fat thermal insulation Lipid coating around nerves provides electrical insulation Oil and wax on skin, fur, and feathers repels water Triglycerides (simple lipids): composed of fatty acids and glycerol Glycerol: 3 OH groups (an alcohol) Fatty acid: nonpolar hydrocarbon with a polar carboxyl group Carboxyls bond with hydroxyls of glycerol in an ester linkage. SATURATED VS UNSATURATED FATS Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds between carbons it is saturated with H atoms. Unsaturated fatty acids: some double bonds in carbon chain. monounsaturated: one double bond polyunsaturated: more than one WHAT IS BETTER? Animal fats or Plant oils? Fatty acids are amphipathic: they have opposing chemical properties. When the carboxyl group ionizes it forms COO and is strongly hydrophilic; the other end is hydrophobic. 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

6 Phospholipids: fatty acids bound to glycerol; a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid. Phosphate group is hydrophilic the head Tails are fatty acid chains hydrophobic They are amphipathic In water, phospholipids line up with the hydrophobic tails together and the phosphate heads facing outward, to form a bilayer. Biological membranes have this kind of phospholipid bilayer structure. Vitamins small molecules not synthesized by the body and must be acquired in the diet. Waxes highly nonpolar and impermeable to water.

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Focus on: Elements in each large biological molecule. How these molecules are linked and unlinked. Examples and functions of each type

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Lecture Outline Concept 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers Three of the four classes of macromolecules carbohydrates,

More information

Macromolecules and the Origin of Life

Macromolecules and the Origin of Life Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.3

More information

Biochemistry. Review- Macromolecules. Proteins. Proteins - Amino Acid Monomers 10/12/16. Macromolecules

Biochemistry. Review- Macromolecules. Proteins. Proteins - Amino Acid Monomers 10/12/16. Macromolecules Biochemistry Macromolecules Review- Macromolecules Macromolecule: A molecule with a molecular weight > 1000 D Most are polymers There are 4 classes Proteins Carbohydrates Nucleic acids Lipids Proteins

More information

Outline. The Chemistry of Organic Molecules. Organic vs Inorganic. Chapter 3

Outline. The Chemistry of Organic Molecules. Organic vs Inorganic. Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Organic Molecules Chapter 3 Organic vs Inorganic Outline Functional Groups and Isomers Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids 1 2 Organic - Living Inorganic - Nonliving

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Organic Compounds. Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules.

Organic Compounds. Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Macromolecules rganic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBN are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carbon can form covalent bonds

More information

Outcome: Model structure and function of lipids and proteins.

Outcome: Model structure and function of lipids and proteins. Outcome: Model structure and function of lipids and proteins. Warm-up: 1. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates? 2. Name the importance of carbohydrates. 3. What are the three main types of carbohydrates?

More information

Chapter 3 Active Reading Guide Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Chapter 3 Active Reading Guide Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 3 Active Reading Guide Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Section 1 1. Make an electron distribution diagram of carbon. It is essential that you know the answers

More information

3.1 Life s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon. A carbon atom forms four covalent bonds

3.1 Life s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon. A carbon atom forms four covalent bonds Spider Silk: Stronger than Steel Life s diversity results from the variety of molecules in cells A spider s web-building skill depends on its DNA molecules DNA also determines the structure of silk proteins

More information

Carbon and Biological Molecules. Functional Groups. Functional Groups

Carbon and Biological Molecules. Functional Groups. Functional Groups Figure 4.3 Valences for the major elements of organic molecules Carbon and Biological Molecules Carbon plays a central role in biological molecules Carbon has 4 valence electrons, readily forms covalent

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Macromolecules. The molecules of life

Macromolecules. The molecules of life Macromolecules The molecules of life 1 Organic Chemistry All living things are mostly composed of 6 elements: C, H, N, O, P, S Compounds are broken down into 2 general categories: Inorganic Compounds:

More information

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms Carbon-based molecules have three general

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules NAME DATE Chapter 5 Key Concepts The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Guided Reading Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living

More information

Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers. 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them.

Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers. 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

C) hydrogen bond. D) ionic bond. E) disulfide bond.

