saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi

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2 saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi CAPACITY-BUILDING OF THE GEORGIAN LEADERSHIP COMMUNITY FOR IMPROVED DECISION-MAKING AND NEGOTIATION SKILLS winamdebare gamocemasi warmodgenili politikis dokumentebi Seiqmna proeqtis _ `saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi~ _ farglebsi The Public Policy Paper Series includes policy documents developed within the Capacity-Building of the Georgian Leadership Community (CBGL) project proeqti xorcieldeba SvedeTis saertasoriso ganvitarebisa da TanamSromlobis saagentos finansuri mxardawerit The Project is funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

3 samecniero xelmzrvanelebi: Mentors: vladimer papava aleqsandre rondeli kaxa gogolasvili merab kakulia Vladimer Papava Alexander Rondeli Kakha Gogolashvili Merab Kakulia redaqtori: Editor: rusudan margisvili Rusudan Margishvili teqnikuri redaqtori: Technical Editor: artem meliq-nubarovi Artem Melik-Nubarov saavtoro uflebebi daculia da ekutvnis saqartvelos strategiisa da saertasoriso urtiertobebis kvlevis fonds. werilobiti nebartvis garese wignis arc erti nawili ar SeiZleba gadaibewdos nebismieri, mat Soris, eleqtronuli an meqanikuri formit. saqartvelos strategiisa da saertasoriso urtiertobata kvlevis fondi 2015 weli All rights reserved and belong to Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, including electronic and mechanical, without the prior written permission of the publisher Copyright 2015 Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies

4 proeqtis Sesaxeb programa `saqartvelos sajaro moxeleta profesiuli SesaZleblobebis zrda gadawyvetilebis mirebasa da molaparakebebis warmartvis teqnikasi~ miznad isaxavs daexmaros saqartvelos mtavrobas martvis sferosi arsebuli problemebis dazlevasi. proeqti itvaliswinebs sasualo rgolis sajaro moxeleta da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis warmomadgenelta CarTvas politikis SemuSavebisa da molaparakebis warmartvis teqnikis dasaxvew praqtikul mecadineobebsi. es mecadineobebi moicavs ara marto Tanamedrove midgomebis danergvas qartul sajaro administraciasa da sajaro politikasi, aramed saxelmwifoebrivi mnisvnelobis sakitxebze sajaro politikis dokumentebis SemuSavebas. proeqti aseve xels Seuwyobs qartvel sajaro moxeletatvis martvis Tanamedrove midgomebis Sesaxeb codnis, praqtikisa da unarebis gacnobas. programas afinansebs SvedeTis saertasoriso ganvitarebisa da TanamSromlobis saagento (SIDA) da axorcielebs saqartvelos strategiisa da saertasoriso urtiertobebis kvlevis fondi (GFSIS). am proeqtis farglebsi GFSIS-is ZiriTadi partniorebi arian SvedeTis sajaro administraciis instituti (SIPU International) da estonetis diplomatiis skola (ESD). programa xels uwyobs sajaro mmartvelobis iseti kulturis Camoyalibebas, romelic iqneba angarisvaldebuli da gaitvaliswinebs qartuli sazogadoebis sawiroebebs. garda amisa, programa miznad isaxavs gadawyvetilebis mirebis sferosi qartuli mmartvelobis SesaZleblobebis gazlierebas, rom gadawyvetilebis mirebis procesi gaxdes ufro gamwvirvale da iyos moqnili garemoebata cvlilebis Sesabamisad. programa aseve moicavs saqartvelos saxelmwifo seqtorebsa da organizaciebs Soris TanamSromlobis gaumjobesebas da saxelmwifo moxeleta SesaZleblobebis gazrdas, rata saqartvelo uket warmocndes saertasoriso doneze sxva saxelmwifoebtan Tu saertasoriso organizaciebtan urtiertobisas. programa xorcieldeba eqvsi wlis manzilze ( ww.). ABOUT THE PROJECT Capacity-building of the Georgian Leadership Community for Improved Decision-making and Negotiation Skills is designed to assist the Georgian government in addressing its governance challenges. This multi-component initiative aims to introduce and reinforce modern management skill sets, proficiency and practice among Georgian public officials. The project engages directly with middle level public servants and civil-society representatives through practical in-service training in policy development and negotiation techniques. Apart modernization of the Georgian public administration and public policymaking, the project activities seek to deliver actionable policy documents on the issues of national importance. The project activities and the policy initiatives will be consistent with and supportive of principles of gender and diversity equality. The program is funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies (GFSIS), along with its principal partners - the Swedish Institute for Public Administration (SIPU International) and the Estonian School of Diplomacy (ESD), is the main implementer of the program. The program will promote a likeminded leadership culture that is accountable and oriented to meeting the needs of the Georgian society. Furthermore, the program aims at strengthening the Georgian government capacity in decision-making, as well as increasing its transparency and flexibility in responding to the changing circumstances. In addition, this initiative intends to improve organizational cooperation among the Georgian public sectors and the country s interaction with other states and international organizations. The program is implemented during six years ( ).

