Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?"

Transcription

1 Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

2 Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous Generation Covered meat No maggots. Uncovered meat maggots. First strike against Spontaneous Generation Lazzaro Spallanzani: Boiled broth open growth. Boiled broth sealed no growth. Second strike BUT Argued he boiled life force Louis Pasteur: Alexander Oparin: Miller and Urey: Boiled broth, curvy neck no growth. Boiled broth, curvy neck removed growth. He believed that energy from lightning and the sun can spark chemical reactions to create macromolecules like proteins. Spontaneous Generation Disproved! Created the basic building blocks of life under conditions that mimicked the conditions of early earth. Sidney Fox: Created and studied coacervates.

3 Organic Molecules make up all organisms

4 What does Organic Mean? In Biology, organic means relating to organisms. NOT food grown without the use of pesticides, antibiotics, or other industrial chemicals. What do all organic compounds contain? All organic molecules contain covalently bonded Carbon.

5 What does Organic Mean? Carbon cycles through all living things through the processes of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, death, and decomposition. We ll talk more about the Carbon Cycle in a few weeks!

6 Why Carbon is so Awesome... How many bonds/shared electrons can a Carbon atom make? Carbon can bond to other carbon atoms, which gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length. These carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple. The chains can be straight, branched, or even ring-shaped. Therefore, carbon is unique in that it can form millions of different large and complex structures.

7 How are the Four Organic Macromolecules Formed? Polymerization: small units (monomers) are joined together to form large units (polymers.) Dehydration synthesis: joins molecules by removing a molecule of water. Monomer + monomer = Hydrolysis: breaks apart molecules by adding water (the opposite process)

8 What are the four organic molecules? Carbohydrates Proteins We get from food! Lipids Nucleic Acids Resides (stays) in our cells!

9 What is in a cheeseburger? Nutrition Facts (Big N Tasty at McDonalds): Total Fat: 29 grams Saturated Fat: 9 grams Carbohydrates: 41 grams Protein: 24 grams

10 Carbohydrates Which part of the cheeseburger has the most carbohydrates?

11 Carbohydrates Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 Ratio. Used for short term energy storage (quick energy!) and structural support Ending -ose = sugar Cellulose Glucose How many sugars? Examples 1 sugar Monosaccharide Monomer Plants: glucose, fructose Animals: galactose (milk) 2 sugars Disaccharide Polymer Plants: sucrose, maltose Animals: lactose (milk) 3+ sugars Polysaccharide Polymer Plants: starch, cellulose Animals: glycogen

12 Monomer + monomer = One sugar = Two sugars = Three or more sugars =

13 Why Carbohydrates? Many animals store extra sugar as glycogen. Glycogen stored in your muscles supplies energy for movement. Glycogen stored in your liver is released when the glucose (sugar) in your blood runs low. Recall: What is this an example of? Homeostasis! Plants store excess sugar as starch. Plants also make cellulose, a strong, rigid fiber used for support. Starch, cellulose and glycogen are all Polysaccharides!

14 What other part of the Big N Tasty is composed of carbohydrates? Cellulose!

15 Which part of the cheeseburger is the best source of protein?

16 Proteins Proteins are present in every cell, tissue and organ in our bodies. These proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Provide structure for: cells, bones, muscles, tissues, organs, hormones most everything in the body! Special Function: Proteins are responsible for cell metabolism (via enzymes)

17 Proteins The protein in the food we eat is digested (broken down) into amino acids that are later used to build and replace other proteins in our bodies. Monomers = amino acids Polymers = proteins The monomers in an amino acid are held together by peptide bonds. When the amino acids join, they form a polymer called a polypeptide. Proteins can be destroyed by extreme heat (fever) = denature

18 Protein Structure Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 essential amino acids. All amino acids have the same Amino group and carboxyl groups, but each amino acid has its own unique R- group. Only 20 amino acids can combine in different arrangements to form all of the many different kinds of proteins in our bodies! Shape is very important; if a protein is not the right shape, it will not work or only have partial function!

19

20

21 Which part of the cheeseburger is a source of fat?

22

23 What is fat? Fats are a type of lipid. Lipids are hydrophobic (water-fearing) organic molecule including fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.