C) hydrogen bond. D) ionic bond. E) disulfide bond. Practice Test for BIO 311C -- Chapters 1-5 Answer the 6 Big Questions on Handout 18 first. Then, test your knowledge on these practice questions. Grade them, then use this practice test to add to your

More information

Biological Molecules. Biomolecules & Some of their Functions

Biological Molecules. Biomolecules & Some of their Functions Biomolecules & Some of their Functions Chapter 3 & part of 6 Biological Molecules Biological molecules consist primarily of -carbon bonded to carbon, or -carbon bonded to other molecules. Carbon can form

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules Bell Ringer: 1-What determines whether a compound will dissolve in water? 2-When sugars are broken down to produce usable energy for cells, a large amount of heat is released. Explain how the water inside

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules Nearly all biological molecules can be grouped into one of four general categories (Table 3.2): Category General Function 1) Carbohydrates Energy source Structural material 2) Lipids Energy storage Structural

More information

Biology 101 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life

Biology 101 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life Biology 101 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life Organic compounds and organic chemistry: Organic Compounds = any compound that contains carbon and hydrogen Organic Chemistry = the study of organic compounds

More information

BIOLOGY. CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition. Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor. CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells

BIOLOGY. CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition. Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor. CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells Modules 3.1 3.3 From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology:

More information

Organic Molecules. Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. Reactive Groups. Carbon. Chemical Formulas. Chemical Formulas

Organic Molecules. Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. Reactive Groups. Carbon. Chemical Formulas. Chemical Formulas Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Lecture Text Chapter 2 Molecules containing both carbon and hydrogen Carbon 4 valence electrons in outer orbital Needs 8 total for full complement Carbon

More information

Biochemistry. Grade: 10. H. Biology. Date: 11/3/10

Biochemistry. Grade: 10. H. Biology. Date: 11/3/10 iochemistry Grade: 10 Subject: H. iology ate: 11/3/10 1 2 haracteristics of carbon that contribute to its ability to form an immense diversity of organic molecules include its tendency to form covalent

More information

CELLULAR CHEMISTRY 1 O H E N C C H C OH OH OH OH H C C C. 1. Which of these molecules would be used when making a protein?

CELLULAR CHEMISTRY 1 O H E N C C H C OH OH OH OH H C C C. 1. Which of these molecules would be used when making a protein? CELLULAR CHEMISTRY 1 Functional groups to macromolecules 1. Biologically important macromolecules are assembled by polymerizing small subunit molecules using condensation reactions. (T/F) 2. Chemical reactions

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Monomers of Macromolecules

Monomers of Macromolecules Organic Molecules Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and are referred to as organic molecules Carbon, needing 4 more valence electrons, forms covalent bonds (either polar or non-polar) readily

More information

Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds of Life

Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds of Life Why It Matters CO 2 and photosynthesis Biological Molecules: The Carbon Compounds of Life Fig. 3-1, p. 42 Carbon The Backbone of Biological Molecules Carbon Bonding Although cells are 70 95% water, the

More information

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Atomic Basis of Life?! Can atoms in non-living things like dirt and rocks be the same as atoms in organic or living things? Carbon atoms have

More information

COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY MACROMOLECULES

COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY MACROMOLECULES COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY MACROMOLECULES What are Macromolecules? Macromolecules are very large molecules important to living organisms. Most macromolecules are built by joining smaller

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids ORGANIC COMPOUNDS A cell is mostly water. The rest of the cell consists mainly of carbon-based molecules. Carbon forms large, complex, and diverse molecules necessary for life s functions. Organic compounds

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Chemical Foundations of Life The origin of life and organic compounds of organisms

Chemical Foundations of Life The origin of life and organic compounds of organisms Chemical Foundations of Life The origin of life and organic compounds of organisms Atomic Structure Atoms are the smallest units that retain the properties of elements. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons,

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life. State Standards. Organic Molecules. Standard 1.h. Standard 5.a. Standard 4.e.

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life. State Standards. Organic Molecules. Standard 1.h. Standard 5.a. Standard 4.e. Slide 1 Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life Slide 2 State Standards Standard 1.h. Standard 5.a. Standard 4.e. Slide 3 Organic Molecules A cell is mostly water. The rest of the cell consists mostly of carbonbased

More information

The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life Carbon Chemistry Carbon is a versatile atom. It has four electrons in an outer shell that holds eight. Carbon can share its electrons with other atoms to form up to four covalent

More information

1. Discuss hydrolysis and condensation, and the connection between them.

1. Discuss hydrolysis and condensation, and the connection between them. Chapter 5: What are the major types of organic molecules? 1. Discuss hydrolysis and condensation, and the connection between them. 2. Carbohydrates: what are they, and what are they used for? What terms

More information

Macromolecules Carbohydrates A COMPLEX COLORING EXPERIENCE

Macromolecules Carbohydrates A COMPLEX COLORING EXPERIENCE Macromolecules Carbohydrates A COMPLEX COLORING EXPERIENCE Name: All plants, animals and microorganisms use carbohydrates as sources of energy. Carbohydrates are also used as structural building blocks.

