Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport."

Transcription

1 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1. h. Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors. Many of the large carbon compound molecules necessary for life (e.g., polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids) are polymers of smaller monomers. Polysaccharides are composed of monosaccharides; proteins are composed of amino acids; lipids are composed of fatty acids, glycerol, and other components; and nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides. Notes: Four main types of organic molecules predominate in living organisms: carbohydrates (polymers of simple sugars) lipids (fatty acids linked by glycerol) polypeptides (made of amino acids) nucleic acids (DNA or RNA - polymers of nucleotides) Carbohydrates Most complex carbohydrates are made of repeating units called sugars. Most simple sugars (monosaccharides) conform to the basic formula (CH 2 O)n and possess an aldehyde or ketone functional group. Monosaccharides (the simplest carbohydrates) can: provide ready energy, be converted to other types of organic molecules, be used as monomers for polymers (macromolecules). Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. Examples: maltose (2 glucoses), lactose (glucose+galactose), sucrose (glucose+fructose) Polysaccharides serve as storage or structural molecules. Many common polysaccharides are made of the monosaccharide glucose. Examples:

2 structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin storage polysaccharides: glycogen (animal starch); amylose (plant starch) Glucose Glucose like other sugars can exist in a straight chain form or it can loop back on itself and become a ring. If the hydroxyl group on the first carbon atom points down when the ring is formed alpha glucose results and if the hydroxyl group points up the result is beta glucose. alpha glucose When glucose molecules are enzymatically joined to form a disaccharide a water molecule is removed. This process is called dehydration synthesis. The covalent bond that holds sugar molecules together is called a glycosidic linkage. When glucose molecules are combined in a straight chain by alpha 1-4 linkages the resulting polysaccharide is the edible, somewhat soluble starch called amylose. If the beta form of glucose is used instead, the resulting polysaccharide is an insoluble, indigestible, and tough fiber called cellulose. The polymer strands of cellulose can hydrogen bonds in groups of 60 or 70 to produce microfibrils, which in turn can join with other microfibrils to make strong cord-like fibers. Plant cell walls are made of crisscross layers of these fibers. Lipids Lipids are hydrocarbons insoluble in polar solvents. They constitute a heterogeneous group of hydrophobic molecules that include the neutral fats or triglycerides, the steroids, and the phospholipids. Lipids serve as energy-storage molecules, as major components of cell membranes, and as hormones. Fats or triglycerides are formed by three fatty acids each bonded by an ester linkage to glycerol. Fats and oils contain a higher proportion of energy-rich carbon-hydrogen bonds than carbohydrates or proteins. Many seeds are rich in oils.

3 Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms because of single bonding between all the carbons. Unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (present in oils) have one or more double bonds between the carbons. Fats are ideal for energy storage requiring only half the mass of glycogen. Fats are also important in cushioning delicate organs like kidneys against shock and for insulation. Waxes are a form of structural lipid. They form protective coatings on skin, fur, feathers, on the leaves of land plants, and on the exoskeletons of many insects. Phospholipids substitute the third fatty acid of a triglyceride with a negatively charged phosphate group, which may be joined to another small molecule. Phospholipids may have a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end making them ideally suited for construction of cell membranes. Steroids, such as cholesterol and the sex hormones, are classified as lipids. These lipids are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four interconnected rings. Steroids often have a hydroxyl functional group. Polypeptides and Proteins Proteins consist of one or more chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. These chains are known as polypeptides. Proteins are the most complex and versatile macromolecules. Each amino acid contains a central carbon singly bonded to four different groups: a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and some other chemical group which confers on it unique properties. Proteins exhibit three or four levels of structural organization. Primary structure is the first level and is determined by a unique linear sequence of amino acids.

