SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E-

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1 SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- EG Z IA B H ER e d it o r s N ) LICA TIO N S A N D M ETH O D S t DVD N CLUDED

2 C o n t e n Ls Pr e fa c e x v G l o b a l N a v i g a t i o n Sa t e llit e S y s t e m s Pr e se n t a n d Fu t u r e n t >u d u c t i o n C u r r e n t n n t l " l a n n = d G N SS C o n s t c lla t i o n s G N SS U s e l A r = h i r e c r u r e s C u r r e n t G N SS A p p li c a t i o n s P n s it i o n i n g P c r f o r m a n e c M e a s u r e s GN SS Si g n a l l m ï, r o v c n l c n t s A dd i t i o n a l G PS 1 r e q u e n c i c s Hi gher A c c u r a c y R a n g i n g L o n g e r R a n g i n g C n d c s H i g l l c r T r i l n s [1l i r P [ ) w c r L e v c l s A d v a n c e d R e c e i v e r T = c h n n l a g) C o n v e n t i o n a l lcc e = i v c r s FPG A Ic a q = t l R e c e i v e r s S o h w a r c D e f i n e d G N SS Regi ver s R o a d M a p 1l o w T o U s e T h i s I< a u k F u n h c r R e a di n g 2 0 R = U = w n e c s 2 1 G N SS Si g n a l A c q u isit io n a n d T r a c ki n g I n[ mduc[ i m' 2 2 G N SS Si g n ; 1l Ih c k g r o m l d BO C Si g n a l M o d u l n t i u n " IAN C [ 1LI t S e a r c hi n g ' " > PSK Si g n M s T r a = k i n g PSK Si g n a l s Ph a s e 1 A c k e d 1 o o p (" I L ) F r e q u e n c y 1 o c k c d I o o p (FL L ) D e l a y L o c k e d I n o p (D I. L ) Se a r c hin g f o > B O C Si g n a l s

3 C o n t e n ts C o n t e n t s v ií 2 6 T r a c k i n g BO C Si g n a l 4 2 s B o c T r a c k i n g U s i n R a Si n g l e Side ba n d (SSB) BO C T r a c k i n g w i t h M u h i p l e G a t e D isc r i m i n a t o r s (M G D ) Bo c T r a c k i n g w it h t h e Bur nf Ju m p i n g (Bj ) A l g o r it h m BO C T r a c k i n g w i t h t h c D u a l E s t i m a t o r ( D E ) 4 8 R e f c r c n e c s G N SS N a v i g a t io n Es t i m a t in g Po sit io n, V e l o c it y a n d T im e O v e r v i e w P o s i t i o n, V e l o c i r y a n d T i m e (PV T ) E s t i, m a t i o n E s r im a t i n g R e c e i v e r Po s i t i o n a n d C l o c k B i a s l m p a c t o f l o n o s p h c r e E r r o r s I m p a c t n f Sa t e l l i t e U s e r G e o m e t r y (D O P) E s t i m a t i n g R e c e i v e r V e l o c i t y a n d Cl o c k D r i tt Es r i m a t i n g T i n r e PV T E s r i m a t i o n U s i n g a n E x t e n d t d K a l m a n Fi lt e r (EK F) E n h a n c e d A c c u r a c y v i a C a r r i e r Ph a s e P o s i t i o n i n g s E r r o r So u r c e s G N SS Si m u l a t o r G N SS Si n r u l a t a, M e a s u r e m e n t D e t a il s G N SS Si r n u l a t o r I n r e r f a c e F i l e s P o s t p r o [ e s s i n g G N SS Si m u l a t o r O u r p u t F i l e s G N SS Si m u l a t o r E x a m p l e s T E x a m p l t 1 Si m p l e N a v i g a r i o n E x a m p l e 2 T r a v e l i n g B e t w e e n D e s r i n a r i o n s E x a m p l e 3 W a y p o i n t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g Fl i g h t G e a r E x a m p l e 4 D u a l F r e q u e n c y C a l c u l a t i o n E x a m p l e 5 A d d i n g G a l i le o Sa r c l l i r c s E x a m p le 6 S p a c e c r a f t B a s e d R e c e i v e r S u n m l a r y 3 6 Pr o g r a m s a n d T o o l s Pr o v i de d n n t h e D V D Di er ent i al G N SS A c c u r a c y a n d In t e g r it y I n t r o d u c t i o n t o D G N SS F u n d a m e n t a l s o f D i f f e r e n t ia l G N SS E r r o r So u r c e s a n d D eg r e e o f S p a f i a ] C o r r e l a r i o n L o c a l V e r s u s R e g i o n a l D G N SS C a