socialuri kapitalis roli soflis ganvitarebasi

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "socialuri kapitalis roli soflis ganvitarebasi"

Transcription

1 0

2 sazogadoebis kvlevis centri marina musxelisvili, lia mezvrisvili, beqa nacvlisvili, mariam elizbarasvili socialuri kapitalis roli saqartvelos soflis ganvitarebasi gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi

3 The present study was conducted with the support of the Academic Swiss Caucasus Net (ASCN). ASCN is a programme aimed at promoting the social sciences and humanities in the South Caucasus (primarily Georgia and Armenia). Its different activities foster the emergence of a new generation of talented scholars. Promising junior researchers receive support through research projects, capacity-building trainings and scholarships. The programme emphasizes the advancement of individuals who, thanks to their ASCN experience, become better integrated in international academic networks. The ASCN programme is coordinated and operated by the Interfaculty Institute for Central and Eastern Europe (IICEE) at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland).It is initiated and supported by Gebert Rüf Stiftung. sazogadoebrivi kvlevis centri, 2012 m. musxelisvili, l. mezvrisvili, b. nacvlisvili, m. elizbarasvili, 2012 gamomcemloba `universali~, 2012 Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : , 5(99) E mail: ISBN

4 sarcevi Sesavali...4 Tavi 1. qartuli sofeli - ekonomikuri da politikuri gardaqmnebis 20 weli sabwota epoqa damoukideblobis Semdeg vardebis revoluciis Semdeg Tavi 2. socialuri kapitali, Teoriuli xedva socialuri kapitali socialuri kapitalis Teoriuli modeli empiriuli kvleva Tavi 3. soflis resursebi da TanamSromlobis formebi kerZo resursebi, qseluri urtiertobebi, gacvla ekonomikuri kooperireba, resursebis akumulireba soflis saerto sikete, resursebis agregireba Tavi 4. soflis socialuri kapitali soflebis klasterizacia mati Sekrulobis indeqsisa da individualuri simdidris mixedvit saerto resursebi, Temis Sekrulobis ganzomileba ganzogadebuli ndoba jgufuri loialoba, reputacia Tavi 5. soflad arsebuli gaertianebebi: instituciuri analizi araformaluri kooperacia formaluri gaertianebebi Tavi 6. daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi Semdgomi reformebistvis kvlevis Sedegebis mokle Sejameba rekomendaciebi Semdgomi reformebistvis bibliografia danarti soflis gamokitxva, analizis dros gamoyenebuli monacemebi (sixsiruli ganawileba) danarti 2. gamokitxuli soflebi

5 Sesavali bolo oci wlis ganmavlobasi ganxorcielebuli politikuri da ekonomikuri gardaqmnebis miuxedavad - Tu mat Sedegad - qartulma sofelma ekonomikuri degradacia ganicada. umusevrobis marali done, siraribe, uflebrivi daucveloba da axalgazrdobis gadineba - soflis cxovrebis mouwesrigeblobaze metyvelebs. instituciuri reformebis 20-wlianma periodma ver Seqmna soflis ganvitarebistvis xelsayreli ekonomikuri da politikuri garemo. gardaqmnebis warumateblobam gaacina mosazreba, rom problemis sawyisi ara instituciur garemosi, aramed Tavad sazogadoeba- Sia. am xedvis mixedvit, soflis mcxovreblebi ver axerxeben axali wesebit gansazrvrul TanamSromlobas, radgan sofels aklia socialuri kapitali: urtiertndoba, Sekruloba da iniciativa, rac adgilobriv cxovrebas gamoacocxlebda. mocemuli kvleva miznad isaxavs am xedvis analizs. is swavlobs soflad arsebul ekonomikur urtiertobebs, mat intensiobas, saxeobebsa da ganmapirobebel faqtorebs. misi mtavari kitxvaa - qartuli sofeli atomizirebuli individebis ertobliobaa, romelsac ar Seswevs damoukidebeli funqcionirebis unari, Tu soflad arsebobs socialuri kapitali, romlis SesaZlo pozitiuri zegavlena soflis ganvitarebaze SezRudulia sxva, ufro Zlieri faqtorebis mier. kvleva Catarda wlebsi. misi Sedegebi eyrdnoba soflebis Seswavlas, Tvisobrivi da raodenobrivi xasiatis monacemebis Segrovebas, sociologiuri gamokitxvis Sedegad mopovebuli monacemebis statistikur kvlevas, urtiertobebis velis instituciur analizs. winamdebare nasromis struqtura aris Semdegi: nasromis pirveli Tavi mokled mimoixilavs im socioekonomikur da politikur procesebs, romlebmac soflis drevandeli mdgomareoba gansazrvra; meore Tavi aanalizebs socialuri kapitalis cnebas da ayalibebs metodologiur safuzvlebs, romlebsac eyrdnoba nas- 4

6 romi; mesame da meotxe TavebSi gadmocemulia kvlevis ZiriTadi Sedegebi, arwerilia soflad arsebul kooperireba da gaanalizebulia socialuri kapitali; mexu- Te Tavi ezrvneba soflad arsebuli gaertianebebis instituciur analizs; meeqvse Tavi ajamebs kvlevas, warmoadgens daskvnebsa da rekomendaciebs. kvleva ganaxorciela interdisciplinarulma jgufma, sazogadoebis kvlevis centris bazaze. sazogadoebis kvlevis centri aris arasamtavrobo damoukidebeli organizacia, romelsac socialur mecnierebata sxvadasxva dargsi, ZiriTadad politikur mecnierebasi, mravali akademiuri da gamoyenebiti xasiatis nasromi aqvs gamoqveynebuli. 1 proeqtis kvleviti jgufi madlobas uxdis Sveicarul-kavkasiur akademiur qsels (ACSN) proeqtis dafinansebistvis. kvleviti jgufi aseve madlobas uxdis evelin baumans (Eveline Baumann, UMR 201 Développement et Sociétés (IRD- Université Paris I)) kvlevis processi ganxorcilebuli konsultirebistvis, da vano kewaymazes, romelmac ganaxorciela raodenobrivi monacemebis statistikuri analizi. kvlevit jgufs daufasebeli daxmareba gauwies centris TanamSromlebma uta biwazem da mamuka kokorasvilma, romlebmac soflebis SeswavlaSi miires monawileoba, aseve yvela im eqspertma, specialistma, studentma Tu adgilobrivma moqalaqem, vinc dro ar dazoga da Tavisi codna gagviziara. 1 centris vebsaitis misamartia : 5

7 Tavi 1. qartuli sofeli - ekonomikuri da politikuri gardaqmnebis 20 weli 1.1. sabwota epoqa sabwota kavsiris dangrevis mijnaze saqartvelos sofelsi agraruli ekonomika ori gansxvavebuli sistemis nazavs warmoadgenda. sabwota gegmuri ekonomikis paralelurad arsebobda kerzo sakutrebac, romelic sabazro ekonomikis msgavs savawro urtiertobeb- Si monawileobda. XX saukunis ociani wlebis bolos, ocdaatiani wlebis dasawyissi saqartvelosi, rogorc mtel sabwo- Ta kavsirsi, daiwyo koleqtivizaciis procesi. soflad Seiqmna kolmeurneobebi. miuxedavad glexebis winaarmdegobisa, wlebis represiebma mtlianad moasto SeZlebuli glexoba da sakolmeurneo sistema damkvidrda. drota ganmavlobasi kolmeurneobebma rogorc sameurneo administraciuli, ise mmartvelobiti funqcia SeiZina. soflebsi adgilobriv xelisuflebas formalurad saxalxo deputatta sasoflo sabwo axorcielebda, romlis armasrulebel xelisuflebas faqtiurad kolmeurneobis gamgeoba warmoadgenda (melua, 2000, gv.15). saqartvelosi, miuxedavad koleqtivizaciisa, garkveuli kerzo sakutrebis formebi SenarCunda. mtavrobam glexebs sakutrebasi 0.25 ha miwa dautova memkvidreobit gadacemis uflebit da neba darto kerzo sakutrebasi hyoloda minimaluri raodenobis pirutyvi da frinveli. mtis regionebsi koleqtivizacia Tavidan naklebad intensiurad warimarta, vidre barsi. mosaxleobac met-naklebad inarcunebda mat sakutrebasi arsebul pirutyvs. magram 50 wlebidan daiwyo am regionebis sruli koleqtivizacia, ramac qalaqebisken 50-ian wlebsi pirveli, xolo 60 -ian wlebsi meore Sidamigraciuli nakadi gamoiwvia. mta TiTqmis daicala mosaxleobisgan (koruasvili, 1998). 6

8 50 wlebis bolos sabwota kavsirsi daiwyo koleqtiuri meurneobebis transformacia sabwota meurneobebad. Tumca saqartvelosi ZiriTadad kolmeurneobebi SenarCunda. kolmeurneobis SemTxvevaSi, misi kutvnili qoneba formalurad koleqtiur sakutrebas warmoadgenda da Seqmnili iyo misi wevrebis sakutrebasi arsebuli miwisa da materialur -teqnikuri resursebis gaer- Tianebis safuzvelze. Sromis anazraureba gaweuli samu- Saos moculobis Sesabamisad xdeboda. ZiriTad sakitxebs ki, Tavmjdomaris arcevis CaTvliT, wevrta saerto kreba wyvetda. sabwota meurneoba pirdapir saxelmwifos gamgeblobis qves iyo da misi xelmzrvaneli raionis xelisuflebis mier inisneboda. meurneobis sakutreba saxelmwifo sakutrebas warmoadgenda. Sromis anazraureba xdeboda fiqsirebuli xelfasis safuzvelze. saqar- TveloSi sabwota meurneobebma (SesaZloa, qartveli glexis mesakutre bunebis gamo), ver hpoves farto gavrceleba wlistvis saqartvelosi mxolod 60 sab- WoTa meurneoba iyo (melua, 2000) ian wlebsi kolmeurneobebma saqartvelosi Tavisi sizlieris zenits miarwies. am droistvis saqar- TvelSi 100-mde iseti koleqtiuri meurneoba iyo, romelta sabanko angarisze wliurad milioni sabwota maneti iricxeboda. 2 Sesabamisad, gaizarda kolmeurnis Semosavalic wlistvis igi sasualod 4300 sabwo- Ta manets Seadgenda (melua, 2000). warmoebis zrdas sabwota kavsiris uzarmazari bazari da centraluri sabiujeto subsidiebi ganapirobebda. saqartvelos klimaturi mdebareobis gamo, gansakutrebit industriuli kulturebi: Cai, citrusi, Rvino sabwota bazarze did motxovnit sargeblobdnen. centraluri xelisufleba ki am motxovnis dasakmayofileblad subsidiebs ar isurebda. 2 mat mier yovelwlurad iwarmoeboda 594,9 atasi tona Cai, 436,9 atasi tona citrusi, 703,2 atasi tona yurzeni, 715,3 atasi tona marcvleuli. sakolmeurneo sakutrebasi iricxeboda 585 atasi suli msxvilfexa da 3 milionamde wvrilfexa pirutyvi. 7

9 TandaTan daiwyo zrunva soflebis ketilmowyobaze: asenda skolebi da baga-barebi, sportuli darbazebi da kulturis saxlebi. amgvari socialuri programebis ganxorcielebas komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis gadawyvetileba edo safuzvlad. partia TandaTan iwyebda mosaxleobis socio-kulturul ganvitarebaze zrunvas. gadawyvetileba miireboda partiis centralur komitetsi, xolo kolmeurneoba, rogorc partiis adgilobrivi gagrzeleba, axorcielebda mas. qveyanasi ketildreobis zrdis paralelurad izrdeboda motxovna sasoflo-sameurneo produqtze. sapasuxod respublikis xelmzrvaneloba sxvadasxva me- TodebiT cdilobda kerzo iniciativis waxalisebas. magalitad glexebs miecat TavianT sakutrebasi arsebul miwis nakvetebze industriuli kulturebis gasenebis ufleba, romlis saxelmwifos mier Sesasyidi tarifi 30% -it marali iyo, vidre sakolmeurneo miwaze moyvanili produqtisa. TandaTan izrdeboda warmoebis xarjebi. radgan kolmeurneobis ekonomikur safuzvels saxelmwifo subsidiebi warmoadgenda, gansxaveba warmoebis xarjebsa da saxelmwifo Sesasyid fass Soris saxelmwifo dotaciebit ifareboda. Sesabamisad gacnda stimuli sxvadasxva praqtikebisa, romlis safuzvelzec, rogorc sakolmeurneo miwaze, ise saojaxo meurneobebsi moyvanili produqti saxelmwifo sarealizacio-gamanawilebeli sistemis gverdis avlit qalaqis bazrebze xvdeboda, sadac is orjer Zvirad iyideboda. saxelmwifo subsidiebi da fastwarmoqmnis amgvari sistema qmnida stimuls kolmeurneobis sakutrebis mitviseba-mitacebisa, rogorc rigiti glexis, aseve sakolmeurneo biurokratiis mier (melua, 2000). am procesebma Zirfesvianad Secvala glexis cnobiereba. am periodis bolostvis sofeli mtlianad ker- Zo interesebze iyo orientirebuli. glexi ukve sakutari produqtis amonagebis gazrdaze zrunavda, ramac ufro gazarda qalaqis bazris mnisvneloba. 8