4 Secondary structure of proteins describes how the primary structure is folded into particular, localized configurations, the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet, which result from hydrogen bonding. Tertiary structure describes the additional, less regular contortions of the molecule caused by the side groups in hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide linkages. In many proteins, the tertiary structure produces an intricately folded, globular shape. Quaternary structure describes how two or more polypeptide chains interact to form a functional structure. Proteins are generally classified as either fibrous or globular. Proteins may also be characterized by their function. Examples of types of proteins include: Structural proteins - collagen, silk, microtubules Regulatory proteins (hormones) - insulin, growth hormones Contractile proteins - Actin, myosin, dynein Transport proteins - hemoglobin, myoglobin Storage proteins - egg white, seed protein Protective proteins - antibodies Membrane proteins - membrane-transport, channels Enzymes - most proteins ending in -ase

5 The function of a protein is an emergent property of its conformation, which is sensitive to conditions such as ph, salt concentration, and temperature. If these conditions exceed certain limits the protein's shape may be altered or denatured rendering it biologically inactive. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, complex monomers consisting of a pentose (five carbon sugar) covalently bonded to a phosphate group and to one of five different kinds of nitrogenous bases. DNA and RNA are the only two nucleic acids found in living matter. These large polymers are formed when the pentose of one nucleotide joins to the phosphate of another forming a sugar-phosphate backbone from which the nitrogenous bases project. The five nitrogenous bases are members of two families, the purines (A and G) and the pyrimidines (C, T, and U). Four nucleotides (A,T,C,G) are chemically joined through sugar and phosphate molecules in the backbone of DNA. Base pairs across the double helix are joined by complementary base-pairing: A base pairs with T, C base pairs with G. The complementary base pairs direct the addition of nucleotides during synthesis of new DNA strands or synthesis of mrna (where U is used instead of T) or hybridization of two different molecules. The overall directionality (seen best by looking at the sugar molecules) is antiparallel in the two strands. One strand has a 5'-3' direction; the other a 3'-5' direction. This has consequences for enzymes that work on the DNA (e.g. DNA polymerase, restriction enzymes). DNA Structure DNA contains the genetic information that codes for the RNA and proteins necessary for cell function. All DNA in the chromosomes has to be copied (replicated) and transmitted to daughter cells via mitosis. Non-perfect replication or inability to correct errors and damage to DNA results in mutations.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 1 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Chemical Level of Organization

Chemical Level of Organization Chemical Level of Organization Matter and Energy Matter occupies space and has mass Energy is capacity to move mass Potential vs. kinetic Energy forms radiant-moving waves electrical-moving charged particles

More information

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material 1. Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel and carbon sources 2. Polysaccharides,

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms NAME: BLK: Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules 1 Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, 16 are known to be important constituents of living systems. The important elements are C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca,

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Introduction to organic compounds Answer the following questions as you read modules 3.1 3.3: 1. Is this molecule an organic

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B 2 Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B Classes of Compounds Inorganic compounds Water, salts, and many acids and bases Do not contain carbon Organic compounds Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

The Chapter Structure 5 and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Chapter Structure 5 and Function of Large Biological Molecules Overview: The Molecules of Life The Chapter Structure 5 and Function of Large Biological Molecules The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules All living things are made up of four classes

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Chemistry is the science dealing with the properties & the transformations (chemical reactions) of all forms of matter Matter is any substance: solid, liquid, gas, plasma All matter is composed of elements

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight)

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) It can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas The smallest stable

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules?

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules? Answers? Activity 4/5.1 ow an You Identify rganic Macromolecules? efer to the figure (Some Simple hemistry) on the next page when doing this activity. Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers

More information

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb CHEMICAL ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSOL Chemically, the cytoplasmic matrix is composed of many chemical elements in the form of atoms, ions and molecules.

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2.1. Polymers, monomers, and bonding Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are primary nutritional ingredients for humans. The breakdown of

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as:

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as: 2.3 arbon-based Molecules VABULARY polymer carbohydrate lipid fatty acid protein amino acid nucleic acid compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates,

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Reference texts for this lecture: Biology, 6th edition by Campbell and Reece Introduction to Botany

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions

Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Some proteins speed up chemical reactions

More information

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail.