r r e c r i o n s a n d D G N S5 N e t w o r k s M e a n s o f D i s t r ib u t i n g D G N SS C o r r e c r i o n s M a n a g i n g t h e L a t e n c y o f D G N SS C o r r e c t io n s D G N SS I n t e g r i t y T h r e a t s a n d M i t i g a t i o n s I n t e g r i t y T h r e a t s f r o m G N SS F a u l cs I n t e g r i t y T h r e a t s fr. m D G N SS S y s t e m Fa u l t s I n t e g r i t y T h r e a t s f r o m Si g n a l P r o p a g a t i o n A n o m a l i e s S u m m a r y D a t a P r o v i d e d o n t h e D V D A G P5 So ft w a r e Re c e iv e r Ic e n s c, D e v e l o p m e n t E n v i r o n m e n t s, a n d T o o l s L ic e n s e G N U/ L i n u x M ic r o s o f t W i n d o w s A p p l e M a c O S X D i s p l a y i n g t h e R e c e i. E r O u t p u t E x a p l e D a r a Se t s D a m SN D a t a Se t 2 f a r U s e w i t h N A A S C o r r e c t i o n s D a t a U s i n g t h e U a s t g p s So ftw a r e R e c e i v e r C o n f i g u r a t i o n F i l e O u t p u t F il e s f a s t gp s So f t w a r e R e c e i v e r A r c h i t e c t u r e T i m i n g a. d C l o c k M a n a g e m e n t M a i n P r o c e s s i n g 1 o a p A c q. I s i r i o n T r a c k i n g N a v i g a t i o n S u gg e s t e d F u r.. c I m p r o v e m e n t s Fu r t h e r R e a d i n g 14 6 R c f c r e n e c s 14 6 In t e g r a t io n o f G N SS a n d IN S Pa r t I n t r o d u c t i o n I n e r t i a l N a v i g a t i o n I n e r t i a l Se n s o r s C o o r d i n a t e Fr a 1n e s M e c h a n i z a t i n n E q u a t i o n s S y s t e m I n i r i a li z a t i o n I N S E r r o r h l o d e l G N SS/ IN S I n ce g r a t i o n C o n c e p t s M a r iv a t i n n f o r G N SS/I N S I n t e g r a t i o n I n t e g r a t i o n A r c h i t Ct u r c O v e r v i e w ' " L o o s e G N SS/ IN S 1n ce g r a t i u n T i g h t G N SSLTN S l n t e g r J r i o n D e e p G N SS/ I N S I n t e g r a t io n

4 - C o n t e n t s A O v e r i e w o f Ex t e n de d K a lm a n Fi l t e r (EK F) f n r G N SS/I N S O c a r in n Es t i m a t i o n U s i n g Si g n a l St r e n g t h T i. \ e E" o l u t i o n o f a G N SSHN S S y s t e n r o c a t i o n U s i n g T i m e. Ph a se, a n d D i ff e r e n t i a l T i m i n g u f , ' ' " u Sc n s r Er r o r. I k dc l s 9 3 Xî T x,.. " " M.. U si n g T r i a n g u l a ri o n G N SSn N S l n r c g r a t i o n St e p b y St e p D e t e r m i n i s t ic E s t i m a r i o n U s i n g N e a r e s t N c i g h o r Pr a c r ic a l C o n s ide r a t i o n s N n n r a n g i n p B a s e d L o c a t i o n E s t i m a ti o n L e v e r A r m Pn Jh a t, i li s t i c E st i m a t i o n U s i n g C e n r r o i dl c m t e r o f. I a s s T i n ì i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s B a y e s i a n St a t e Iï s t i m a r i 2 32 o n 6 7 5u n r n r a r y a n d Fu r t h e r R e a d in g 175, 4 I n t e g r a t i o n M e t h o d 23 4 R ef s e r e n c e s 9 4 ] L e a s t S q u a r e s I n t e g r a t i 2 34 o n K a l m a n Fil t e r I n t e g r a t i o n C o n t e x t u a ] Pr o c e s s i n g In t e g r a t io n o f G N 5 a n d IN S Pa r t E x a m p le S y s t e m s = c /n L o w C o s t G N SS/m s i n t e g r a t e d N a v i g a t o r 177 ' ' " " tj o l i 2 35 r e s 7 3 C a s e St. D y 2 V e h ic l e Sid e s l i p Es t i m a t i o n y n c h r o l i t e s Se l S t n c h r o n i z i n g N e t w o r k s h ï o t i v a t i o n G PS a n d R e l a t i v e N a v i g a r i D n O b s e r v a bili r y GN SS A m bi g u i t y R e s o l u t i o n O v e r. Ie w E x a m p le s I n c l u de d O n t h e D V D n c n e fi t s o f I N S t o A m bi g u it y R e