Biological molecules:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biological molecules:"

Transcription

1 Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some cases.

2 Four types of biological molecules Carbohydrates - refer to a large group of biochemicals which in nature include monomers and polymers. Lipids - not considered as monomers/polymers like the others; they all have one PHYSICAL property in common. Proteins - polymers of amino acids with versatile functions. Nucleic acids - polymers of nucleotides, may be DNA or RNA.

3 Definition: contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (carbo+hydrate), usually in the following ratio: [C(H20)]n

4 Basic Building Blocks Monosaccharides Three types, each of which contains 6 carbon atoms: glucose (most popular) fructose galactose

5 Monosaccharides Usually, they exist in nature as a "ring" form, after an ester linkage forms between the #1 carbon and the hydroxyl group of carbon #5 (in the case of monosaccharides with six carbons).

6 Building on a theme When two monosaccharides are joined together by dehydration synthesis (a glycosidic bond), a DISACCHARIDE results. Disaccharides always contain glucose + one other monosaccharide: Sucrose (common table sugar) = glucose + fructose Lactose ("milk sugar") = glucose + galactose Maltose = glucose + glucose

7

8 Other monosaccharides Some have five carbons, like ribose and deoxyribose, the sugars in the nucleotides of DNA and RNA (LATER)

9 Polysaccharides Usually consist of long chains of glucose or modified glucose monomers, linked by different types of glycosidic bonds and with different branching properties. Starch - plant storage polysaccharide Cellulose - plant structural polysaccharide (beta-1, 4 linkage that animals cannot in general digest) Glycogen - animal storage polysaccharide Chitin - makes up fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons - polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) Peptidoglycan - polymer of alternating NAG and NAM (N-acetyl muramic acid) subunits, most bacterial cell walls contain it

10

11 Functions of Carbohydrates: Mainly, to provide ENERGY for an organism Structural components of cell walls May be attached to proteins and function as antigens

12 In nutrition, Mono- and disaccharides are referred to as sugars, or simple carbohydrates. Polysaccharides are referred to as complex carbohydrates.

13 Definition: biological molecules that are insoluble in water (they are hydrophobic, or non-polar)

14 Basic Types Triglycerides (fats and oils) Phospholipids Sterols

15 Triglycerides Triglycerides are formed when three FATTY ACIDS are joined to a molecule of the trialcohol glycerol by dehydration synthesis. Fats are solid at room temperature, because they contain saturated fatty acids. Oils tend to be liquid at room temperature, because they possess at least one point of unsaturation (C=C double bond).

16 Saturated fatty acids Points of unsaturation (cause double bonds and "kinks" in the molecule)

17 Phospholipids Are very similar to triglycerides in chemistry: one of the fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate containing group. This causes the molecule to have a "split personality", being partially hydrophobic and partially hydrophilic. Molecules like this are referred to as amphipathic.

18

19 Sterols, or steroids Are based on ring structures. Cholesterol is the most popular steroid, although many hormones and other biological compounds are formed from cholesterol (testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vitamin D).

20

21 Functions of LIPIDS: Triglycerides - long term energy storage, cushioning and insulation in multicellular organisms. Phospholipids - structural basis of cell membranes and lipid-transporting lipoproteins (HDL's and LDL's). Steroids - Cholesterol functions in the structure of cell membranes; others are hormones, etc.

22 Definition: long chains of subunits called AMINO ACIDS joined by PEPTIDE BONDS (dehydration synthesis again) There are 20 different amino acids. Each one contains a central carbon bound to an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, a hydrogen, and an R (variable) group.

23 AMINO ACIDS

24 Levels of protein structure Primary - sequential order of amino acids in chains

25 Levels of protein structure Secondary - local hydrogen bonding interactions between amino and acid groups form structures such as the alpha-helix and the beta-pleated sheet.

26

27

28 Continued Tertiary - hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions between R groups cause the molecule to fold up in threedimensional space. Quaternary - Sometimes, folded polypeptides associate with each other to form a functional protein (e.g., hemoglobin, antibodies).

29 Types of non-covalent interactions that create and maintain tertiary structure include: Hydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonding (between R-groups) Ionic/electrostatic interactions

30

31 Functions of PROTEINS are MANY!! Enzymes (catalyze chemical reactions) Hormones Antibodies Structural (mainly in animals - muscle tissue, connective tissue) Famous proteins: hemoglobin, collagen, keratin, insulin Membrane associated transporters and more!!

32 In nutrition, We ingest proteins mainly to get amino acids for building our own proteins. They do however contain calories, and any excess will be converted to fat. In the process, they become deaminated, forming the metabolic waste urea, which is excreted in the urine.

33 Definition: long chains of subunits called NUCLEOTIDES joined by PHOSPHODIESTER BONDS. There are two classes of nucleic acids depending upon which type of sugar they contain. The two classes are DNA and RNA.

34 The nucleotide contains: A five carbon sugar (ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA); A phosphate group; A nitrogen containing base, of which there are four types in DNA.

35 Continued DNA bases: Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil.

36 Bonding RULES DNA exists in nature as a double helix, with two nucleotide strands running antiparallel and joined by hydrogen bonding between the bases. A binds with T (2 H-bonds). G binds with C (3 H-bonds, stronger bond). In RNA, A binds with U when applicable.

37

38 Functions of NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA makes up the genes, which contain genetic information. RNA functions in various capacities in the process of protein synthesis (i.e., expression of the genetic information).