More information

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 3: Life's Components: Biological Molecules

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 3: Life's Components: Biological Molecules BIOLOGY 111 CHAPTER 3: Life's Components: Biological Molecules Life s Components: Biological Molecules 3.1 Carbon's Place in the Living World 3.2 Functional Groups 3.3 Carbohydrates 3.4 Lipids 3.5 Proteins

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

copyright cmassengale Macromolecules

copyright cmassengale Macromolecules Macromolecules 1 2 Properties of Life Living organisms: are composed of cells are complex and ordered respond to their environment can grow and reproduce obtain and use energy maintain internal balance

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Biology I Honors Chapter 3 Biochemistry I. Cells Contain Organic Molecules A. Most Common Elements 1. Most common elements in living things are

Biology I Honors Chapter 3 Biochemistry I. Cells Contain Organic Molecules A. Most Common Elements 1. Most common elements in living things are Biology I Honors Chapter 3 Biochemistry I. Cells Contain Organic Molecules A. Most Common Elements 1. Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements

More information

Overview: The Molecules of Life Macromolecules Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers polymer monomers

Overview: The Molecules of Life Macromolecules Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers polymer monomers Overview: The Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Macromolecules are large molecules composed

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Chapter 5 Mastery Check

Chapter 5 Mastery Check 1. Polymerization (the formation of polymers) is a process that a. creates bonds between amino acids in the formation of a poly peptide b. involves the removal of a water molecule. c. links the sugar of

More information

Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids I. Organic Compounds A. What are organic compounds? 1. Contain carbon covalently bonded to another carbon 2. Found in all living things 3.

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells Chapter 3 Introduction: Got Lactose? Most of the world s population cannot digest milkbased foods They are lactose intolerant, because they lack the enzyme lactase INTRODUCTION TO

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter 5 Objectives List the four major classes of macromolecules. Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Complete using BC Biology 12, pages 20-61

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Complete using BC Biology 12, pages 20-61 Biology 12 Name: Cell Biology Per: Date: Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Complete using BC Biology 12 pages 20-61 2.1 Basic Chemistry pages 24-26 1. Only naturally occurring elements serve as the building

More information

True or False Section

True or False Section that makes your tutor happy Name: Correctly complete the following statements with a term 1. The monomer of a polysaccharide is called a(n). 2. Fatty acids containing at least one double or triple covalent

More information

Lecture 3: Biological Molecules. Background

Lecture 3: Biological Molecules. Background Lecture 3: Biological Molecules Background Integral themes in biological systems exemplified by macromolecules: 1. There is a natural structural hierarchy of structural level in biological organization.

More information

Carbon and Macromolecules

Carbon and Macromolecules Carbon and Macromolecules Shared Characteristics of Life Living organisms are organized in a certain fashion An organism is constituted by several organ systems Organ systems include several organs Organs

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Spider silk is made of 1) A) proteins. B) DNA. C) carbohydrates. D) lipids. E) RNA. 2)

More information

AP Biology Summer 2016 Assignment

AP Biology Summer 2016 Assignment AP Biology Summer Assignment: Due the first day of Class *You will have a test the first day of school based on the material covered in this assignment. Expect multiple choice questions, short answers,

More information

METABOLISM FOUR CLASSES OF BIOMOLECULES (ALL ORGANIC MOLECULES)

METABOLISM FOUR CLASSES OF BIOMOLECULES (ALL ORGANIC MOLECULES) METABOLISM There are two main objectives in metabolism: Making Energy Metabolizing biomolecules (anabolism and catabolism) let us look first at making energy Before we study the details of metabolism,

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules. Chapter 5

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules. Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 The Molecules of Life Living things made up of 4 classes of large biological molecules (macromolecules) : 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3.

More information

Organic Chemistry Worksheet

Organic Chemistry Worksheet Organic Chemistry Worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Organic Compounds 1. Organic molecules exist in all living cells. In terms of biochemistry, what does the term organic mean? 2. Identify the monomer

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY FOR MICROBIOLOGY Charles D. Winters / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? An understanding of chemistry is essential to understand cellular structure and function,

More information

A.P. Biology Summer Work: Worksheet

A.P. Biology Summer Work: Worksheet 1 A.P. Biology Summer Work: Worksheet Name: Lesson 1: True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. 1. An atom is smaller than an element. 2. Organic compounds are

More information

Chapter 5. Macromolecules. AP Biology

Chapter 5. Macromolecules. AP Biology Chapter 5. Macromolecules Macromolecules Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules macromolecules 4 major classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids Polymers

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

POWERPOINT NOTES SHEET 2.3 Carbon Compounds

POWERPOINT NOTES SHEET 2.3 Carbon Compounds THINK ABOUT IT POWERPOINT NOTES SHEET 2.3 Carbon Compounds In the early 1800s, many chemists called the compounds created by organisms organic, believing they were fundamentally different from compounds