s o l u t i o n R F A n t e n n a s So f n v a r e E x a m p l e s D o pp l e r C a l c u l a t i o n s K N e a r e s t N e i g hb o r Pl a t F u r t h e r R. A d i n g In t e g r a t e d LA D AR [N S a n d G N SS N a v i, g a t 19 1 io n I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 2 L A D A R B a s e d T ER RA I N I n t e g r a t i o n M e t ho d o l o g y L A D A R B a se d T e r r a i n R e f e r e n c e d Po s i t i o n Es t i m a t i o n 196 A v ia t i D n A p p lic a t io n s Po s i t i o n F s t i m a r e a n d SSE S u r f a c e I n t r o d u c t i o n E x h a u s r i v e G r i d Se a r c h C la s s e s o f A v i a ci o n A u g m e n t a t i o n S J rs t e m s G r a d i e n c B. Se d S e a r c h B e n e l i t s o f G PS a n d A u g m e n t a t i o n s t o A 1r i a t i o n U s e r s E s r i m a r i o n o f t. E r r i a l V e l o c i t y E r r o r O c e a n ic F li g h t C a s e St. Die s o l T ER R A I N S y s t e m Pe r f o r m a n c ( O v e r l a n d Fli g h t En R o u r e, T e r m i n a l A n d N o n p r e c i s i o n 8 s I C a s e St u d y I G e n e r a l Po sir i o n i n g S y s r e m 2 02 A p p r o a c h C a s e St u d y l l Pr e c i s ; o n A pp r o a c h G u ida n c e S y st e m " r e c i s i o n A p p r o a c h a n d L a n d i n g F u t u r e o f G N SS N a v i g a t io n i n A v i a t i o n G N SS h l a d e r n i z a t i u N e x t G e n e r a t i o n A i r T r a ffi c M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m (N e x t G e n ) Fu n c ei. N a li r y o f A. Ia r i o n A u g m c t t r a t i u n S y s t e m s L. Ca t i o n S y s t e m A1t cmat i vcs A u g m e n t a t i o n S y s t e m p. Rf o r m a n c e R c q 9 2 R F u i, c m e n t s I o c a t i o n T y p e s a n d C l a s s i Fic a t i o n s Er mr B. U n d i n g U n de r N o m i n a l C o n d id o n s L o c a r i a n b y P r o x j n r i t y E r r o r B o u n J i n r 9 U n d e r A n o m a l o u s C o n d 2 2 L i t i o n s o c a t i o n b y R a di o D i r e c t i o n Fi n d i n g (D F ) a n d A n g le o f M o n i r n r i n g A r r i. A l (A O A ) 2 17

5 C. n t e l C o n c l u s i o n F u n h e r R e a d i n g L o c a l T e s t N. It Fl y p o t h e si s a n d Al r cmar i " H y p o t h e s i s P a r a m e t e r s f o r F a u l t D e t e c t i o n a n d E x c l u si o n M u lt i p l e O u r li e r s C o n t e n t s x í I n r r a d u c t i o n J2 T h ( P r a c t i c a l Sid e o f Q u a l i r y C o n t r o l L o r a n O v e n i e w E x a m p L l e s I n c l u d e t l O n t h e D V D o r a n c E x a. p l e 1 A c q I. s i t i o n o f W e a k Si g n a l s ' " ' 1 1 ' I ' ' " " l e 2 F a. I t D e t e c t i o n a n d Ex c l u s i o n. " " S u m m a r y H i s t o r i c a l R e a s o n s f 3 2 o r G N 3 SS/L o r a n I n t e g r a t i o n I n t e g r a t i o n Sc e n a r i F u r t h e r R e a d i n g 3 24 o s Po s i t i o n D o m a i n I n t e g r a t i o n R a n g e D o m a i n I n t e g r a t i o n I n r e g r a r i o n S p a c e A p p lic a t i o n s I m p r o v e d A c c u r a c y f o r L o r a n Ï n r e g r i w S p a c e c r a f t V e l o c i r T r a c k i n y g L o o p D o m a i n I n t e g r a t i o n O r b i t G e o m e t r y C o n c l u s i o n s A n t e n n a D i r e c t i o n Si z e a n d Po w e r M i p a t h Si g n a l St r e n g t h In d o o r a n d W e a k Si g n a l N a v i g a t io n E n y i r o n n i c n t I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 A 9 1 p p lic a t i o n s Si g n a l Pmc=ssi ng C o n s i L I c r a t i o n s R e l a t e d.. ' " s i g n a l s 2 92 H " ; g j 12 2 ] A c q u is i t i o n o f W e a k Si g n a l s F