10 1.2. damoukideblobis Semdeg sabwota kavsiris daslis Semdeg soflis meurneobis gegmiuri ekonomikidan sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvla da mmartvelobis sabwouri formebis srulfasovani TiTmmarTvelobiT Canacvleba did sirtuleebs waawyda wels saqartvelom referendumis safuzvelze damoukidebloba gamoacxada. sabwota kavsiris daslis fonze gamwvavda mdgomareoba saqartvelos centralur xelisuflebas da or avtonomiur regions: afxazetsa da samxret osets Soris, rac Zalian male SeiaraRebul dapirispirebasi gadaizarda. am process daerto dazabuloba qveynis xelisuflebasa da opoziciurad ganwyobil Zalebs Soris, romelic samoqalaqo omita da xelisuflebis Zalismieri cvlilebit dagvirgvinda. paralelurad mimdinareobda mzime ekonomikuri transformacia. daiwyo dagegmviti ekonomikidan sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvla. fastwarmoqmnis procesi sabazro principebs daeqvemdebara. imavdroulad, damoukideblobis Semdeg, qveyana mowyda ertian sabwota ekonomikur sivrces, ramac mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba sagrznoblad gaauaresa wlidan 1994 wlamde mtliani erovnuli produqti 45%-iT Semcirda (Revishvili, 2004). mzime mdgomareobasi armocnda soflis meurneoba. etnikuri konfliqtebisa da rusetsaqartvelos Soris arsebuli dazabulobis fonze qar- Tulma soflis meurneobis produqtma Tavisi tradiciuli bazari dakarga. paralelurad, mteli qveynis mas- StabiT mimdinareobda industriis seqtoris CamoSlac, ramac kidev ufro daamzima agrarul seqtorsi Seqmnili mdgomareoba. sagrznoblad Semcirda sasoflo sameurneo produqtebis warmoeba wlidan 2000 wlamde sasoflo sameurneo warmoeba 2,6-jer Semcirda (Revishvili 2004). saqartvelosi agraruli ekonomikis gardaqmna 1992 wels daiwyo. gamocxadda miwis farto privatizeba. pirvel etapze glexebs miwa uvado sargeblobasi, 9

11 gayidvis uflebis garese gadaecat. glexebs, romlebic flobdnen miwis sakarmidamo nakvetebs, adgilobrivi pirobebis gatvaliswinebit am nakvetebis farti gauzardes 1.20 ha-mde sameurneo saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad. reformis sawyiss etapze moxda kolmeurneobebis SenarCuneba. magram saxelmwifo subsidiebis ararsebobisa da davalianebis fonze mat maleve Sewyvites arseboba. darcenili sakolmeurneo miwa da materialur- teqnikuri arwurviloba unda darcenliyo kolmeurneobis bazaze Camoyalibebuli koopertiuli meurneobebis sakutrebasi, sadac glexebi mepaieebis statusit gankargavdnen mas (koruasvili 1998). reformis am nawils ganxorcieleba ar ewera. Seqmnili krizisuli mdgomareobis fonze adgilobrivi sazogadoeba uunaro armocnda gaekontrolebina resursebis samar- Tliani ganawileba wlis martidan sasoflo-sameurneo danisnulebis miwis sakutrebis Sesaxeb kanonit saqartvelos moqalaqetatvis gadacemuli miwa gamocxadda mat kerzo sakutrebad. amave dros msxvili sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis Sesaqmnelad sasoflo-sameurneo danisnulebis miwis ijaris Sesaxeb kanonis safuzvelze, saqartvelos moqalaqeebs, sameurneo saqmianobisatvis, ufleba miecat ijarit aerot miwa (didebulize 1997). privatizaciis am procesis Sedegad 690 atasi heqtari miwa sasoflo da urbanuli Sinameurnobis kerzo mflobelobasi gadavida, sasualod ert Sinameurneobaze 0.89 heqtris gatvaliswinebit. gasatvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom Sinameurneobebis sakutrebasi arsebuli miwa xsirad daqsaqsuli iyo 2-3 nakvetad. rac Seexeba ijaras, kerzo pirma ijarit airo ha miwa, sasualod 15.6 ha. xolo 3573 iuridiulma pirma ijarit airo ha miwa, sasulod 113 ha wlistvis privatizebuli miwis umravlesoba sasualod 1 heqtrian nakvetebze modioda, rac mteli sasoflo sameurneo miwis 25% da saxnavi miwis 55% Seadgenda. Sesabamisad, umravlesoba grzelvadiani ijaris saxit arebuli miwisa moqceuli iyo mcire rao- 10

12 denobis fizikuri da iuridiuli piris xelsi (Revishvili 2004). miuxedavad imisa, rom miwis bazari meurneobebis gamsxvilebis sasualebas izleoda, wvril Sinameurneobebs ar gaacndat finansuri saxsrebi damatebit didi fartobis ijarit arebisa da mxolod mciredi fartobebis ijarit arebit Semoifarglebodnen (Gogodze 2005). garda amisa, xsiri iyo SemTxvevebi didi raodenobis miwis fartobis korufciuli garigebis Sedegad ekonomikuri da politikuri elitis mier mitvisebisa. Sedegad soflis meurneobasi Camoyalibda ori gansxvavebuli tipis meurneoba: didi raodenoba ekonomikuri subieqtebisa, romlebic naturalur meurneobas eweodnen, da mcire raodenoba msxvili komerciuli agraruli organizaciebisa (Revishvili 2004). saqartvelosi 2004 wlis sasoflo-sameurneo arweram acvena, rom sasoflo sameurneo miwebis mqone Sinameurneobebis 43,2%-s hqonda 0,5 ha-ze naklebi; 0,5-0,99 ha miwa hqonda 32%-s meurneobebisa, e.i. 1 ha-ze naklebi hqonda 75,2%-s meurneobebisa; 1-1,99 ha-mde hqonda mxolod 18,3%-s meurneobebisa; 2-2,99 ha _ 3%-s da 3-4 ha ki 1,4 %-s Sinameurneobebisa. arsanisnavia, rom es metad mcire zomis fartobic danawevrebuli iyo da gabneuli 2-3 da rig regionebsi ufro met nakvetad. Sinameurneobebis teqnikuri arwurvilobis done metad dabali iyo. nakvetebis daqsaqsulobis, samusaoebis araertdroulad Catarebis gamo, ixarjeboda meti sawvavi, teqnika gamoiyeneboda araefeqturad. ikveteboda tendencia, meqanizirebuli samusaoebis Semcirebisa da cocxali gamwevi ZaliT (xari, cxeni) Tu xelis iararebit Sromis moculobis gazrdisa (revisvili 2011). ekonomikuri stagnaciis da industriuli sawarmoebis gacerebis Sedegad masobrivad umusevrad darcenili mosaxlebistvis, wvril meurneobebze gadanawilebulma miwam ojaxebis gamokvebis SesaZlebloba Seqmna. Sedegad, nacvlad imisa rom gamsxvilebuliyo da Car- Tuliyo agraruli ekonomikis formirebabsi, wvrili glexuri meurneoba gadaiqca umusevari mosaxleobis 11

13 sakvebit uzrunvelyofis wyarod da metwilad naturaluri meurneobis erteulad Camoyalibda wlistvis sasoflo sameurneo saqmianobidan mirebuli Semosavali mosaxleobis 30%-sTvis Semosavlis mtavar wyaros warmoadgenda. Tu gavitvaliswinebt ojaxebis Semosavlebis struqturas, davinaxavt rom es 30%-ic ver Camoyalibda srulfasovan fermerul meurneobad wlistvis sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobidan mirebuli Semosavali ojaxis saerto Semosavlis mxolod 44% warmoadgenda, arasasoflo- sameurneo daqiravebuli saqmianobis Sedegad mirebuli Semosavali 26% -s, socialuri daxmareba da pensia 14%-s, arasasoflio-sameurneo samrewvelo saqmianoba 9%-s, xolo 7% ki kerzo gzavnilebze modioda (Gogodze 2005) wlis statistikuri monacemebis Tanaxmad meurneobata 82% awarmoebda ZiriTadad sakutari moxmarebistvis, xolo 18% ZiriTadad gasayidad (saqartvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli, 2005). mciremiwiani glexuri Sinameurneobebis sasoflo - sameurneo specializaciisa da sabazro urtiertobeb- Si srulfasovani CarTvisaTvis xelsemslel faqtors transaqciis marali xarjebi warmoadgenda 3. glexur Sinameurneobebs ar miuwvdebodat xeli kvalificiur agrarul da veterinarul konsultaciaze. ar gaacndat sakutari teqnika. ganicdidnen pesticidebisa da mineraluri sasuqebis naklebobas. marali saprocento ganakvetebis gamo ar miuwvebodat xeli kreditebze. agraruli produqtebis sarealizacio adgilebamde marali satransporto xarjebis gamo, miwaze moyvanili mcireodeni produqtis gayidva ki, xsirad, azrs kargavda. 3 transaqciuli xarjebi is xarjebia, romlebic ekonomikur subieqts sabazro urtiertobebsi CarTvisas (yidva, gayidva, qiraoba, gacvla) eqmneba informaciis mopovebis, transportis, SeTanxmebis mirwevisa da Sesrulebis xarjebis saxit, ekonomikuri transaqciis dros gaurkvevlobisa da moulodnelobebis Tavidan asacileblad. transaqciis xarjebis Semcireba SesaZlebelia institutebis Camoyalibebis gzit. transaqciis xarjebtan dakavsirebit ixilet: (Coase, 1937), (North,1992). 12

14 am mdgomareobidan gamosavali resursebis gaer- Tianeba da kooperatiul meurneobebis Camoyalibeba iqneboda. gaertianebis Sedegad Semcirdeboda produqciisa da transaqciis xarjebi da glexuri meurneobebi SeZlebdnen ertiani ZalebiT Camoyalibebuliyvnen sabazro ekonomikis srulfasovan subieqtebad. sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo amgvari kooperireba ver Sedga, mat Soris saxelmwifo politika arc vardebis revoluciamde da arc mis Semdeg ar iyo am procesis stimulirebaze orientirebuli (nacvlisvili, 2011). garda ekonomikuri problemebisa, sofels awuxebda soflis mmartvelobis meqanizmebis ararseboba. kolmeurneobebis gaqrobis Semdeg adgilobrivi xelisuflebis TvalsazrisiT Seiqmna ertgvari vakuumi wlis 24 agvistos saqartvelos parlamentma miiro saqartvelos konstitucia, ramac ertgvari stabiluroba Seitana qveynis politikur cxovrebasi. mougvarebeli teritoriuli konfliqtebis gamo regionaluri dayofis sakitxi konstituciit ar gansazrvrula. samagierod, konstituciis safuzvelze ganisazrvra adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis Seqmnis wesi, uflebamosileba da saxelmwifo organoebtan urtier- Tobis forma. konstituciis mirebis Semdeg, 1997 wels, mirebul iqna kanonebi,,adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmartvelobis Sesaxeb~,,,saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis Tbilisis Sesaxeb~,,,adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiti organos sakrebulos wevris statusis Sesaxeb~ wlis noembersi saqartvelosi pirvelad Catarda adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis sakrebuloebis arcevnebi. kanonis Tanaxmad, TviTmmar- Tvelobis teritoriul safuzvlebad dadgenil iqna sofeli, Temi, daba da qalaqi (romlebic Sediodnen raionis SemadgenlobaSi). saqartvelos dedaqalaqi Tbilisi, agretve raionebi da qalaqebi, romlebic ar Sediodnen raionis SemadgenlobaSi, gamocxadda adgilobrivi mmartvelobis doned. es iyo mmartveloba- TviTmmarTvelobis ertgvari ekleqturi sistema, vinaidan adgilobrivi organoebi raionul da didi qalaqe- 13