More information

Main types of organic molecules

Main types of organic molecules Main types of organic molecules Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids Typical composition of organisms by mass CARBOHYDRATES carbon chain with equal numbers of OH and H and a few carbonyl general

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

Health Science Module 3 Organic Chemistry Lab 3

Health Science Module 3 Organic Chemistry Lab 3 Health Science 1110-2007 Module 3 Organic Chemistry Lab 3 All questions on the quiz will come from the Chemistry of Life exercises, and the Lab 3 Worksheet Chemistry of Life Exercise: o Click on the Chemistry

More information

Biochemistry. Inorganic compounds o All other compounds, not containing carbon Ex: water, salts, acids, and bases

Biochemistry. Inorganic compounds o All other compounds, not containing carbon Ex: water, salts, acids, and bases Biochemistry Biochemistry Study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter o Biological chemistry Organic compounds o Molecules that contain carbon Except CO 2 and CO (considered inorganic)

More information

Large Biological Molecules Multiple Choice Review

Large Biological Molecules Multiple Choice Review Slide 1 / 43 Slide 2 / 43 New Jersey enter for Teaching and Learning Progressive Science Initiative This material is made freely available at www.njctl.org and is intended for the non-commercial use of

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization KEY CONCEPT. Atomic Particles

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization KEY CONCEPT. Atomic Particles Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization KEY CONCEPT Matter is made up of atoms Atoms join together to form chemicals with different characteristics Chemical characteristics determine physiology at

More information

Carbohydrates hydrated (H 2 O) carbon Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrate names end in the suffix -ose glucose, maltose, amylose, fructo

Carbohydrates hydrated (H 2 O) carbon Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrate names end in the suffix -ose glucose, maltose, amylose, fructo Carbohydrates hydrated (H 2 O) carbon Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrate names end in the suffix -ose glucose, maltose, amylose, fructose, sucrose The monomer of carbohydrates is the monosaccharide

More information

Molecules of Life. Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids

Molecules of Life. Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Molecules of Life Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Today s Objectives: Identify the essential elements of nutrition. Compare and contrast carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Essential Question:

More information

Organic Inorganic carbon backbone functional groups

Organic Inorganic carbon backbone functional groups Biological Molecules hapter 3 arbon in Biological Molecules Organic molecules Derived from living organisms ontain a carbon backbone Inorganic molecules O 2, O, and all molecules without carbon Topoisomerase

More information

UNIT 3: Macromolecules. Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

UNIT 3: Macromolecules. Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life UNIT 3: Macromolecules Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life Lesson #1: What are the main elements found in all living things? There are five main elements in all living things: H = Hydrogen O = Oxygen N =

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

BIOL 2457 A&P I CHAPTER 2 cont. (B) SI Monosaccharides = sugar; disaccharide = sugars; polysaccharide = sugars.

BIOL 2457 A&P I CHAPTER 2 cont. (B) SI Monosaccharides = sugar; disaccharide = sugars; polysaccharide = sugars. BIOL 2457 A&P I CHAPTER 2 cont. (B) SI 1 CARBOHYDRATES 1. Which elements are found in carbohydrates? What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen? 2. Monosaccharides = sugar; disaccharide = sugars; polysaccharide

More information

Chapter 2 Chemistry. K. Muma Bio 6

Chapter 2 Chemistry. K. Muma Bio 6 K. Muma Bio 6 Chapter 2 Chemistry Study Objectives: 1. Define the terms matter, elements, and atoms 2. Differentiate between ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds 3. Differentiate between polar and non-polar

More information

AP Biology - Chemistry of Life Unit Exam

AP Biology - Chemistry of Life Unit Exam AP Biology - Chemistry of Life Unit Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential

More information

Electrolytes. Acids. Bases. Movement. Movement. Movement. Substances that release ions. in water. Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions (H + )

Electrolytes. Acids. Bases. Movement. Movement. Movement. Substances that release ions. in water. Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions (H + ) Electrolytes Substances that release ions in water Acids Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions (H + ) in water Bases Electrolytes that release hydroxide ions (OH-) ph Measures hydrogen ion concentration

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Chapter Organic Molecules Organic molecules 1. biomolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hydrocarbons skeleton

Chapter Organic Molecules Organic molecules 1. biomolecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hydrocarbons skeleton Chapter 3 3.1 Organic Molecules Organic molecules contain carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded to other atoms. 1. Four types of organic molecules (biomolecules) exist in organisms: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins,

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life You Must Know 1. The three subatomic particles and their significance. 2. The types of bonds, how they form, and their relative

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz 2016-17 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which six elements provide most of the mass of the

More information