a r n r a t i o n Fl y i n g a n d Pr o x i m i t y O p e r a t io n s ' " " C l a c k St a bi li t y a n d I n r e g r a r i o n T i m e s R e m. Tc S e n s i n T r a c k i n g g o f W e a k Si g n a l s A n i r u d e D e t e r m i n a t i o n Cms s C o r r e l a t i o n a n d I n t e r f e r i n g Si g n a l s H i g h M t i t u d e G N SS M u ï[ i p a [ h M i t i g a t i o n L a u n h E n t r y B A n d L a n di n e n e f i g t s o í Fu t u r e G N SS G N SS 8 1 u. I e r n i z ì t i o n 12 3 A i di n g Po s s i bi lit ie s a n d Su p p o r r iv e S y s t t m s E x a m p le Pr o c e s s i 0 n g I ; a w M e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m t h e G RA CE S a t e <l i r e A s s i s t a n c e , 3 6 S u m m a r y Su p p o r t i v e S y s t e m s f o r G N SS R e í e r e n c e s 12 4 N a v i g a t i o n A l g o r i t h m s f o r D i ffic u l t Si g n a l C o n d i t io n s C o n s t r a i n t s o n U s e r M o t i o n I L 1 N u a p n v c n r g u r 1t n m s " 14 1 I n t r o d u c t io n a n d B a c k g r o u n 12 5 d Qu a li t y a n d I n t e g r it y M o n i t o r in g G N SS S u r v e y i n I g n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n t e g r i t y M o n i t o r i n g GN SS G e o d e s R e li a bi li y t y T e s t i n g T e c h n ic a l O v e r v i e w W e i g h t e d L e a s t S q u a r e s N o t a t i o n T h e D a r a M o d e l s a n d P R e s idu a l s a n d R e d u n d a n c y 3 10 r o c e s s i n g Sm ce g ie s o f G N SS G t o d e s y a n d S u r v e y i n G l o b a l T e s t 3 11 g 35 0

6 u - T ' B a s e l i n e Pr o c e s s i n g B i s [ a t i c S c a t t e r i n g f r o m Se a I c e " " " N1a t h e m a t i c a l M o d e l s B i s t a t i c Sc a t t e r i n g f r o m L a n d 14 3 G N SS G r u u n d I n f r a s t r u c t u r e C o n t i n u o u s l y O p e r a t i n g R e f e r e n c e Sca r i o n (C O R S) N e t w o r k s M o ci v a t i o n A i r c r a f t A ït i m e t r y M e a s u r e m e n t s N a t i o n a l C O R S I n f r a s t r u c t u r e f r o m S p a c e O c e a n w l i n d a n d W a v e S e n s i n g 14 4 S u r v e y i n g a n d G e o d c s y A p p l i c a t io n s a n d O p e r a t io n a l M o d e s A i r c r a f t W i n d a n d W a v e M e a s u r e m e n t s G N SS Su r v e y i n g W a v e Se n s i n g f r o m S p a c e c r a f G N SS G 7 2 t 4 2 e o de s 3 y 16 7 G N SS B i s t a t i c L a n d a n d I c e S e n s i n g 14 5 T he F u t u r e T he N e x t G e n e r a t io n G N SS T h e H is t o r y a n d A p p x li c a t io n s o f G N SS T h L a n d R e fl e c t i o n s e B e n e fi t s o f M o r e Sa t e llit e s a n d Si g n a l s S p a c e c r a f t D e t e c t e d L a n d R e fl e c t i o n s I m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e G N SS I n f r a s t r u c t u r e T h e H i s t o r y a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s o f G N s I c e R n e r i o n s A p p li c a t i o n s a n d t h e F u t u r e S p a c e c r a f t D e t e c t e d S e a I c e R e fl e c t i o n s z D a r a Pr o v i d e d o n t h e D V D S p e c u l a r Po i n t C a l c u l a t i o n Sc r i p t s S u r f a c e Sc a t t e r i n g M o d e l I n t r o d 3 u c t 81 io n O c c u lr a r i o n M e a s u r e m e n t s A t m o s p h e r i c R e t r ie v a l 3 84 s D e r i v a t i o n a f B e n din g A n g l e Pr o fite s 3 85 N e w N a v i g a t io n Si g n a ls a n d Fu t u r e S y s t e m s in Ev o lu t io n Jo n o s p h e r i c C a libr a t io n T h e H i s t o r y o f G N SS D e r iv a t i o n o f A t m o sp h e r i c Pr o fi le s G PS 15 4 W e a t h e r a n d C lim