15 bis doneze ertdroulad asrulebdnen rogorc saxelmwifo mmartvelobis organoebis, ise adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis funqciebs (efeqtiani mmartvelobis sistemis da teritoriuli mowyobis reformis centri, 2009). raionebis da didi qalaqebis armasrulebeli organos xelmzrvanelebi gamgeblebi da merebi Tanamdebobebze inisnebodnen saqartvelos prezidentis mier. am inovaciis miuxedavad, mocemul periodsi adgilobrivi mmartvelobis mowesrigeba ver moxerxda. sajaro uflebamosilebebi da Sesabamisi resursebi kvlavac centraluri xelisuflebis xelsi iyo koncentrirebuli. adgilobrivi xelisufleba ganixileboda ara rogorc damoukidebeli instituti, aramed rogorc centraluri xelisuflebis gagrzeleba. ar ganxorcielebula arc fiskaluri da arc sakutrebis uflebata decentralizacia. Sesabamisad, wvrili TviTmmarTveli erteulebi darcnen im resursebis garese, romlebic mati socialur-ekonomikuri ganvitarebistvis iyo sawiro. ar momxdara raionul xelisuflebebsa da raionsi Semaval TviTmmarTvel erteulta Soris uflebamosilebata gamijvna. yvela mnisvnelovani adgilobrivi sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis gaweva kvlavac xorcieldeboda raionis xelisuflebis mier. ganxorcielebulma refomebma ver Seqmna adgilebze is sajaro sivrce, romelic sazogadoebis Car- Tulobisa da monawileobis safuzvelze saerto moxmarebis resursebisa da sajaro siketeebis gankargvas uzrunvelyofda vardebis revoluciis Semdeg 2003 wlis movlenebis Sedegad, romelic vardebis revoluciis saxelit aris cnobili, xelisufleba- Si movida mixeil saakasvili da misi gundi nacionaluri mozraobis saxit. axalma xelisuflebam ganaxorciela rogorc mmartvelobis, ise ekonomikuri reformebi. 14

16 mmartvelobis reformam, miuxedavad gacxadebuli demokratiuli miznebisa, Zalauflebis centralizacia da koncentracia, misi vertikaluri da horizontaluri dayofebis Sesusteba moitana. miuxedavad 2004 wels ganxorcielebuli konstituciuri reformebisa, romlis gacxadebuli mizani naxevrad saprezidento mmartvelobis formireba iyo, mteli Zalaufleba faqtobrivad prezidentis xelsi armocnda koncentrirebuli. Zalauflebis koncentracias SemdgomSi daemata mteli rigi adamianis uflebebis darrvevebi, kanonis uzenaesobis daknineba da demokratiuli institutebis erozia. am garemobas daerto 2008 wlis ruset-saqar- Tvelos omi da mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gauareseba 4. mmartvelobis reforma Seexo decentralizaciis arsebul formasac. revoluciamdeli TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis araefeqturobis gamocdilebis safuzvelze, postrevoluciurma xelisuflebam gaamsxvila TviTmmarTveli erteulebi. igulisxmeboda, rom ufro msxvili teritoriuli erteulebi, arwurvili meti resursebita da meti avtonomiit, mosaxleobis sawiroebebis momsaxureobas uketesad uzrunvelyofda wlis reformis Sedegad, TviTmmaTveli erteulebis gamsxvilebis miznit, saqartvelosi manamde arsebuli 1000-ze meti TviTmmarTveli erteulis bazaze Seiqmna 64 TviTmmarTveli municipaliteti. municipaliteti yofili raionebis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali TviTmmar- Tveli erteulebis (qalaqi, daba, Temi, sofeli) samar- Talmemkvidres warmoadgenda. gamsxvilebis processi sofeli darca rogorc TviTmmarTvelobis, aseve iuridiuli statusis da sakutrebis garese. municipalitetis sakrebulosi Temi gaxda warmodgenili TiTo warmomadgenlit, xolo sakrebulo soflis administrirebas danisnuli rwmunebulis mier axorcielebda wlis 8 agvistomde saxelmwifo sakutrebasi arsebuli ijarit gaucemeli `sazovrebi~ ganekutvnebo- 4 saqartvelosi jinis koeficienti 2011 wels 40,8 procents Seadgenda. იხილეთ: Georgian Economic Outlook. EPRC

17 da sasoflo sameurneo danisnulebis miwis ertadert kategorias, rac adgilobrivi xelisuflebis sakutrebad itvleboda. Tumca, 2010 wels `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ saqartvelos organul kanonsi Sesuli cvlilebebit, kanonis 47-e muxlis `g~ qvepunqtis CamonaTvals (sadac gansazrvrulia sasoflo sameurneo danisnulebis miwis is kategoriebi, romelic TviTmmarTvelobebs ar gadaecema) daemata `sazovaric~, amdenad, adgilobrivi xelisufleba sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis garese darca (losaberize da sxv., 2011). miuxedavad imisa, rom arasasoflo-sameurneo danisnulebis miwebi ertmnisvnelovnad TviTmmarTveli erteulis sakutrebad gamocxadda, mati TviTmmarTveli erteulisatvis gadacemis proceduris gansazrvris prerogativa saqartvelos mtavrobam SeinarCuna. arnisnulma garemoebam mnisvnelovnad Seaferxa TviTmmar- Tvel erteulebze arasasoflo-sameurneo miwebis gadacemis procesi. analogiuri mdgomareobaa TviTmmar- Tvel erteulebze bunebrivi resursebis gadacemis TvalsazrisiT. imavdroulad, `adgilobrivi TviTmmar- Tveli erteulis qonebis Sesaxeb~ saqartvelos kanonis Tanaxmad, saqartvelos prezidents TviTmmarTveli er- Teulis qonebis pirdapiri miyidvis formit gasxvisebis eqskluziuri ufleba mieniwa, miuxedavad imisa, iyo Tu ara konkretuli qoneba sakrebulos mier damtkicebul saprivatizebo qonebis nusxasi. transferi centraluri biujetidan TviTmmarTveli erteulis biujetis mtavar wyaros warmoadgenda. ase, TviTmmarTvelobebis biujetissemosavlebsi sagadasaxado da arasagadasaxado Semosavlebi 2009 wels biujetebis Semosavlebis mxolod 24,7%, xolo 2010 wels _ 23,4% -s warmoadgenda. danarceni nawilis formireba centraluri xelisuflebidan mirebuli transferebis xarjze xorcieldeboda (losaberize da sxv., 2011). SezRuduli funqciebisa da uflebamosilebis mqone TviTmmarTveli erteulebi kvlavac centraluri xelisuflebis danamatad Camoyalibda da mosaxleobis- Tvis ufro servisebis miwodebis instanciebad gadaiq- 16

18 ca, vidre adgilobrivi demokratiis ganxorcielebis adgilebad. gamsxvilebis Sedegad decentralizaciis procesi centralizebisken wavida da 2010 wlis TviTmmarTvelobis arcevnebma kidev ufro gaamyara es garemoeba. mmartveli partia, nacionaluri mozraoba, orive arcevnebis Sedegad TiTqmis yvela sakrebulosi umravlesobit movida. iuridiulad TviTmmarTveli municipalitetebi realobasi prezidentis mier danisnul gubernators daeqvemdebara. garda mmartvelobis reformisa, vardebis revoluciis Semdeg ekonomikuri reformac gatarda. axalma xelisuflebam ekonomikuri strategia ekonomikis liberalizaciasa da investiciebis mozidvaze daafuzna. qveynis sainvesticio mimzidvelobis gasaumjobeseblad gatarebuli reformebis Sedegad, msoflio bankis biznesis ke- Tebis simartivis indeqsis reitingsi, saqartvelom sul male mowinave adgili daimkvidra (musxelisvili, 2011). gatarebuli reformebi sakmarisi ar armocnda vitarebis gaumjobesebistvis. saqartvelo pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis TvalsazrisiT gaeros vawrobisa da ganvitarebis konferenciis 2007 wlis monacemebit 151 qveynidan mxolod 102 adgilze imyofeboda 5. ruset-saqar- Tvelos 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg kidev ufro Semcirda investiciebis nakadi 6. amas obieqturi mizezebic hqonda. globaluri konkurentunarianobis indeqsis mixedvit 139 qveyanas Soris saqartvelo 93-e adgils ikavebda. gansakutrebit uaryofiti macvenebeli mas makroekonomikuri stabilurobis TvalsazrisiT hqonda. aq is mxolod 130-e adgilze iyo 7. mtavrobis ekonomikuri politikis arsi kargad gamoixata prezidentis mier 2009 wels inicirebuli Tavisuflebis aqtsi. mis safuzvelze wlebsi ganxorcielebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Tanax http:// ed%20- %20GEO.pdf 7http:// 17

19 mad, biujetis mtlian Sida produqttan Sefardeba unda yofiliyo ara umetes 30%-isa, biujetis deficitis mtlian Sida produqttan Sefardeba ki araumetes 3%- isa (musxelisvili, 2011). ganxorcielebulma cvlilebebma ukve kanonit SezRuda saxelmwifos mier ekonomikis regulireba da iseti krizisuli dargi, rogoric soflis meurneobaa, sabazro meqanizmebis amara datova. liberalizaciis politikis Sedegad moixsna barierebi soflis meurneobis importze. Sedegad qveyanasi gaizarda importirebuli agraruli produqtis moculoba. magalitad, 2010 wlistvis, qveyanasi moxmarebuli sasursato kalatis moculobasi importirebuli soflis meurneobis produqtis wili 2/3-s Seadgenda (arcvaze, 2010). am garemoebam Seaferxa adgilobrivi sasoflo sameurneo produqciis ganvitareba. imavdroulad, mnisvnelovani saxsrebi moxmarda regionebis infrastruqturis mowesrigebas: daigo gzebi, gavida gazi, gamosworda eleqtroenergiis miwodeba. samagierod, agraruli politika Sors iyo kompleqsuri midgomebisgan da mxolod ertjeradi, lokaluri CarevebiT Semoifargleboda. es kargad Canda soflis meurneobaze gamoyofil saxelmwifo sabiujeto asignirebis raodenobit wels soflis meuneobaze gamoyofili Tanxa sabiujeto xarjebis 1,14 %-s warmoadgenda. 2012wels es macvenebeli gaizarda 1.83 %-mde 8, magram aseti umnisvnelo matebis fonze, saerto surati ar Secvlila. qveyanasi Semosuli investiciebi soflis meurneobas praqtikulad ar moxmarda. magalitad: agrarul seqtorsi investiciis saxit 2010 wels Semovida milioni lari, rac am weliwadsi ganxorcielebuli investiciebis 11.4 %-a. aqedan, mxolod 1.9 % modioda ucxour pirdapir investiciebze 9. calsaxa iyo investorebis, gansakutrebit ucxoelebis, agraruli seqtoris mimart dabali interesi. 8 daangarisebulia finansta saministros monacemta safuzvelze. 9 daangarisebulia saqartvelos statistikis departamentis monacem- Ta safuzvelze. 18