24 Lipids Long chains with lots of Carbon and Hydrogen (long chains), but little or no oxygen Monomers: 1 glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains Polymer: lipid If we know that lipids (fat) are hydrophobic and take a long time to break down, what could it be useful for?? Long term energy storage Protection Insulation Waterproofing Cell Membranes Chemical Messengers (steroids)

25 Lipids come in two flavors Saturated: Single Bonds Animal Fats Harder to digest Solids at room temperature Holds as many Hydrogen atoms as possible Unsaturated: Double Bonds Vegetable Oils Easier to digest Liquids at room Temperature Does not hold as many hydrogen atoms as possible Your Turn! Make a quick hypothesis to why Unsaturated Fats are easier to break down (thus healthier for you) than Saturated Fats! It is easier for your body to break double bonds than single bonds due to the number of electrons. Aka, it s easier to steal 1 electron from Carbon when it is sharing two versus just that one! (Like borrowing money!)

26 Common Misconceptions: Lipids Good & Bad Cholesterol You ll be amazed at what you find online about the different types of cholesterol! You should check it out!

27 What is a nucleic acid? DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

28 How do nucleic acids relate to the cheeseburger? DNA Is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into proteins. DNA RNA Proteins!

29 Nucleic Acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and two Phosphorus atoms arranged in 3 groups (monomers) Used for storing and transmitting cellular information in a code called DNA or RNA.

30 Nucleic Acids Monomer: Nucleotide Nitrogen Base A, G, C, T or U 5-Carbon Simple Sugar Deoxyribose (DNA) Ribose (RNA) Phosphate group Nitrogen Base Polymer DNA or RNA Phosphate group Simple Sugar

31 Organic molecules are the building blocks of life They are broken down into monomers, then rebuilt into polymers, then broken down again, then rebuilt again! And so life goes on

32 Your turn! What kind of macromolecules did you/will you eat today?

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms NAME: BLK: Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

Chemical Level of Organization

Chemical Level of Organization Chemical Level of Organization Matter and Energy Matter occupies space and has mass Energy is capacity to move mass Potential vs. kinetic Energy forms radiant-moving waves electrical-moving charged particles

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as:

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as: 2.3 arbon-based Molecules VABULARY polymer carbohydrate lipid fatty acid protein amino acid nucleic acid compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates,

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules 5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules OBJECTIVE Students will learn confirmation tests for the presence of glucose, starch, lipids and proteins. Students will then apply the test procedures to a

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. SETI 2.3 arbon-based Molecules KEY EPT arbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Student text pages 44 48 S.912.L.18.1 arbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Most molecules that make up living

More information

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry Name Period Biology Biochemistry Date Assignment Points Earned Possible Points Chapter 2 Vocabulary 25 Unique Properties of Water Notes 5 Writing Prompts 1 & 2 7 Organic Molecules: Lipids / Carbohydrates

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Carbohydrates Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B 2 Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B Classes of Compounds Inorganic compounds Water, salts, and many acids and bases Do not contain carbon Organic compounds Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Introduction to organic compounds Answer the following questions as you read modules 3.1 3.3: 1. Is this molecule an organic

More information

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Cell Processes (chemistry and respiration) Organic compounds they always contain carbon 4 types that you need to know: Lipids (fats, oils and waxes), Carbohydrates, Proteins and nucleic acids Inorganic

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Background: In biology, the four most important elements found in living things are: H hydrogen (1 valence electron) O oxygen (2 valence electrons) N nitrogen (3 valence

More information

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules 1 Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, 16 are known to be important constituents of living systems. The important elements are C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca,

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

Macromolecules in my food!!

Macromolecules in my food!! Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting

More information

Food, Macromolecules and Digestion. Carbohydrates 10/8/11. Most carbs are polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Monomers: simple sugars

Food, Macromolecules and Digestion. Carbohydrates 10/8/11. Most carbs are polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Monomers: simple sugars Food, Macromolecules and Digestion Many small molecules connect to form Macromolecules Monomers Small Molecules (Building Blocks) Polymers Large Molecules Carbohydrates Primary source of energy for living

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 1 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SCIENCES FACULTY OF APPLIED AND HEALTH SCIENCES BMLS 13M MID ENTRY ABT 4202 : BIOCHEMISTRY II INSTRUCTIONS: END

More information

Lesson Overview. The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter

Lesson Overview. The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter Lesson Overview 2.1 2.1? 2.1.1 Identify the three subatomic Particles found in atoms. 2.1.2 Explain how all the isotopes of an element are similar and how they are different. 2.1.3 Explain how compounds

More information

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail.