a t e A p p li c a t i o n s R e c e n t A dv a n c e s 39 2 C a r r i e r Si g n a l s M o r i v a t i o n f o r E v o l u t i o n 15 6 S c r i p t s a n d D a t a I n c l u de d o n t h e D V D M a i n C o n c e p t o f O p e r a t i o n f o r G a li l e o 15 7 F u r t h e r R e a di n g N e w M o d u l a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s E x i s t i n g S p r e a di n g S y m b o l BPSK M o d u l a t i o n B i n a r y O f f s e t C a r r i e r (BO C ) M o d u l a t i o n M u l t i p l e x B O C M o d u l a t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n G, O t h e r S e p r e a d i n e r a l D is c n g S u s si o n o f T r a di t i o n a l R e m o t e y m b o l Se n s i n M o d g u l a t i o n O p t i o n s , R e m o t e S e n s i n g U s i n g R e fl e c t e d GN SS Si g n a l s A l t e r n a t iv e B O C (A I r B O C ) M o d u l a t i o n R 17 4 Si g n a l M u e fl e c t i l r i p l e x o n G T e c h n i e o m q u e t r e s y E s t i m QPSK a t i n g t he Su r f a c e R e fl e c t i o n Po i n t L o c a t i o n " D e l I a y a n d D o p p l e r S p r e a d i n g o v e r t h e S u r f a c e 4 03 n t e r p l e x Si O t h e r T e c h n i q u e s g n a l P r o c e s s i n g I n t e r f e r e n c e D e t e c t i o n a n d S u r f a c e M a p p i n g Pe r A f o r m a n c e M e t r i c s v e r a g i n g C o n s e c u t i v e C o r r e l a t i o n s S p e c t r a 16 3 l S e p a r a 3 D t i o n C o e f fi c i e n t s e l a (SSC y W a v e f o r m s a n d D ) e l a y D o p p l e r M a p s R e m o t e Se n s i n g T h 17 6 L i s t i n g e o r o f P r o p o s e d S y s t e m s a n d Si g n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s y G l Bi s t a t i o b a l CD M A Sa t e ll it e N c S u r f a v i a c e S c a u e r i g a t i o n S y s t e m s I G PS n g G lo T b a l C D M A S h a t e l lit e N a v i e Bis t a t i c R a d g a t i o n S a r C y s t e m s I I G a lile o 4 80 r o s s S e c t i o n G l 3 S e a S o b a l C D M A Sa t e lli t e N a v i u r f a c e M o d g a t i o n S y s t e m s UI C O M PA SS e li n g 4 14

7 C o n t e n t s 17 7 Su m m a r y R = f c r c n e c s A b o u t t h e Ed it o r s A b D u r [ h c C o n r r i b u t o r s In d e x Pr e f a c e O v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e, t h e n u m b e r o f a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t u t il i z e g l o b a l s a t e l l i t e n a v i t i o n s y s t e m s (G N 5S) h a s s r e a d il y i n c r e a s e d P e r h a p s t h e m o s t v i s i bl e m a n i f e. Ra t i o n o f t hi s c h a n g e i s r h c d c. c l o p n i e n t a n d w i [ l = u s c o f c o n s u m e r r e c h n o l o g i c s t h a t a r e b a s e d o n G N SS F o r c x a m l, l c Th e s e d a y s i t i s n o r u n u s u a l fu r a u t o m o bi l e s o r m o b il e p h o n e s 60 h = e q u i p p e d w i t h a G l n b a l Po s i t io n i n g S y s t e m ( G PS) n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m A d d i t i o n a ll y s c o r e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e e m e r g e d t h a t e v e n t h e o r i g i n a l s y s t e m d e s i g n e r s c o u ld n o t h a v e i m a g i n e d O n c s u c h e x a m p l e l s e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e m a t e s e n s i n g ï n v i e w u f [ h i s c r e a d, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t m o r e s a t e ll i t e n a v i g a t i o n b a s e d a p p l ic a t i o n s, i n p a r a l l e l w i t h n e w s a t e l l i t e n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m s, w i ll b c a r r i v i n