20 am periodsi kidev ufro daeca soflis warmoebitunarianoba. soflis meurneobasi ert dasaqmebulze 2010 wlistvis TveSi iqmneboda daaxloebit 70 ass dolaris ekvivalenturi damatebuli Rirebuleba, rac Sromisunariani mamakacis saarsebo minimumze daaxloebit 7%-iT naklebi iyo. ojaxuri Sinameurneobebis fulad SemosavlebSi soflis meurneobis produqciis realizaciidan mirebuli Semosavlebis wilad modioda mxolod 21%, xolo am SinameurneobaTa agraruli seqtoridan mirebuli Semosavlebis mxolod 28% Rebulobda saqonlur saxes, danarceni 72 % - naturaluri Semosavlebi iyo. Tu am macvenebels SevadarebT 1980-iani wlebis monacemebs, sadac mosaxleobis pirad damxmare meurneobebsi warmoebuli produqciis 45% Rebulobda sasaqonlo formas, davinaxavt, Tu raoden daecasinameurneobebis mier warmoebuli produqciis dasaqonlianebis done (arcvaze, 2010). Sesabamisad Semcirda soflis meurneobis wili mtlian erovnul Sida produqtsi 10. Tu gavitvaliswinebt, rom soflad aqtiuri mosaxleobis ( atasi kaci) TiTqmis 3/5 cxovrobs 11, ufro nateli gaxdeba agrarul seqtorsi Seqmnili savalalo mdgomareoba. soflis mosaxleobis mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad xelisuflebam 2004 wlidan ganaxorciela rigi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi, romlebic wvril glexur meurneobebs saxelmwifos mimart valdebulebebisgan atavisuflebda. soflis meurneobis pirveladi warmoebuli produqti, Tuki wliuri brunva ar aremateboda lars (2010 wlidan es zrvari gaizarda laramede), gatavisuflda rogorc damatebuli Rirebulebis, aseve mogebis gadasaxadisgan. am vitarebam pozitiurtan ertad negatiuri Sedegi gamoiro: man ertgvarad Seasusta glexebs Soris kooperirebis stimuli, vinaidan meurneobis gamsxvileba iw- 10 igi 2000 wels 20.6 % Seadgenda (revisvili, 2011), 2009 wels 8,4 %, 2010 wels man 8,4 %, xolo % Seadgina. daangarisebulia saqartvelos statistikis departamentis monacemta safuzvelze

21 vevda transaqciuli xarjebis zrdas, mati Semcirebis nacvlad. msxvili sawarmoebistvis ki Seqmna SesaZlebloba, rom brunvis didi nawili ganexorcielebinat Crdil- Si, rata meti mogeba mierot. imis gatvaliswinebit, rom meurneobata 80 % naturalur meurneobas eweoda (gogoxia, 2011), agrarul seqtorsi Seiqmna ertgvari ordoniani ekonomika, romelic formaluri, an naxevrad formaluri da Crdilovani ekonomikis simbiozs warmoadgenda. ert mxares iyvnen msxvili fermeruli meurneobebi, romlebic, sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis safuzvelze, mogebis gazrdis miznit, moqmedebdnen rogorc Crdilovan, ise formalur seqtorsi. meore mxares iyvnen wvrili saojaxo Sinameurneobebi, romlebic racionalurad isev araformalizebuli saxit darcenas amjobinebdnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom kooperirebis Sedegad meurneobata gamsxvilebisa da saqmianobis formalizebis SemTxvevaSi gaizrdeboda mati samoqmedo areali, es procesi met riskebsa da pasuxismgeblobastan iyo dakavsirebuli, rogorc biznes partniorebsa da banktan, ise saxelmwifostan mimarteba- Si, rac am ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSi ertgvar patron-klientur urtiertobebsi CarTvis aucileblobas ar gamoricxavda. am oridan, msxvili da wvrili meurneobebidan, xelisuflebam agraruli ganvitareba 2010 wlidan msxvil meurneobebs daukavsira. miuxedavad saertasoriso organizaciebis Zalixmevisa 12, romelic agraruli kooperativebis xelsewyobaze iyo mimartuli, mtavrobam sxva gza aircia. Mmiwis masiuri privatizebit xelisuflebam daiwyo agrarul seqtorsi adgilobrivi da ucxouri investiciebis mozidva wels mirebuli kanonis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo sakutrebasi arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo danisnu- 12 evrogaertianebis elci saqartvelosi per eklundi werda: Cemi azrit araxelsayreli mdgomareoba, romelic saqartvelosi ganpirobebulia patara da fragmentirebuli fermebis arsebobit, SeiZleba yvelaze uketesad gadalaxul iyos agraruli kooperativebis SeqmniT da es aris yvelaze swrafi alternativa. ttp:// 20

22 lebis miwis gasayidi sawyisi normatiuli fasi sagrznoblad gazarda. xolo axali sagadasaxado kodeqsit, romelic ZalaSi 2011 wels Sevida, gaizarda sasoflo-sameurneo danisnulebis miwaze qonebis gadasaxadi, rig Sem- TxvevaSi 2-jer da 3-jer wlidan gauqmda saxelmwifo sakutrebasi arsebuli miwis ijarit gacemis wesi. amieridan ijarit arebuli miwis SesanarCuneblad pirs gazrdili qonebis gadasaxadis garda, 1 heqtar vargis miwaze privatizaciistvis 1000 lari unda gadaexada, rac bevristvis ijarit arebuli miwis datmobisa da sameurneo saqmianobis SeCerebis mizezi gaxda 13. am iniciativebma bizgi misca konfliqtebs miwaze sakutrebis uflebastan dakavsirebit. bevr SemTxvevaSi, miwa, romelsac glexebi iyenebdnen da Tavisad miacndat, investorze gasxvisda. gansakutrebit gamwvavda mdgomareoba im miwebtan dakavsirebit, romlebsac sofeli sazovrad an satibad iyenebda. soflis mcxovreblebma, romlebistvisac Zroxa Tavis rcenis ert-ert mnisvnelovan wyaros warmoadgenda, dakarges mattvis sasicocxlod aucilebeli resursi. xelisuflebis mier miwis investorebze miyidvis process aadvilebda is faqti, rom es miwa kanonit ekonomikis saministros balansze iricxeboda. verc soflis da verc municipalitetis uflebamosilebebi veranair gavlenas ver axdenda am procesze wlistvis kvlavac gaurkveveli rceboda soflis ekonomikisa da misi socialuri da mmartvelobiti organizebis samomavlo formebi. gagrzeldeba Tu ara wvrili meurneobebis Semdgomi gararibeba da ekonomikuri brunvidan gariyva, Tu moxdeba soflis adamianuri da agraruli resursebis CarTva efeqtur warmoebasi, damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra politikas gaatarebs saxelmwifo uaxloes wlebsi soflis meurneobis martvisa da soflis TviTmmarTvelobis Camoyalibebas- Tan mimartebasi

23 Tavi 2. socialuri kapitali, Teoriuli xedva rogorc wina TavSia nacvenebi, sofelma efeqturad ver ganavitara is ekonomikuri da politikuri ur- TierTobebi, romlebic axal epoqasi mas ketildreobas moutanda. Sedegis misarwevad soflis mosaxleobas unda SesZleboda sakutari mwiri da daqsaqsuri ekonomikuri Tu politikuri resursebis agregireba. soflebsi unda Seqmniliyo axali satemo organizaciebi, kooperativebi, samoqalaqo Tu politikuri gaertianebebi, romlebic am garemos sicocxles SesZenda. aseti mcdelobebi martlac iyo - rogorc mosaxleobis mxridan, aseve garedan xelsewyobit. Tumca, mat warmatebuls namdvilad ver vuwodebt. ismis kitxva: ram ganapiroba es warumatebloba? vitarebis asaxsnelad SeiZleba moizebnos wminda ekonomikuri da politikuri mizezebi. sabazro ganvitarebis im modelma, romelic saqartvelosi dainerga, glexuri da fermeruli meurneobebi didwilad wamgebiani gaxada, xolo politikurma sistemam soflebi TviTmmarTvelobis, myari uflebebisa da saerto resursebis garese datova. amdenad, individebis ekonomikuri da politikuri pasiuroba, SesaZloa, wminda racionaluri gatvlis Sedegi iyos. meore ufro metad individebze dafuznebuli axsnis Tanaxmad (romelic istoriul instituciur ekonomikasi dominirebs), axal instituciur garemosi efeqturi funqcionirebistvis individebs akliat codna, Cveva da gamocdileba - anu individualuri kapitali, romelic drota ganmavlobasi grovdeba. mesame axsna socialuri kapitalis cnebas iyenebs. am midgomis Tanaxmad, warumateblobis mizezi Tavad sazogadoebasia. esaa sazogadoebis socialuri struqtura, ufro swored, am struqturis sisuste an araswori mowyoba. swored am struqturis gamyareba an Secvla iqneboda reformebis warmatebis sawindari. Mmocemuli kvlevis mizani am (mesame) midgomis analizia. 22

24 2.1. socialuri kapitali socialuri kapitali SedarebiT axali cnebaa, romelic bolo oci wlis ganmavlobasi gaxda popularuli socialur mecnierebebsi. sakitxis siaxlisa Tu sirtulis gamo, am cnebis konceptualizacia dremde aqtualuria, xolo misi sargeblianoba kamatis sagnad rceba. Seesabameba Tu ara socialuri kapitalis cneba iset realobas, romelic manamde mkvlevarta yuradrebis mirma rceboda, Tu is moicavs im movlenebs, romelic sxva, ufro tradiciuli terminebitac SeiZleba ariweros? sxvadasxva avtori gvazlevs rogorc socialur kapitalis, aseve misi Semadgenel komponentebis gansxvavebul interpretacias. Aam fenomenis arsis analizis processi gamoiyeneba iseti cnebebi, rogorebicaa adamiantasorisi qselebi, ndoba, socialuri normebi da institutebi. patnemis mixedvit, "socialuri kapitali... warmoadgens sazogadoebis mowyobis iset maxasiateblebs, rogorebicaa ndoba, normebi da qselebi, romlebic aadvilebs TanamSromlobaze orientirebul qcevas da amit sazogadoebis efeqturobas zrdian" 14 (Putnam, 1994, gv.167). es gansazrvreba sasargebloa socialur kapitalze msjelobis dasawyebad, radgan is moicavs socialuri kapitalis ramdenime arsebit maxasiatebels: - socialuri kapitali aris sazogadoebis/ertobis maxasiatebeli, da ar warmoadgens individebis, ekonomikuri vitarebisa Tu formaluri institutebis raime Tvisebebis saxeobas. amdenad, is ar daiyvaneba individualuri aqtorebis maxasiateblebisa da samoqmedo strategiebis nakrebze, da aseve ar warmoadgens socialuri sistemis maformirebeli formaluri wesebis funqcionirebis gverdit produqts. 14 "Social capital... refers to features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve efficiency of society by facilitating cooperative action". 23

25 - socialuri kapitali aris faqtori, romelic xels uwyobs TanamSromlobas individebs Soris, Tumca, misi arsebobis empiriulad dadgena am TanamSromlobis intensivobaze dakvirvebit problematuria. is aris TanamSromlobis xelsemwyobi ert-erti, da ara ertaderti faqtori. TanamSromlobis intensioba SesaZloa damokidebuli iyos sxva faqtorebzec, magalitad, individebis ekonomikur kapitalze. garkveuli drois ganmavlobasi intensiuri TanamSromloba SesaZloa socialuri kapitalis simciris fonzec xdebodes, da piriqit, socialuri kapitali arsebobdes, magram Tanam- Sromloba iyos susti sxva mizezebis gamo. - socialuri kapitali, am midgomis Tanaxmad, aris "kapitali", resursi, romelic zrdis sazogadoebis socialur, politikur da ekonomikur efeqturobas. is aris resursi, romelmac SeiZleba "moigos" sxva tipis resursi - ekonomikuri an politikuri. Ees nisnavs, rom socialuri kapitali aris "kapitali" klasikuri gagebit - SesaZlebelia misi CarTva gacvlis proces- Si, ris Sedegadac izrdeba sxva resursebis xelmisawvdomoba, iqmneba damatebuli Rirebuleba (Lin, 2004). amdenad, socialuri kapitalis cnebasi moiazreba mxolod iseti socialuri resursebi, romlebic monawileoben "gacvlis" processi. warmoadgens ra "kapitals", "damatebuli Rirebulebis" motanis Semdeg is ki ar mcirdeba, aramed izrdeba. Tuki armocnda, rom qselebi, ndoba an normebi, romlebic mis Semadgenel nawilebad moixsenieba, "damatebuli Rirebulebis" Semqmneli ar aris, da, am TvalsazrisiT, sasargeblo resurss ar warmoadgens, mati gaigiveba socialuri kapitalis cnebastan ar iqneba martebuli. aleqs inkelsis azrit, dasveba damatebuli Rirebulebis Sesaxeb yvelaze saintereso Temaa socialur kapitaltan mimartebasi. ekonomikuri Tu politikuri resursi, romelsac socialuri kapitali "awarmoebs" aris is damatebuli Rirebuleba, romelicaam cnebas mimzidvels xdis: 24