39 ATP, a triphosphate form of an RNA nucleotide, also functions as the major energy carrying molecule of the cell! Ribose

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Biological Molecules I won t lie. This is probably the most boring topic you have ever done in any science. It s pretty much as simple as this: learn the material deal with it. Enjoy don t say I didn t

More information

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d)

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d) Proteins Proteins Most diverse and most important molecule in living i organisms Functions: 1. Structural (keratin in hair, collagen in ligaments) 2. Storage (casein in mother s milk) 3. Transport (HAEMOGLOBIN!)

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated

More information

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms!

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms! Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI DNA omponents and Structure Introduction Nucleic acids are molecules that are essential to, and characteristic of, life on Earth. There are two basic types of nucleic

More information

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules Biology McMush Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP aprons beaker, 250 ml 2 clamps, test tube goggles graduated cylinder, 50 ml paper towels test tube brush test

More information

Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology Harvey Lodish Arnold Berk Paul Matsudaira Chris A. Kaiser Monty Krieger Matthew P. Scott Lawrence Zipursky James Darnell Molecular Cell Biology Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Chemical Foundations Copyright 2004

More information

The Chemical Basis of Life. Chemical Bonds

The Chemical Basis of Life. Chemical Bonds The Chemical Basis of Life white=hydrogen red=oxygen gray=carbon yellow=phosphorus blue=nitrogen green=sulfur All organisms are made up of water, inorganic ions, small molecules (77% by weight) and macromolecules

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

More information

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY 2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, February 16, 2007. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Where in a eukaryotic cell do you

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Carbohydrates Definition- the starches and sugars found in foods. Carbohydrates are the body s preferred source of energy providing four

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 Chiral centers: Asymmetric carbons, i.e carbon atom with four different substituents Enantiomers : Mirror images Stereoisomers MONOSACCHARIDE

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 You need to bring a pencil and your ACT card. Chapter 24: Lipids 1. Describe the properties and types of lipids a. All are hydrophobic b. Fatty acid-based typically contain

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Macromolecules in my food!!

Macromolecules in my food!! Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting

More information

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

More information

Structure of proteins

Structure of proteins Structure of proteins Primary structure: is amino acids sequence or the covalent structure (50-2500) amino acids M.Wt. of amino acid=110 Dalton (56 110=5610 Dalton). Single chain or more than one polypeptide

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the major experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as

More information

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Questions- Proteins & Enzymes A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Reaction of the intact peptide

More information

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids hapter 15 15.1 15.2 Fatty Acids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch23_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except A) The major physical

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon A. Acid/Base properties 1. carboxyl group is proton donor! weak acid 2. amino group is proton acceptor! weak base 3. At physiological ph: H

More information

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 17 Nutrition and Metabolism. Multiple-Choice Questions

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 17 Nutrition and Metabolism. Multiple-Choice Questions Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 17 Nutrition and Metabolism Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E.

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide

More information

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic

More information

BNFO601 Introduction to Molecular Biology Protein

BNFO601 Introduction to Molecular Biology Protein BNFO601 Introduction to Molecular Biology Protein Outline: A. What can protein do? B. What are proteins? C. Structure and basis for catalysis D. Targeting protein E. Alteration of protein structure and

More information

STRUCTURES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS

STRUCTURES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS What is the chemical structure of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule? DNA is a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides. All nucleic acids consist of nucleotides as building

More information

lt\ Nutrition a-glncose www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press Glucose+ fructose Glucose+ galactose

lt\ Nutrition a-glncose www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press Glucose+ fructose Glucose+ galactose P. T. Marshall and G. M. ughes 1 Nutrition 1.1 The basic biochemistry of mammalian metabolites The mammals are heterotrophic, that is to say they derive their essential nutrients, via food chains, from

More information

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Nucleic acids play an important role in the storage and expression of genetic information. They are divided into

More information

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri Definition: Proteins are macromolecules with a backbone formed by polymerization of amino acids. Proteins carry out a number of functions in living organisms: - They

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

Helices From Readily in Biological Structures

Helices From Readily in Biological Structures The α Helix and the β Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns Although the overall conformation each protein is unique, there are only two different folding patterns are present in all proteins, which are α

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

I The THREE types of LIPIDS

I The THREE types of LIPIDS LECTURE OUTLINE Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids and Sterols I The THREE types of LIPIDS A. Triglycerides (fats & oils)- the MAJOR type of lipid in food and humans. 1. 2 parts of triglyceridesa)

More information

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1. Lipids:

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1. Lipids: (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-19 09-4 Lipids 1 Lipids Classifying Lipids Triacylglycerols (triglycerides): a storage form of energy not required for immediate use. Phospholipids, p sphingolipids, p and cholesterol

More information

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step

More information

Nucleic Acids and Proteins

Nucleic Acids and Proteins Unit 7, xx,lesson Lesson1 xx Unit Unit xx, Lesson xx 1 ucleic cids and roteins macromolecules proteins D R composed of monomers Essential Questions Keywords What is a monomer, and what relation does it

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Outline Fats and Oils Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Biodiesel Homework We hear quite a lot about the place of fats and oils in human nutrition. Foods high in fat are at the

More information

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Substances originating in plant or animal material and soluble in non-polar organic solvents

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e.

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e. BCOR 11 Exam 1, 2004 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation

More information

UNIT (11) MOLECULES OF LIFE: LIPIDS AND PROTEINS

UNIT (11) MOLECULES OF LIFE: LIPIDS AND PROTEINS UNIT (11) MOLECULES OF LIFE: LIPIDS AND PROTEINS 11.1 Types of Lipids Lipids are also biochemical compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But lipids, unlike carbohydrates, share no common

More information