g i n t hc Fu n i r e I n r h e p a s t, r h = g H J. p o U p r o f e s s i o n a l s r h a t w e r e fa m i l i a r w it h t h e d e t a i l e d w o r k i n g s o f G N SS c a m e F r o m a s e l e c t g r o u p A s t h e n u m be r o f a p p l i c a t i o n s g r o w s, SO w il l t h e n e e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o u n d e r s t a n d chi s ce c h r o l o gy a n d h o w t o a p p l y i t A s n e w a p p l i c a t i o n s e m e r g e a n i l e x i s t i n g a p p li c a t i o n s e x p a n d t h i, s g r o u p o f k n o w l e d g e a bl e p m l e s s i o n a l s i s g r a y i n g t o i n c l u d e i n di v id u a l s i n a w i de r a n g e o f t e c h n ic a l d is c i p l i n e s T h e p r i m a r y m o n v a t i o n f o r w r i t i n g t h i s b o o k w a s t o p r o v i d e w h a t w e b e l i e v e i s a n i m p o r t a n t n e e d f o r [ h i s w id e n i n g f i e l d o f p r o fe s s i o n a l s t o p r o v i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l (a n d p e r h a p s, e v e n h a b b y is t ) i n r e r e s t e d i n G N SS t h e o p p o n u n i t y t o g a i n a p r a c t ic a l o r b a n d s O n e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g w i t h a l g o r i t h m s, a p p l i c a t i o n s, a n d t l a t a W e h o p e t hi s b o o k w ill a l l o w t h e r e a d e r t o l e a r n a b o u t G N SS b y do i n g, a s w e b e l i e v e i t i s t h e m o s t e ff e c t i v e w a y t o u n d e r s t a n d a c o m p l i c a t e d s u b je c t T hi s b o o k w ill a ll o w r e a d e r s t o e x p a n d O n t h e b a s i c r h e o r y b e h i n d g n s s s y s t e m s a n d a p p l y n e w i n s i g h t t o p r a c t i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g a n d s c i e n t i%c a p p l i c a t i o n s A s e c o n d m o t i v a t i o n f u r t hi s b o o k i s t h e f a c t r h a t u n t il n o w th e b o o k s m o s t i n d iv i d u a l s r e li e d O n t o l e a r n a b o u t b a s i c G PS a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n t h e s e m t w o v o l u m e s e t G l o b a l P o s i t i o n i r 1g S y s t e m T b e o r y ü n d A p p l ï c a l i a l zs e di r e d b y B P a r k i n s o n, J S p i lk e r p A x e l r a i l a n d p En g e T h e s e b o o k s, in f o r m a l l y k n o w n a s t h e G PS bl u e b o o k s h a v e b e e n a v a l u a bl e r e s o u r c e f o r n e a r l y e v e r y s t u d e n t o f s a t e ll it e n a v i g a t io n a n d w i l l r e m a i n a u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e f o r y e a r s Co c o m e in a l T h e y c o u ld v e r y w e l l b e On a s h e lf w i t h i n a r m s r e a c h o f m a n y r e a d e r s H o w e v e r, s i n c e t h e i n it ia l p u bli c a t i o n o f t h e " G PS bl u e b o o k s, s e v e r a l a d v a n c e m e n t s h a v e o c c u r r e d i n v a r i o u s t r a dit i o n a l fi e ld s o f n a v i g a t i o n a n d G N SS F o r e x a m p l e, mi c r o e l ec t m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s (M EM S) b a s e d i n e r t i a l s e n s o r s a s w e ll a s i n e x p e n s i v e, c o m p a c t, a n d p o w e r f u l c o m p u t in g r e s o u r c e s h a v e b e c o m e r e a d i l y a v a i l a bl e T h e a v a i l a bilit y o f c o m p u t e r p r o c e s s i n g t o o ls a n d t h e r e l a t iv e e a s e w i t h w hi c h s o m e o f t h e s e a ppl i r i o n s c a n be bo t h de s c r i be d a n d tì e n 1o n s t r a t e d c o n v i n c e d u s ch a t it i s p o s s ibl e t o w

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