26 "dasveba damatebuli Rirebulebis Sesaxeb aris yvelaze mimzidveli komponenti socialuri kapitalis SeswavlaSi... socialuri kapitali azlevs ertobebs SesaZleblobas awarmoon is, rasac ver Seqmnidnen [mis garese]... amis sapirispirod, individebze fokusirebuli kvlevebi, rogorc wesi, arafers ambobs damatebuli Rirebulebis Sesaxeb. amgvari kvlevebi ufro fiqsirebuli resursisgan wilis misarebad sawiro konkurentul upiratesobebs aqceven yuradrebas. es kvlevebi TiTqmis yoveltvis swavlobs mogeba-wagebis vitarebebs (Inkeles, 2000, gv. 247) 15. arsanisnavia, rom miuxedavad im pozitiuri konteqstisa, romelsic mkvlevarta umravlesoba socialuri kapitalis cnebas atavsebs (Zlieri socialuri kapitali=efeqturi sazogadoeba), socialuri kapitali ganixileba xolme rogorc sasualeba sxva, ufro marali Rirebulebis mqone resursebis (politikuri, ekonomikuri) mosapoveblad. garkveulwilad, socialuri kapitali RirebulebaTa ierarqiasi Tavsdeba dabal doneze, masin roca sasurveli resursebi, romelta xelmisawvdomoba unda gaizardos misi mesveobit, sistemuri ierarqiis ufro marali doneebis maxasiateblad ganixileba. amgvari xedva garkveulwiladnaklulia, radgan imtavitve gulisxmobs sazogadoebrivi urtiertobebis dayofas or doned: dabali, SedarebiT Tavisufali da "adamianuri", Seesabameba socialur urtiertobebs, sadac individebi nebayoflobiti da SeuzRudavi Tanam- SromlobiT agroveben "socialur kapitals" (habermasiseuli cxovrebis samyaros analogi, (Habermas, 1985)), da marali, politikuri da ekonomikuri, mkacrad regulirebuli formaluri instituciuri wesrigi, sadac mimdinareobs konkurencia da brzola SezRuduli resursebis mosapoveblad (habermasiseuli sistema). pirve- 15 What makes the study of social capital compelling is the assumption of added value... it permits communities to do what they could not do [without social capital]... By contrast, studies focused on the individual generally say nothing about added value, and concentrate rather on competitive advantage in the gaining of shares from a fixed pie. They almost invariably deal with a win-lose situation. 25

27 li donis urtiertobebi, mocemuli xedvis mixedvit, aris mxolod sasualeba meore doneze ufro warmatebuli "SeRwevis", da, imavdroulad, am meore donis mier "kolonizebisgan" Tavis darwevisa. mocemuli kvleva gansxvavebul xedvas eyrdnoba. am xedvis mixedvit, socialuri kapitali aris sazogadoebis mowyobis iseti maxasiatebeli, romelic asustebs massi Rirebulebrivi ierarqiis arsebobas, xels uwyobs sxvadasxva tipis resursebis warmoqmnas da mat CarTvas urtiertgacvlis processi. ekonomikuri, politikuri da socialuri resursebi da Rirebulebebi, socialuri kapitalit mdidar sazogadoebasi, warmoadgens efeqturad Sekruli sistemis Tanabrad Rirebul elementebs. Aamgvar sazogadoebasi SesaZlebelia am elementebis formireba, SenarCuneba, mat Soris ormxrivi gacvla da ertmanetsi gadadineba.mmagalitad, SesaZlebelia ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba socialuri kapitalis dagrovebis gzit iseve, rogorc socialuri resursis (mag. prestijis) mopoveba ekonomikuri warmatebis Sedegad. socialuri kapitalit mdidari sazogadoeba stabiluri da efeqturi funqcionirebistvis ar sawiroebs izulebis meqanizmebis (policia, sasamartlo) gadametebul zemoqmedebas; amgvari sazogadoeba SeiZleba warmovidginot, rogorc qvemodan zevit ganvitarebisa da ara zevidan qvevit martvis procesi. Tavis SigniT amgvari sazogadoeba qmnis politikur da ekonomikur ierarqias, Tumca, es ierarqia ufro metad legitimacias eyrdnoba, vidre policias. jon roulzis terminologias Tu davesesxebit (Rawls, 2005), amgvar sazogadoebas SeiZleba "kargad mowyobili sazogadoeba" (well ordered society) vuwodot. kargad mowyobil sazogadoebasi racionalur individebs SeuZliaT gaaketon Tavisufali arcevani da damoukideblad mii- Ron gadawyvetilebebi ise, rom SenarCundes arsebuli socialuri struqtura, ar damyardes qaosi. racionaluri arcevanis terminologias Tu davesesxebit, socialuri kapitali qmnis im minimalur motxovnebs, rom- 26

28 lebic kenet erous SeuZleblobis TeoremiT arwerili paradoqsis gadalaxvas xdis SesaZlebels (Arrow, 1951). socialuri kapitalis Seswavlisadmi midgomebisa da gamoyenebuli metodebis simravlis gamo, am Temaze arsebuli literaturis mimoxilvis nacvlad, qvemot Cven vavlebt paralelebs ramdenime midgomastan, romlebic mocemuli kvlevistvis yvelaze arsebit xedvebs moicavs. imis gamo, rom modeli, romelsac SemdgomSi kvleva eyrdnoba, axali institucionalizmisa da socialuri arcevanis metodologiur midgomebs iyenebs, aucilebelia socialur kapitals, institutebsa da socialur urtiertobebs Soris arsebuli mimartebebis gamkafioeba. 1. socialuri kapitali aramarto amyarebs sazogadoebis instituciur mowyobas, aramed socialuri wesrigis im maxasiatebels warmoadgens, romelic sxvadasxva institutebs ertian sistemasi kravs. institutis cneba bolo atwleulebsi imdenad gafartovda, rom sazrvari sazogadoebis instituciur da struqturul mowyobas Soris sakmaod bundovani gaxda. daglas nortis mixedvit, institutebi SesaZloa iyos formaluric da araformaluric, moicavdes rogorc TamaSis wesebs, aseve urtiertobebis modelebsa (paternebs) da monawileta gaziarebul rwmenebsa da warmodgenebs 16 (North, 2009, gv.15). Tuki institutebs am ganmartebis Tvalsawieridan SevxedavT, socialuri kapitalis yvela elementi, romelic patnemiseul ganmartebasi iyo moxseniebuli: ndoba, normebi da qselebi, SesaZloa institutebis komponentebad moviazrot. amdenad, Cndeba kitxva: xom ar aris sakmarisi gavaigivot "socialuri kapitali" sazogadoebis araformalur instituciur wesrigtan, anu institutebis garkveul nairsaxeobastan? socialuri kapitali SesaZloa martlac garkveul normebsa Tu qcevis wesebs azlierebdes, magram 16 "Formal rules, written laws, formal social conventions, informal norms of behavior, and shared beliefs about the world, as well as the means of enforcement". 27

29 amastanave is institutebs Soris mimartebebis damyarebis da mati ertian sistemasi moqcevis instrumentadac gvevlineba. institutebi, gagebuli rogorc TamaSis wesebi, warmartavs individebis TanamSromlobas konkretul vitarebebsi. magram institutebis ertoblioba jer ar warmoadgens sazogadoebas; sazogadoeba iqmneba am institutebs Soris kavsirebis formirebit. swored am bolo (Tu sawyis) etapze icens yvelaze metad Tavs socialuri kapitali. misi roli ufro Zlieria iset vitarebebsi, rodesac "TamaSis wesebi" (institutebi) an ar aris mkafio, an tovebs qcevis modelis arcevis Tavisuflebas. amgvar vitarebebsi samoqmedod individebs amozravebt ara mxolod sakutari racionaluri interesi, aramed warmodgena imaze, Tu rogor moiqcevian sxva individebi, ramdenad sando, solidaruli an loialuri iqneba mati qceva. amgvari warmodgenebis ertoblioba, xels uwyobsk onkretuli instituciuri elementebis mravalferovnebis ertmanettan SekavSirebas da ertian sistemasi moqcevas. Tuki struqturulad diferencirebul sazogadoebastan gvaqvs saqme, institutebi SeiZleba iyos socialuri, ekonomikuri da politikuri tipis. masin SeiZleba itqvas, rom socialuri kapitali xels uwyobs am institutebis mier warmoebuli socialuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri resursebis gamyarebasa da gaer- Tianebas araierarqiul, stabilur da efeqtur sistema- Si. Tumca, TiToeuli es sfero (ekonomika, politika, sociumi) TviTonac gansxvavebuli tipis resursebisgan aris formirebuli (mag. kapitali, bazari, sazogadoebrivi saqoneli). mikro doneze am resursebis efeqtur SekavSirebasa da urtiertqmedebasi aseve socialuri kapitalia CarTuli. ase magalitad, socialurma kapitalma SesaZloa xeli Seuwyos fulis Segrovebas soflis gzis SesakeTeblad (am SemTxvevaSi kerzo resursebi gardaiqmneba saerto siketed), an mosavlis ertobliv gasarebas (am SemTxvevaSi xdeba kerzo da jgufuri interesebis Sejereba). amdenad, SeiZleba vilaparakot imaze, rom socialuri kapitali sxvadasxva tipis sa- 28

30 kutrebis formirebasa da mati araierarqiuli integraciis SesaZleblobas azlierebs. gansxvaveba institutsa da socialur kapitals Soris aseve SeiZleba davinaxot socialuri wesrigis SenarCunebisTvis sawiro izulebis odenobasi. instituti, iqneba is formaluri Tu araformaluri, SesaZloa arsebobdes TamaSis monawileta nebis sawinaarmdegod - sanqciebis SiSis safuzvelze. rac ufro metia socialuri kapitali sazogadoebasi, mit ufro naklebi izulebaa sawiro imisatvis, rom SenarCundes (Tu gardaiqmnas) arsebuli socialuri urtiertobebi. Aamdenad, idealuri sazogadoeba aris iseti sazogadoeba, romelsic TamaSis yvela wesis SenarCuneba/gardaqmna uzrunvelyofilia ara izulebit, aramed socialuri kapitalis ZaliT. imisatvis, rom SemdgomSi ertmanetisgan ganvasxvaot institutisa da socialuri kapitalis cnebebi, instituciur normebsi Cven vigulisxmebt TanamSromlobis damkvidrebul formebsa da wesebs, romelta damrrvevi garkveul sanqciebs eqvemdebareba. amgvar sanqciebs SesaZloa axorcielebdes gare aqtori, mag. saxelmwifo; Tavad sazogadoeba, romelic araformaluri gzit zrudavs Seusabamo qcevas; an garkveuli qceva SeiZleba arikvetos imis gamo, rom is miurebelia savaraudo partnioristvis. institutisgan gansxvavebit, socialuri kapitali xels uwyobs racionaluri aqtoris qcevis regulirebas iset vitarebasi, romelic qcevis modelebs Soris arcevanis arsebobas gulisxmobs. es arcevani mxolod instituciuri normis Sesruleba-arSesrulebis dilemaze ar daiyvaneba (mag. nasesxebi fulis dabruneba). is SeiZleba saertod ar gulisxmobdes raime sanqciis arsebobas (mag. gaertianeba kooperativsi Tu gaertianebaze uaris Tqma). amgvar vitarebebsi aqtorebis molodini, Tu ra SeiZleba moyves ama Tu im gadawyvetilebas, didwilad damokidebulia socialuri kapitalis Semadgenel elementebze, mag. ndobaze. arcevanis SesaZleblobis mqone individebis gadawyvetilebebis ertoblioba, CaerTon Tu ar CaerTon 29

