Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

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1 Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

2 Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C) ydrogen () Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Sulfur (S) The most important element is Carbon!

3 Importance of Carbon Special features of the element Carbon: can form bonds with up to 4 other atoms bonds tend to be relatively non-polar, stable can form complex linear, branched, ringed structures forms the skeleton of biological molecules Organic molecules contain C & : methane (C 4 ), glucose (C 6 12 O 6 ) are organic water ( 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are inorganic organic molecules are typically derived from living things

4 Structural formula Ball-and-stick model Space-filling model Carbon Skeletons C C Methane The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron. C C C C C Ethane Propane Carbon skeletons vary in length. C C C C C C C C Butane Isobutane Skeletons may be unbranched or branched. C C C C C C C C 1-Butene 2-Butene Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location. C C C C C C C C C C C C The carbon skeleton of an organic molecule consists of 1 or more carbon atoms linked together in linear, branched &/or ringed structures. The remaining bonds are filled in with hydrogen (as with hydrocarbons) or other functional groups Cyclohexane Benzene Skeletons may be arranged in rings.

5 Important Functional Groups All biological molecules are essentially carbon skeletons with various functional groups attached: (hydrogen) nonpolar (polar) O (hydroxyl) polar (polar) CO (carbonyl): polar (acidic) COO (carboxyl) acidic

6 more Functional Groups N 2 (amino) basic (basic) 2 PO 4 (phosphate) acidic (acidic) C 3 (methyl) non-polar (non-polar)

7 Many Biomolecules are Polymers Polymers are chains of smaller monomers: like boxcars linked together to make a train short polymer dehydration synthesis unlinked monomer longer polymer each addition to a growing polymer involves the loss of 2 0, hence the term dehydration synthesis.

8 ydrolysis of Polymers Polymers are broken down into monomers by the addition of 2 O to each bond: hydrolysis hydrolysis this is what happens to polymers in the foods we eat!

9 1. Carbohydrates

10 Carbohydrates Made of C 2 O (1 Carbon : 2 ydrogen : 1 Oxygen) Glucose (C 6 12 O 6 ) structural formula abbreviated structure simplified structure Functions: source of energy Examples of Carbohydrates: sugars cellulose structural support starch glycogen

11 Carbohydrate Monomers & Polymers monosaccharides, disaccharides & polysaccharides ( saccharide is Greek for sugar) 2 monosaccharides Glucose Glucose 1 disaccharide Important monosaccharides: GLUCOSE & FRUCTOSE Important disaccharides: Maltose SUCROSE, LACTOSE & MALTOSE

12 Polysaccharides Large polymers of sugars (usually glucose): PLANTS starch, cellulose ANIMALS glycogen Starch granules in potato tuber cells STARC Glucose monomer Glycogen granules in muscle tissue GLYCOGEN Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall CELLULOSE ydrogen bonds Cellulose molecules

13 2. Lipids

14 Lipids glycerol fatty acid ydrophobic, made mostly of C &. Functions: source of energy insulation hormones membranes Includes: fatty acids (FA) triglycerides phospholipids steroids triglyceride

15 Saturation of saturated Fatty Acids saturated fatty acids have no C=C double bonds fatty tail saturated with hydrogens unsaturated unsaturated fatty acids have > 1 C=C double bond monounsaturated polyunsaturated

16 Phospholipids The major component of biological membranes: have a polar head non-polar tails polar groups are hydrophilic ( water loving ) non-polar groups are hydrophobic ( water fearing )

17 Steroids All steroids contain the same core 4 ring structure. cholesterol Important Steroids: cholesterol estradiol estrogen testosterone testosterone

18 3. Proteins

19 Proteins Proteins do essentially everything in a cell

20 Proteins are polymers of amino acids Proteins are made of 20 different amino acids: the properties of each amino acid depend on its R group * R groups can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or have other important properties amino acid properties determine protein structure and function Leucine (Leu) hydrophobic Serine (Ser) hydrophilic Aspartic acid (Asp) made from elements C,, O, N & S

21 Polypeptides Amino acid polymer = polypeptide each amino acid is joined by a peptide bond covalent bond formed between the COO & N 2 groups of adjacent amino acids carboxyl group amino group dehydration reaction peptide bond amino acid amino acid dipeptide **a functional protein may contain 1 or more polypeptides**

22 Primary structure Secondary structure ydrogen bond Four Levels of Protein Structure Amino acids Protein Structure Protein function depends on structure: Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Polypeptide (single subunit of transthyretin) Alpha helix Transthyretin, with four identical polypeptide subunits Pleated sheet ea polypeptide must be folded properly polypeptides in a protein must interact in the right way If this is not the case, proteins don t work!

23 4. Nucleic Acids

24 Nucleic Acids The main function of Nucleic Acids is to store and express Genetic Information: All nucleotides have this basic structure. includes DNA, RNA & ATP phosphate group sugar nitrogenous base (adenine) DNA & RNA are linear polymers of nucleotides made from elements C,, O, N & P

25 DNA & RNA are Nucleotide Polymers nucleotides are connected by a sugar-phosphate backbone genetic information is the nucleotide sequence nucleotide sequence is determined by the base there are 4 different bases in the nucleotides of DNA Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine

26 DNA is a Double elix DNA molecules consist of 2 linear polymers or strands or nucleotides the 2 strands of a DNA molecule interact through the bases in each strand a double-stranded DNA molecule twists to form a spiral or helix *RNA is a single-stranded nucleotide polymer made from slightly different nucleotides*

27 Relevant Review Questions: 2-5, 7-12, 14, 16, 17 Key Terms for Chapter 3 organic, inorganic hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, methyl polymer, monomer, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis carbohydrate; mono-, di-, polysaccharide lipid, fatty acid, triglyceride, phospholipid, sterol amino acid, polypeptide nucleic acid, nucleotide

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