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail. BIOMOLECULES. I. (up to proteins) Basic Molecules of Terrestrial Self-Replication (brief version) Theory for origin of life by chemical evolution must explain following: nuclei--->atoms--->molecules--->monomers--->polymers

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level The Chemical Level of Organization Objectives Describe atomic structure Compare the ways atoms combine to form molecules and compounds Distinguish among the major types of chemical reactions Describe the

More information

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids Objectives To perform tests that detect the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d)

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d) Proteins Proteins Most diverse and most important molecule in living i organisms Functions: 1. Structural (keratin in hair, collagen in ligaments) 2. Storage (casein in mother s milk) 3. Transport (HAEMOGLOBIN!)

More information

Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis

Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis Biol 1107 Revised Fall 2010 Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis This handout is to be used with your textbook: Biological Science, Freeman, 4 th ed. I. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are

More information

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules 5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules OBJECTIVE Students will learn confirmation tests for the presence of glucose, starch, lipids and proteins. Students will then apply the test procedures to a

More information

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SCIENCES FACULTY OF APPLIED AND HEALTH SCIENCES BMLS 13M MID ENTRY ABT 4202 : BIOCHEMISTRY II INSTRUCTIONS: END

More information

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Biological Molecules I won t lie. This is probably the most boring topic you have ever done in any science. It s pretty much as simple as this: learn the material deal with it. Enjoy don t say I didn t

More information

Solution key Problem Set 1

Solution key Problem Set 1 Solution key-7.016 Problem Set 1 Question 1 The following line-angle drawings represent three chemical structures. On each drawing, the hydrogen atoms that should be bonded to the NON-carbon atoms are

More information

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Carbohydrates Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri Definition: Proteins are macromolecules with a backbone formed by polymerization of amino acids. Proteins carry out a number of functions in living organisms: - They

More information

Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology Harvey Lodish Arnold Berk Paul Matsudaira Chris A. Kaiser Monty Krieger Matthew P. Scott Lawrence Zipursky James Darnell Molecular Cell Biology Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Chemical Foundations Copyright 2004

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. SETI 2.3 arbon-based Molecules KEY EPT arbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Student text pages 44 48 S.912.L.18.1 arbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Most molecules that make up living

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry Name Period Biology Biochemistry Date Assignment Points Earned Possible Points Chapter 2 Vocabulary 25 Unique Properties of Water Notes 5 Writing Prompts 1 & 2 7 Organic Molecules: Lipids / Carbohydrates

More information

AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT: DISTRIBUTED MAY, 2012

AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT: DISTRIBUTED MAY, 2012 AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT: 2012-2013 DISTRIBUTED MAY, 2012 Instructor: Mr. Crispin A. Zanca Required Material for Summer Assignment: Contact: czanca@walsingham.org Course Textbook: Biology 7 th AP Edition

More information

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Background: In biology, the four most important elements found in living things are: H hydrogen (1 valence electron) O oxygen (2 valence electrons) N nitrogen (3 valence

More information

KEY. BI 212 Summer Exam I. July 27 th 2015

KEY. BI 212 Summer Exam I. July 27 th 2015 KEY BI 212 Summer 2015 Exam I July 27 th 2015 On your scantron, please fill in: 1. Your name (First and Last) 2. Exam I 3. Date 4. Lab section: MW at 1 section 010; MW at 4 section 011; TR at 1 section

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 You need to bring a pencil and your ACT card. Chapter 24: Lipids 1. Describe the properties and types of lipids a. All are hydrophobic b. Fatty acid-based typically contain

More information

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry Page 1 of 7 What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry What is food chemistry? Food Science deals with the production, processing, distribution,

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass.

1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass. SFCC: Winter 2011 Dr. Timm Name: 1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass. Periodic Table of elements 2) The atomic number describes the number of

More information

1. 5. Carbohydrates. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways

1. 5. Carbohydrates. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways . Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a key group of biological molecules about 0% of all the organic matter of a cell is made up of carbohydrates. This topic guide looks at their basic chemical structures

More information

Atoms can form ionic or covalent bonds with one another. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak bonds between molecules.

Atoms can form ionic or covalent bonds with one another. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak bonds between molecules. BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 2 SUMMARY This chapter reviewed biochemical concepts that are important in understanding the interaction between molecules with

More information

Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism

Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism S E C T I O N Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism I 2 Chapter 1 Chemical Composition of Living Cells Overview Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus normally makeup more than 99% of the

More information