31 ama Tu im arasavaldebulo urtiertobasi, ganapirobebs resursebis gadadinebas sxvadasxva instituts Soris. saboloo jamsi, am resursebs Soris dgindeba "wonasworoba", romelic gansazrvravs mat fardobit faseulobas sazogadoebis TvalSi. am procesebsi socialuri kapitali, SesaZloa, azlierebdes erti tipis institutebs da asustebdes sxva tipis institutebs. 2. yvela tipis socialuri resursi ar warmoadgens socialur kapitals: arsebobs vi- Tarebebi, rodesac institutebi socialur resursebs kapitalad qcevis SesaZleblobas ar azlevs. rogorc ukve arvnisnet, socialuri urtiertobebi, romlebic sazogadoebis ert-ert resurss warmoadgens, SeiZleba ver gaxdes "kapitali", anu SesaZloa am tipis resursi ar iyos konvertirebadi sazogadoebis ekonomikur da politikur warmatebasi. amgvari vi- Tareba SeiZleba Seiqmnas masin, rodesac institutebi iqmneba "zevidan qvevit", ara socialuri urtiertobebis veqtorebis Sesabamisad, aramed mati sawinaarmdego mimartulebit. am TvalsazrisiT, sxvaoba socialur resursebsa da socialur kapitals Soris waagavs ernando de sotos mier arweril sxvaobas ekonomikur resursebsa da ekonomikur kapitals Soris. ernando de soto Tavis wignsi "kapitalis misteria" ("The Mystery of Capital") asabutebs, rom ganvitarebadi qveynebidasavletis qveynebisgan gansxvadebian ara ekonomikuri resursebis simwirit, aramed imit, rom danarceni samyaros uunaroba -awarmoos kapitali aris ZiriTadi dabrkoleba, romelic xels uslis mas, naxos sargebeli kapitalizmisgan 17 (de Soto, 2000, gv.5). ganvi- Tarebadi qveynebis materialuri resursebi kapitalad ar gardaiqmneba da ar monawileobs axali simdidris warmoebis processi. Raribi qveynebi Raribebi arian ara imitom, rom dovlati ara aqvt, aramed imitom, rom ar xdeba am dovlatis CarTva ekonomikur gacvlasi. 17 "...the major stumblig block that keeps the rest of the world from benefiting from capitalism is its inability to produce capital". 30

ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN GEORGIAN PARTY POLITICS

ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN GEORGIAN PARTY POLITICS socialuri qselebis roli qartul partiul politikasi ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN GEORGIAN PARTY POLITICS korneli kakacia KORNELY KAKACHIA Tamar pataraia TAMARA PATARAIA Tbilisi 2013 TBILISI 2013 socialuri

More information

liberalizmi da sakutreba

liberalizmi da sakutreba liberalizmi da sakutreba Tavisuflebis bibliotekis krebulis III wigni gia jandieri axali ekonomikuri skola saqartvelos damfuznebeli da vice prezidenti. daibada 1961 wels. 1983 wels daamtavra saqartvelos

More information

Education, Science and Culture in Georgia!

Education, Science and Culture in Georgia! saqartvelos ekonomikuri ganvitarebis saministro statistikis departamenti Ministry of Economic Development of Georgia Department of Statistics!!!!!!!!! ganatleba, mecniereba da kultura saqartvelosi Education,

More information

wliuri angarisi ANNUAL REPORT

wliuri angarisi ANNUAL REPORT wliuri angarisi ANNUAL REPORT 2008 www.tbcbank.ge Sinaarsi misia da xedvan bankis istoria sametvalyureo sabwos Tavmjdomaris mimartva bankis menejmenti bankis prezidentis mimartva finansuri Sedegebi moziduli

More information

saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi

saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi CAPACITY BUILDING OF THE GEORGIAN LEADERSHIP COMMUNITY FOR IMPROVED DECISION

More information

Capital markets in developing countries

Capital markets in developing countries School of Business STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Master thesis 10 credits Spring semester 2006 Capital markets in developing countries A model for capital market diagnostics, with a field study implementation in

More information

saqartvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE OF GEORGIA saqartvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF GEORGIA

saqartvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE OF GEORGIA saqartvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF GEORGIA saqartvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE OF GEORGIA saqartvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli 2014 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF GEORGIA saqartvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli: 2014 / saqartvelos

More information

civilizaciuri Ziebani CIVILIZATION RESEARCHES

civilizaciuri Ziebani CIVILIZATION RESEARCHES ivane javaxisvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University kulturis mecnierebata instituti interkulturuli dialogis iuneskos katedra Institute of Cultural Studies

More information

PhD Concept Paper. winasityvaoba

PhD Concept Paper. winasityvaoba umarlesi ganatlebis samsafexuriani sistemis SemoReba saqartvelosi PhD Concept Paper Tbilisi 2005 PhD Concept Paper winasityvaoba ganatlebis, da kerzod umarlesi ganatlebis reforma saqartvelosi Zlieri da

More information

revolucia martvasi qartuli TviTmmarTvelobisTvis

revolucia martvasi qartuli TviTmmarTvelobisTvis revolucia martvasi qartuli TviTmmarTvelobisTvis anu polonuri gamocdileba sajaro servizebis standartebis SemoRebaSi revolucia martvasi qartuli TviTmmarTvelobisTvis anu polonuri gamocdileba sajaro servizebis

More information

PhD Concept Paper. Preface

PhD Concept Paper. Preface PhD Concept Paper Tbilisi 2005 PhD Concept Paper Preface The reform of education and namely of higher education in Georgia is an indispensable prerequisite for the development of a strong and modern state.

More information

Tavmjdomaris sveti Chairman s column

Tavmjdomaris sveti Chairman s column Tavmjdomaris sveti Chairman s column Dear Reader, As you may agree, it is a great responsibility to lead the agency that protects intellectual property the most valuable asset for any country from the

More information

saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi

saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi CAPACITY-BUILDING OF THE GEORGIAN LEADERSHIP COMMUNITY FOR IMPROVED DECISION-MAKING

More information

rogor movaxdinot reagireba gaeros adamianis uflebata rekomendaciebze

rogor movaxdinot reagireba gaeros adamianis uflebata rekomendaciebze praqtikuli gzamkvlevi samoqalaqo sazogadoebisatvis rogor movaxdinot reagireba gaeros adamianis uflebata rekomendaciebze 1. rogor gamoviyenot es gzamkvlevi am gzamkvlevsi, romelic adamianis uflebata umarlesma

More information

kompiuteruli - kitxva, savarjiso daimaxsovre,? simrera,? TamaSi.

kompiuteruli - kitxva, savarjiso daimaxsovre,? simrera,? TamaSi. dawyebiti safexuris mesame donis inglisuri enis saxelmzrvanelo- diii Sedgenilia erovnuli saswavlo gegmit gatvaliswinebuli ucxouri enis standartis motxovnata Sesabamisad. saxelmzrvanelo Sedgeba moswavlis

More information

Tbilisis saertasoriso kinofestivali TBILISI INERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL

Tbilisis saertasoriso kinofestivali TBILISI INERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL is, rom Tbilisis saertasoriso kinofestivali ukve mesvided tardeba, imas mowmobs, rom interesi sazogadoebis mxridan mis mimart izrdeba. wlidan wlamde festivali ufro mastaburi xdeba da xels uwyobs kinoprocesebis

More information

Problems and Solutions in Vocational Education and Training in Georgia

Problems and Solutions in Vocational Education and Training in Georgia saqartvelos mecnierebata erovnuli akademiis moambe, t. 7, #2, 2013 BULLETIN OF THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, vol. 7, no. 2, 2013 Economics Problems and Solutions in Vocational Education and

More information

adamianis uflebebi da qartuli kultura

adamianis uflebebi da qartuli kultura adamianis uflebebi da qartuli kultura Tbilisi 2004 weli 1 adamianis uflebebi da qartuli kultura avtorebi: levan berzenisvili, zurab bragvaze, giorgi gvaxaria, zaza daraselia, levan TaqTaqiSvili, fridon

More information

ad vo kat Ta pro fe si u li eti kis

ad vo kat Ta pro fe si u li eti kis jeims moliterno jorj C. harisi ad vo kat Ta pro fe si u li eti kis glo ba lu ri sa kitxe bi saxelmzrvanelota amerikuli seria advokatta profesiuli etikis globaluri sakitxebi avtorebi: jeims moliterno Teizuel

More information

(D,{g i j },{R i j }),

(D,{g i j },{R i j }), leqcia III-IV. interpretacia. Sesrulebadoba da WeSmaritoba. modelebi. formulebs gaacnia azri mxolod masin, roca matsi Semaval simboloebs gaacnia interpretacia. rogorc vicit, simboloebi warmoadgenen Teoriis

More information

g. RvinefaZe WEB-daprogrameba JQuery teqnikuri universiteti

g. RvinefaZe WEB-daprogrameba JQuery teqnikuri universiteti g. RvinefaZe WEB-daprogrameba JQuery teqnikuri universiteti 1 saqartvelos teqnikuri universiteti g. RvinefaZe WEB-daprogrameba JQuery rekomendebulia stu-s saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo sabwos mier. 03.04.2013,

More information

4-6 oqtomberi, 2015 OCTOBER 4-6, 2015. programa/program

4-6 oqtomberi, 2015 OCTOBER 4-6, 2015. programa/program giorgi axvledianis saxelobis enatmecnierebis istoriis sazogadoeba ivane javaxisvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti ideologia da lingvisturi ideebi saertasoriso konferencia 4-6 oqtomberi, 2015

More information

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE OF GEORGIA CHIATURA-ZESTAFONI-POTI INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE OF GEORGIA CHIATURA-ZESTAFONI-POTI INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT sa qar Tve los in dus triu li mem kvid reo ba Wia Tu ra-zes ta fo ni-fo Tis in dus triu li wre di INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE OF GEORGIA CHIATURA-ZESTAFONI-POTI INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT avtorebi: nano zazanasvili, levan

More information

Toman s Tuberculosis

Toman s Tuberculosis Toman s Tuberculosis Case detection, treatment, and monitoring - questions and answers SECOND EDITION Edited by T. Frieden WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION GENEVA 2004 nasromis qartulad Targmnis da gamocemis

More information

PSYCHO-SOCIAL VARIABLES IN CHANGE MANAGEMENT: TOUGH TIMES NEVER LAST

PSYCHO-SOCIAL VARIABLES IN CHANGE MANAGEMENT: TOUGH TIMES NEVER LAST PSYCHO-SOCIAL VARIABLES IN CHANGE MANAGEMENT: TOUGH TIMES NEVER LAST Daniel J. West 1 Abstract Consideration of teaching psycho-social aspects in health management education must promote formation of new

More information

adamianis uflebata evropuli sasamartlos gadawyvetilebebis Tematuri saziebeli

adamianis uflebata evropuli sasamartlos gadawyvetilebebis Tematuri saziebeli adamianis uflebata evropuli sasamartlos gadawyvetilebebis Tematuri saziebeli saqartvelos uzenaesi sasamartlo adamianis uflebata centri Tbilisi 2013 EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS THE THEMATIC DIRECTORY

More information

qorqia Mikheil korkia davit WeliZe qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi G E O R G I a n O ly M p I c c H a M p I O n S

qorqia Mikheil korkia davit WeliZe qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi G E O R G I a n O ly M p I c c H a M p I O n S qorqia davit WeliZe Mikheil korkia qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi G E O R G I a n O ly M p I c c H a M p I O n S proeqtis avtori da mtavari redaqtori elguja berisvili The project author and editor-in-chief

More information

SERVING THE TERMINALLY ILL: THE HOSPICE APPROACH TO COMFORT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT

SERVING THE TERMINALLY ILL: THE HOSPICE APPROACH TO COMFORT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT SERVING THE TERMINALLY ILL: THE HOSPICE APPROACH TO COMFORT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT Steven J. Szydlowski 1 Abstract Terminally ill patients and their families have specific spiritual, social, psychological

More information

wyaloba, mzrunveloba da samartlianoba

wyaloba, mzrunveloba da samartlianoba wyaloba, mzrunveloba da samartlianoba saxelmzrvanelo adamianis imunodeficitis virusisa (HIV) da Sidsis (AIDS) mimartulebit Casatarebeli samusaoebisatvis msoflio luteranuli federacia 1 wyaloba, mzrunveloba