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail. BIOMOLECULES. I. (up to proteins) Basic Molecules of Terrestrial Self-Replication (brief version) Theory for origin of life by chemical evolution must explain following: nuclei--->atoms--->molecules--->monomers--->polymers

More information

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry Page 1 of 7 What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry What is food chemistry? Food Science deals with the production, processing, distribution,

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Chemistry is the science dealing with the properties & the transformations (chemical reactions) of all forms of matter Matter is any substance: solid, liquid, gas, plasma All matter is composed of elements

More information

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Carbohydrates Definition- the starches and sugars found in foods. Carbohydrates are the body s preferred source of energy providing four

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids Objectives To perform tests that detect the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: Definition of Organic Compounds and Inorganic compounds Important terminology Summary of the

More information

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level The Chemical Level of Organization Objectives Describe atomic structure Compare the ways atoms combine to form molecules and compounds Distinguish among the major types of chemical reactions Describe the

More information

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules Biology McMush Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP aprons beaker, 250 ml 2 clamps, test tube goggles graduated cylinder, 50 ml paper towels test tube brush test

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material 1. Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel and carbon sources 2. Polysaccharides,

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 1. Which substances are inorganic compounds? A. water and salts B. proteins and carbohydrates C. fats and oils D. enzymes and hormones 2. Which substance is an inorganic

More information

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Reference texts for this lecture: Biology, 6th edition by Campbell and Reece Introduction to Botany

More information

Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids

Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids Carbohydrates Carbohydrates should account for the largest portion of a healthy diet. Their predominant role is providing an efficient source of energy in the form of glucose. Including adequate amounts

More information

Key Questions. What elements does carbon bond with to make up life s. molecules? What are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?

Key Questions. What elements does carbon bond with to make up life s. molecules? What are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules? arbon ompounds TINK ABUT IT In the early 00s, many chemists called the compounds created by organisms organic, believing they were fundamentally different from compounds in nonliving things. Today we understand

More information

9/11/2011. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter? Atoms THINK ABOUT IT. Atoms. Atoms. 2.1 The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview.

9/11/2011. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter? Atoms THINK ABOUT IT. Atoms. Atoms. 2.1 The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1? 2.1 2.1.1 Identify the three subatomic Particles found in atoms. 2.1.2 Explain how all the isotopes of an element are similar and how they are different. 2.1.3 Explain how compounds are different

More information

Molecules General. Inorganic Molecules. can only have chemical reactions (metabolism) if the chemicals are dissolved in some liquid (=solvent)

Molecules General. Inorganic Molecules. can only have chemical reactions (metabolism) if the chemicals are dissolved in some liquid (=solvent) Molecules General Inorganic Molecules ~2/3 rd s of body consists of inorganic molecules general characteristics: small molecules: only a few atoms & bonds little or no carbon atoms usually dissolve easily

More information

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb CHEMICAL ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSOL Chemically, the cytoplasmic matrix is composed of many chemical elements in the form of atoms, ions and molecules.

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight)

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) It can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas The smallest stable

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules?

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules? Answers? Activity 4/5.1 ow an You Identify rganic Macromolecules? efer to the figure (Some Simple hemistry) on the next page when doing this activity. Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers

More information

Metabolism & Enzymes AP Biology

Metabolism & Enzymes AP Biology Metabolism & Enzymes 2007-2008 From food webs to the life of a cell energy energy energy Flow of energy through life Life is built on chemical reactions transforming energy from one form to another organic

More information

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

The Making of Macromolecules

The Making of Macromolecules Author: Jane (Nuenyan) Lam Date Created: Aug. 6, 2009 Subject: Life Science Level: 7-12 grade Standards: 4.1.2, 1.1.1 Schedule: ~60 minutes Objectives: With the same elements, different chemical structures

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information