More information

gogolaze Vladimer GoGoladze giorgi frangisvili qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi

gogolaze Vladimer GoGoladze giorgi frangisvili qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi gogolaze Vladimer GoGoladze giorgi frangisvili qartveli olimpiuri Cempionebi G EORGiAn OlyMpic champions proeqtis avtori da mtavari redaqtori elguja berisvili The project author and editor-in-chief Elguja

More information

saertasoriso samartlis Jurnali

saertasoriso samartlis Jurnali ivane javaxisvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti iuridiuli fakultetis saertasoriso samartlis instituti Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University International Law Institute, Faculty of Law #1,

More information

gamocdebis erovnuli centris ucxouri enebis jgufig rogor movemzadot erovnuli gamocdebisatvis inglisuri ena 2012-2013 saswavlo weli

gamocdebis erovnuli centris ucxouri enebis jgufig rogor movemzadot erovnuli gamocdebisatvis inglisuri ena 2012-2013 saswavlo weli gamocdebis erovnuli centris ucxouri enebis jgufig rogor movemzadot erovnuli gamocdebisatvis inglisuri ena U 2012-2013 saswavlo weli sarcevi zogadi rekomendaciebi 3 sagamocdo programa 4 sagamocdo testis

More information

socialuri demokratiis safuzvlebi

socialuri demokratiis safuzvlebi socialuri demokratiis kursi 1 tobias gomberti da sxvebi socialuri demokratiis safuzvlebi ISBN 978-9941-0-3792-4 gamomcemeli: fridrix ebertis fondi Tbilisi publikacia ar gamoxatavs fridrix ebertis fondis

More information

klinikuri medicinis samecniero-kvleviti instituti

klinikuri medicinis samecniero-kvleviti instituti saqartvelos mecnierebata erovnuli akademia GEORGIAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES klinikuri medicinis samecniero-kvleviti instituti RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CLINICAL MEDICINE 1 klinikuri medicinis samecniero-kvleviti

More information

Construction of Management Information Systems of Distributed Business Processes Based on Petri Networks and Object-Role Modeling

Construction of Management Information Systems of Distributed Business Processes Based on Petri Networks and Object-Role Modeling saqartvelos mecnierebata erovnli akademiis moambe, t 8, #1, 2014 BULLETIN OF THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, vol 8, no 1, 2014 Informatics Constrction of Management Information Systems of Distribted

More information

Aara - hojkinis limfoma (NHD)

Aara - hojkinis limfoma (NHD) Aara - hojkinis limfoma (NHD) saqartvelos pediatr-hematologta da onko hematologta kavsiri Tbilisi 2007-1 - ara- hojkinis limfoma (NHD) 1. daavadebis definicia: ara-hojkinis limfoma aris imunuri sistemis

More information

foliumis mjavas deficitit gamowveuli anemia

foliumis mjavas deficitit gamowveuli anemia foliumis mjavas deficitit gamowveuli anemia klinikuri praqtikis erovnuli rekomendacia (gaidlaini) 1 klinikuri praqtikis erovnuli rekomendacia (gaidlaini) `foliumis mjavas deficitit gamowveuli anemia~ mirebulia

More information

sporti axalgazrdoba sport and youth

sporti axalgazrdoba sport and youth sporti da axalgazrdoba sport and youth saqartvelos sportisa da axalgazrdobis saqmeta saministros yovelwliuri gamocema MINISTRY OF SPORTS AND YOUTH AFFAIRS OF GEORGIA. ANNUAL EDITION 2012 52 16 8 75 86

More information

ïæïèòïíòì óôäåþïàï åâîëðóäò ìïìïèïîàäëì ãïíï åíàï êîåþóäò

ïæïèòïíòì óôäåþïàï åâîëðóäò ìïìïèïîàäëì ãïíï åíàï êîåþóäò ïæïèòïíòì óôäåþïàï åâîëðóäò ìïìïèïîàäëì ãïíï åíàï êîåþóäò ùòãíò I gamocema dafinansebulia evropis sabwos mier Selected Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (in Georgian), 2004 Volume I This

More information

ucx. s. VI. 3; ucx. s. V. 4: moswavle kitxulobs da igebs sxvadasxva Temaze Seqmnil SemecnebiT teqsts.

ucx. s. VI. 3; ucx. s. V. 4: moswavle kitxulobs da igebs sxvadasxva Temaze Seqmnil SemecnebiT teqsts. 2013 wliს ertiani erovnuli საგამოცდო პროგრამა ucxour enebsi ertiani erovnuli sagamocdo programa eyrdnoba erovnul saswavlo gegmas sagnobriv standarts ucxour enebsi da kerzod, arnisnuli standartis Semdeg

More information

A NEW HEALTH MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PARTNERSHIP: GEORGIA AND SCRANTON

A NEW HEALTH MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PARTNERSHIP: GEORGIA AND SCRANTON A NEW HEALTH MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PARTNERSHIP: GEORGIA AND SCRANTON Daniel J. West 1, Otar Vasadze 2, Otar Gerzmava 3 Abstract An innovative Health Management Education Partnership (HMEP) has been initiated

More information

Nanotechnologically assembled new generation of biologically active nano-complexes in acne and post-acne treatment

Nanotechnologically assembled new generation of biologically active nano-complexes in acne and post-acne treatment A.Sepper, M.Danielov, N.Danielov (New York, USA) Nanotechnologically assembled new generation of biologically active nano-complexes in acne and post-acne treatment Abstract: The article provides results

More information

Recent Trends in Nostratic Comparative Linguistics

Recent Trends in Nostratic Comparative Linguistics saqartvelos mecnierebata erovnuli akademiis moambe, t. 2, #4, 2008 BULLETIN OF THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, vol. 2, no. 4, 2008 Linguistics Recent Trends in Nostratic Comparative Linguistics

More information

The article is issued in the form of presentation presented at symposium

The article is issued in the form of presentation presented at symposium The article is issued in the form of presentation presented at symposium Vasoactive drugs for vasodilatatory shock. A.Muhamed Mukhar (Cairo, Egypt) Here is presented studies of vasoactive drug usage during

More information

aleqsandre kvitasvili (ivane javaxisvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis reqtori)

aleqsandre kvitasvili (ivane javaxisvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis reqtori) qartul istoriografiasi sruliad axali etapis dawyeba pirveli qartuli universitetis damaarseblis ivane javaxisvilis saxels ukavsirdeba. man mecnieruli morvaweobis kredod aircia istoriuli wyaroebisadmi kritikuli

More information

LONDON 1874 DAVIS CUP FEDERATION CUP

LONDON 1874 DAVIS CUP FEDERATION CUP LONDON 1874 DAVIS CUP FEDERATION CUP 4 vtorisagan a n vtorisaga a n vtorisaga a n vtorisaga a n vtorisaga a 6 istoriidan CogburTis soflio m n istoriida CogburTis soflio m n istoriida CogburTis soflio m

More information

III Bienal de Autismo Página 1 / 43

III Bienal de Autismo Página 1 / 43 III Bienal de Autismo Página 1 / 43 A Direcção da APPDA N ort e dá -v os as B oas V in das à I I I B ien al de Au t is m q u e es t a corres p on da à s v os s as ex p ect at iv as com o t em a em deb

More information

milan kundera ყოფის აუტანელი სიმსუბუქე

milan kundera ყოფის აუტანელი სიმსუბუქე milan kundera ყოფის აუტანელი სიმსუბუქე milan kundera yofis autaneli simsubuqe Milan Kundera nesnesitelná lehkost bytí mtargmneli sulxan muxigulasvili redaqtori lali qadagize seriis dizaineri besik danelia

More information

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y and KB rl iak s iol mi a, hme t a ro cp hm a5 a 2k p0r0o 9f i,e ls hv oa nr t ds eu rmv oedye l o nf dae cr

More information

Information about the degrees of academic activity (in a chronological order)

Information about the degrees of academic activity (in a chronological order) Education (in a chronological order) Tbilisi State University Serial number of diploma Г-I N1700028 Date of issue of diploma 28.06.1978 Faculty Level of education high Gained skills Surname Name Archvadze

More information

Electronic Thesis and Dissertations UCLA

Electronic Thesis and Dissertations UCLA Electronic Thesis and Dissertations UCLA Peer Reviewed Title: Music Circulation and Transmission in Tbilisi, Georgia Author: Sebald, Brigita Acceptance Date: 2013 Series: UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

ვუდი ალენი თანამდევი მოვლენები ამერიკელები

ვუდი ალენი თანამდევი მოვლენები ამერიკელები ვუდი ალენი თანამდევი მოვლენები ამერიკელები vudi aleni Tanamdevi movlenebi Woody Allen Side Effects mtargmneli gia WumburiZe seriis dizaineri besik danelia dizaineri nino guruli 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979,

More information

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C J o in t - s t o c k c o m p C E N T R A L - A S IA N E L E C T R IC P O W a n y E R C O R P O R A T IO N I n t e r n a l A u d i t P O L IC Y o f J o in t - S t o c k C o m p a n y C E N T R A L - A S

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN HEALTH SERVICES MANAGEMENT. Abstract

THE IMPORTANCE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN HEALTH SERVICES MANAGEMENT. Abstract THE IMPORTANCE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN HEALTH SERVICES MANAGEMENT Robert J. Spinelli 1, Daniel J. West 2 Abstract Establishing professional identity in the field of health service administration is

More information

ý ý Ť Č ě ý ě žé ď á ž č ý ž á č č Í Ó ť Í Á ý ť š ý ť á ď ý á Ť Ú Č ž á Ť Ú ť ď Ú č č ž ď ď ď É Á ď É Č Ý ď ť É ď Á Ř ď Ť ť ď É č č Ý É ťď ď ž Ý ťé É É ď č Í Í ď á á ť ť Ň Ň á ď É Ý Í Ť ť Á Ř ď Ř ď Ť

More information

W Cisco Kompetanse eek end 2 0 0 8 SMB = Store Mu ll ii gg hh eter! Nina Gullerud ng ulleru@ c is c o. c o m 1 Vår E n t e r p r i s e e r f a r i n g... 2 S m å o g M e llo m s t o r e B e d r i f t e

More information

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d:

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d: E ff ec ts o f El ec tr ic al ly -S ti mu la te d Si lv er -C oa te d Im pl an ts a nd B ac te ri al C on ta mi na ti on i n a Ca ni ne R ad iu s Fr ac tu re G ap M od el B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht,

More information

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew S te p h a n M a rt in S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct OPEN XCHANGE Architecture Overview A ge nda D es ig n G o als A rc h i te ct u re O ve rv i ew S c a l a b ili

More information

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m Symposium on Public Transportation in Indian Cities with Special focus on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System New Delhi 20-21 Jan 2010 B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g

More information

Canta, canta, canta. "Do" - Female Voice Level II. œ Œ. œ J œ œ. j œ œ œ # # j œ. . j œ. œ. > œ. œ. œ. œ. > j œ. j > œ. œ. > Û Û J.

Canta, canta, canta. Do - Female Voice Level II. œ Œ. œ J œ œ. j œ œ œ # # j œ. . j œ. œ. > œ. œ. œ. œ. > j œ. j > œ. œ. > Û Û J. for Southwestern ollege Mariachis anta, canta, canta "Do" - emale Voice ose lfredo imenez arr eff Nevin Vln 1 Ranchera Polkeada q» º pizz arco Vln pizz arco Tpt 1 Tpt rm ao eff Nevin, 001 Vln 1 1 Vln Tpt

More information

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E-

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- EG Z IA B H ER e d it o r s N ) LICA TIO N S A N D M ETH O D S t DVD N CLUDED C o n t e n Ls Pr e fa c e x v G l o b a l N a v i g a t i o n Sa t e llit e S y s t e

More information

T e s t e xp re s s i o n B o d y o f i f E xi t F i g u re 1 - F l o w c h art o f th e i f s tate m M u l ti S tate m s i n th e i f B o d y : L ik

T e s t e xp re s s i o n B o d y o f i f E xi t F i g u re 1 - F l o w c h art o f th e i f s tate m M u l ti S tate m s i n th e i f B o d y : L ik MQL4 COURSE By Coders guru w w w. f orex -t sd. c om -6- Loops & Decisions Part 2 ---------------------------- We l c o m e t o t h e s ix t h l e s s o n in m y c o u r s e a b o u t M Q L 4. I h o pe

More information

online magazine first edition 2009 berkeley club of france - online magazine - first edition 2009 berkeley club of france

online magazine first edition 2009 berkeley club of france - online magazine - first edition 2009 berkeley club of france berkeley club of france - online magazine - first edition 2009 online magazine first edition 2009 berkeley club of france in this issue... The BCF Online Magazine Published by the Berkeley Club of France

More information

Positioning 40 and 100 GbE in data center inter-sw itch l ink ap p l ications and 40GbE PM D recom m endations Adam Carter, Cisco Al essan dro B arb ieri, Cisco 1 m Data Center inter-s w itc h l ink ap

More information

Come stà. Domenico Maria Ferrabosco (Bologna 1513-1574) Cantus. - ta, _e vo - lon - tie - ri M'al -le-gro _e can -to _en. Io mi son gio vi.

Come stà. Domenico Maria Ferrabosco (Bologna 1513-1574) Cantus. - ta, _e vo - lon - tie - ri M'al -le-gro _e can -to _en. Io mi son gio vi. Cantus Altus Io mi son giovinetta Come stà Domenico Maria Ferrabosco (Bologna 1513-1574) Io mi son gio - vi -net - ta, _e vo - lon - tie - ri M'al -le-gro _e can -to _en Io mi son gio - vi - net - ta,

More information

First A S E M R e c to rs C o n f e re n c e : A sia E u ro p e H ig h e r E d u c a tio n L e a d e rsh ip D ia l o g u e Fre ie U n iv e rsitä t, B e rl in O c to b e r 2 7-2 9 2 0 0 8 G p A G e e a

More information

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d.

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. CIS CO S Y S T E M S A c c e s s T e c h n o lo g y T e le c o m /IT Co n n e c tiv ity W o rk s h o p G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile g m o.a g u irre @ c is c o.c o m S e s s io n N u m b e

More information

Enterprise Data Center A c h itec tu re Consorzio Operativo Gruppo MPS Case S t u d y : P r o g et t o D i sast er R ec o v er y Milano, 7 Febbraio 2006 1 Il G r u p p o M P S L a B a n c a M o n t e d

More information

The Efficiency of Open Source Software Development

The Efficiency of Open Source Software Development The Efficiency of Open Source Software Development Stefan Koch Department of Management Bogazici Üniversitesi Istanbul Koch, S. (2008) "Effort Modeling and Programmer Participation in Open Source Software

More information

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 T e le c o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d th e C h a n g in g G e o g r a p h ie s o f K n o w le d g e T r a n s m is s io n in th e L a te

More information

G S e r v i c i o C i s c o S m a r t C a r e u ي a d e l L a b o r a t o r i o d e D e m o s t r a c i n R ل p i d a V e r s i n d e l S e r v i c i o C i s c o S m a r t C a r e : 1 4 ع l t i m a A c

More information

Vocal solo part. Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH MAGNIFICAT

Vocal solo part. Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH MAGNIFICAT Vocal solo art Carl Phili Emanuel BACH MAGNIFICAT Vocal solo art Allegro 1. Magniicat TACET Carl Phili Emanuel BACH (1714-1788) 2. Quia resexit Sorano Andante 5 9 12 2 C.Ph.E.Bach. Magniicat Vocal solo

More information

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r C + + a G iriş 2 K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r F o n k s iy o n la r N e d ir? N a s ıl k u lla n ılır? P ro to tip v

More information

Application Note: Cisco A S A - Ce r t if ica t e T o S S L V P N Con n e ct ion P r of il e Overview: T h i s a p p l i ca ti o n n o te e x p l a i n s h o w to co n f i g u r e th e A S A to a cco m

More information

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner í d : r ' " B o m m 1 E x p e r i e n c e L : i i n g S e c u r it y. 1-1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his g u id e å ] - ew i c h P e t e r M u la e n PACKT ' TAÞ$Æo

More information

Missa Brevis. ,!7JA6G1-aeagdh! Wolfgang Plagge [opus 107] for male quartet durata 8:00. composed 2002 version

Missa Brevis. ,!7JA6G1-aeagdh! Wolfgang Plagge [opus 107] for male quartet durata 8:00. composed 2002 version Contents Missa revis Wolfgang Plagge [opus 107] 1 1. KYRIE 3 2. GLORIA 7 www.2l.no 16 Missa revis Wolfgang Plagge [opus 107] for male quartet durata 8:00 composed 2002 version 15.05.2003 M-66104-063-7,!7JA6G1-aeagdh!

More information

. g .,, . . , Applicability of

More information

Chiron Ephemeris hrs Universal Time

Chiron Ephemeris hrs Universal Time Chiron Ephemeris 1900-2050 0 hrs Universal Time Positions for every 10 days Longitude - Latitude Velocity - Declination Ephemeris courtesy of Zane B Stein zanestein@zanestein.com 1043 St Charles Ave.,

More information

The Role of Social Capital in Combating Domestic Violence. Nino Javakhishvili Maka Lortkipanidze Ann Petriashvili

The Role of Social Capital in Combating Domestic Violence. Nino Javakhishvili Maka Lortkipanidze Ann Petriashvili The Role of Social Capital in Combating Domestic Violence Nino Javakhishvili Maka Lortkipanidze Ann Petriashvili The present study was conducted with the support of the Academic Swiss Caucasus Net (ASCN).

More information

Put the human back in Human Resources.

Put the human back in Human Resources. Put the human back in Human Resources A Co m p l et e Hu m a n Ca p i t a l Ma n a g em en t So l u t i o n t h a t em p o w er s HR p r o f essi o n a l s t o m eet t h ei r co r p o r a t e o b j ect

More information

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 -

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 - E ffic a c y o f S e le c tiv e M y e lo id L in e a g e L e u c o c y te D e p le tio n in P y o d e r m a G a n g re n o su m a n d P so r ia sis A sso c ia te d w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D

More information

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP Pressure Ulcers & Nutritional Deficits in Elderly Long-Term Care Patients: Effects of a Comprehensive Nutritional Protocol on Pressure Ulcer Healing, Length of Hospital Stay & Health Care Charges Beverlin

More information

CERT-GOV-GE Activities & International Partnerships

CERT-GOV-GE Activities & International Partnerships CERT-GOV-GE Activities & International Partnerships Zurich, Switzerland 2014 CERT-GOV-GE Manager David Kvatadze www.dea.gov.ge CERT-GOV-GE - Structural unit was formed within the Information Security and

More information

Collaboration in Public H e alth be tw e e n U niv e rs ity of H e id e lbe rg and U niv e rs ity of D ar e s S alaam How t h e c oop e r a t i on e m e r g e d Informal c ont ac t s from e arly 1 9

More information

Vom prozessorientierten Wissensmanagement zum intelligenten Engineering-Portal

Vom prozessorientierten Wissensmanagement zum intelligenten Engineering-Portal Vom prozessorientierten Wissensmanagement zum intelligenten Engineering-Portal Praxisbericht aus der Entwicklung von Hochauftriebsystemen für Verkehrsflugzeuge KnowTech Stuttgart, 24.-25.10.2012 Thomas

More information

8 / c S t a n d a r d w y m a g a ń - e g z a m i n c z e l a d n i c z y dla zawodu Ś L U S A R Z Kod z klasyfikacji zawodów i sp e cjaln oś ci dla p ot r ze b r yn ku p r acy Kod z klasyfikacji zawodów

More information

PRESS RELEASE Sw y x e m b r a c e s En t e r p r i s e m a r k e t w i t h l a u n c h o f n e w I P t e l e p h o n y p o r t f o l i o t h r o u g h a s i n g l e c o m m o n p l a t f o r m - New offerings

More information

8698 Van hati e 1 2, p er us kor jaus ja muut os pδivδkot itiloiksi. Ur akkat ar jousten avauspφyt δkir ja

8698 Van hati e 1 2, p er us kor jaus ja muut os pδivδkot itiloiksi. Ur akkat ar jousten avauspφyt δkir ja 8698 Van hati e 1 2, p er us kor jaus ja muut os pδivδkot itiloiksi Ur akkat ar jousten avauspφyt δkir ja Ai ka 6. 2. 2 0 1 4 k l o 1 2 : 2 0-1 2 : 3 5 Pa i k ka k o k o u s h u o n e 3 Lδsnδ Ar i Jaar

More information

118% ( n = 5). Th is m e thod is conven ien t, rap id and accu ra te. It is read ily app lied to the qua li2

118% ( n = 5). Th is m e thod is conven ien t, rap id and accu ra te. It is read ily app lied to the qua li2 2010 2 Vo l. 28 N o. 2 Feb rua ry 2010 C h inese J ou rna l of Ch rom a tography 204 208 DO I: 10. 3724 /SP. J. 1123. 2010. 00204 C 4 3,, (, 453003) : C C 4, S inoch rom OD S2B P (416 mm 200 mm, 5 m ),

More information

CERT-GOV-GE Activities & Services

CERT-GOV-GE Activities & Services CERT-GOV-GE Activities & Services Tbilisi, Georgia 2014 CERT-GOV-GE Manager David Kvatadze www.dea.gov.ge CERT-GOV-GE - Structural unit was formed within the Information Security and Policy division of

More information

Doctoral Programme in Public Health: Norway Experience of Third Cycle Studies for Georgia

Doctoral Programme in Public Health: Norway Experience of Third Cycle Studies for Georgia Doctoral Programme in Public Health: Norway Experience of Third Cycle Studies for Georgia Selected Highlights Founded in 2004 in Tbilisi (Capital) by Professors Ms. Giuli Alasania and Ms. Manana Sanadze.

More information

CREATE SHAPE VISUALIZE

CREATE SHAPE VISUALIZE SHAPE VISUALIZE B I M E q u i t y BIM Workflow Guide SHAPE VISUALIZE Introduction We o e to t e r t ook i t e BIM Workflow erie I t e o owi ter we wi o er e eryt i eeded or you to ter t e i o re ti i d

More information

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Oldenburg, Germany 2012

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Oldenburg, Germany 2012 Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Oldenburg, Germany 2012 History of the University Founded in 1918 University printing house opened in 1923 Opened a university press in 1933 Began establishing

More information

CORSO AVANZATO DI NEGOZIAZIONE Un laboratorio intensivo per lo sviluppo e la pratic a d elle c apac ità neg oz iali Scotwork Italia S.r.l. C op y rig h t 2 0 0 6 1 O I m p l t l t z o l N o z n n l h l

More information

Improving Academic Standards in Education Conference ISE 2015. October 29-30, 2015. Tbilisi, Georgia

Improving Academic Standards in Education Conference ISE 2015. October 29-30, 2015. Tbilisi, Georgia Improving Academic Standards in Education Conference ISE 2015 October 29-30, 2015 Tbilisi, Georgia David Tvildiani Medical University AIETI Medical School 1989 AIETI Medical School was founded by of Acad.

More information

88-GLI ARREDI FESTIVI

88-GLI ARREDI FESTIVI 88-GLI AEDI FEII dall'oea "Nabuo" Giusee e Coo Intoduzione oano I Mezzo-oano Contalto eno ass Allego Mosso ΠΠΠΠ(Ebei. Leviti e egini Ebee) Gli_a - Gli_a - Gli_a - Gli_a - ΠGli_a -. e - e -. e - e

More information

Mascots, Mentors, Facebook & Snacks

Mascots, Mentors, Facebook & Snacks Mascots, Mentors, Facebook & Snacks, VP, Corporate Communications, The NHHEAF Network Organizations Facebook.com NHHEAF @NHHEAF SPECIAL THANKS TO OUR MODERATOR: Nikki Twombly, School Services Manager,

More information

The new INOGATE Project Electricity & Gas John Swinscoe on behalf of Key Expert 2 Chisinau, March 2014

The new INOGATE Project Electricity & Gas John Swinscoe on behalf of Key Expert 2 Chisinau, March 2014 The new INOGATE Project Electricity & Gas John Swinscoe on behalf of Key Expert 2 Chisinau, March 2014 BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS FOR ENERGY SECURITY www.inogate.org REGIONAL ACTIVITIES (Seminars, workshops,

More information