5 narkomoxmarebis prevenciis politikis prioritetebi saqartvelosi eter buziasvili reziume saqartvelosi narkotikuli danasaulis winaarmdeg brzola ZiriTadad gamoxatulia narkogamsarebelta mimart sanqciebis gamkacrebasa da narkotikebis momxmarebelta mimart fuladi jarimebis gazrdasi, ganmeorebis SemTxvevaSi ki _ sisxlis samartlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebasi. qveyanasi aqcenti ufro metad narkotikuli nivtierebebis aralegalur brunvastan dakavsirebuli dana- Saulis gamovlenasa da arkvetaze ketdeba, vidre narkotikebis moxmarebis prevenciaze. winamdebare nasromsi arwerilia narkotikebis moxmarebisa da misi prevenciis mxriv qveyanasi dres arsebuli problemebi, mimoxilulia problemis gadawris alternativebi da mocemulia sauketeso alternativis ganxorcielebistvis rekomendaciebi. Sesavali narkotikuli sasualebebis ukanono moxmarebit mirebuli ziani iseve, rogorc wamaldamokidebuleba, ertob uaryofitad moqmedebs sazogadoebis yvela fenaze. narkomaniis problema gascda erti qveynis farglebs da zogadsakacobrio safrtxed iqca. mastan brzola prioritetulia Tanamedrove msoflios yvela civilizebul saxelmwifosi. gaeros narkotikebisa da danasaulis winaarmdeg brzolis biuros 2014 wlis angarisis Tanaxmad, globaluri masstabit gasuli wlis ganmavlobasi aralegaluri narkotikuli sasualebebi ertxel mainc moixmara 15-dan 64 wlamde asakis adamianta 3,5-7 procentma, anu daaxloebit milionamde adamianma. bolo wlebsi bevr qveyanasi SeiniSneba samedicino danisnulebis narkotikuli sa- Sualebebis aramiznobrivi moxmareba. es xorcieldeba yalbi receptis gacemit, aftiaqebis aralegaluri vawrobit, pacientidan pacientze miyidvit, internetit gamowerit da a.s. narkomania zemoqmedebas axdens sazogadoebis mwarmoeblurobaze, janmrtelobaze. narkotikebis ukanono moxmareba mwidrod ukavsirdeba danasaulis Cadenas. zemoarnisnulidan gamomdinare, aralegaluri narkotikuli sasualebebis moxmarebita da brunvit gamowveuli zianis Semcireba (individualur, erovnul, 21

6 saertasoriso doneze) dreisatvis msoflio dris wesrigis ert-erti yvelaze mnisvnelovani sakitxia. saqartvelosi sxvadasxva narkotikuli sasualebis moxmarebis mxriv Semdegi dinamika arinisneba: 90-iani wlebis bolodan wlebamde ineqciurad yvelaze xsirad moxmarebuli narkotiki iyo heroini wels garkveuli periodit wamyvani adgili daikava sakonditro danisnulebis yayacos Teslidan damzadebuli kustaruli opioidis gamoyenebam wlebsi fartod gavrcelda evropis sxvadasxva qveynidan aralegalurad importirebuli `subuteqsis~ abebidan damzadebuli saineqcio narkotikebi. narkologiuri klinikebis 2007 wlis monacemebit, im periodsi namkurnaleb narkotikebis ineqciur momxmarebelta daaxloebit ertma mesamedma klinikebs samkurnalod swored `subuteqsze~ damokidebulebis gamo mimarta wlis bolodan `subuteqsis~ moxmarebam nel-nela kleba iwyo. igi ufro advilad xelmisawvdomma saineqcio sasualebebma Secvala. kerzod, gavrceleba daiwyo TviTnakeTma stimulatorebma, romlebsac amzadebdnen aftiaqebsi receptis garese gasayidi fsevdoefedrinis Semcvleli xvelebisa da antebis sawinaarmdego preparatebidan. damzadebis saboloo produqtebia `vinti~ da `jefi~, romeltagan pirveli xangrzlivi, xolo meore xanmokle moqmedebis stimulatoria wlebsi Sav bazarze `tradiciuli~ opioidebis mkvetrad Semcirebis fonze, narkotikebis ineqciurma momxmareblebma aseve gadainacvles aftiaqebsa da sayofacxovrebo maraziebsi advilad xelmisawvdomi prekursorebidan kustarulad damzadebul kodeinis Semcvel opioidze, romelsac rusul saxelwodebas `krakadils~ (qartulad `niangi~) uwodeben. samkurnalo da zianis Semcirebis dawesebulebebis Tanaxmad, `niangis~ moxmarebit gamowveuli zedozirebis riski sakmaod maralia. bolo wlebsi qveyanasi mnisvnelovnad Semcirda heroinisa da `subuteqsis~ fizikuri da finansuri xelmisawvdomoba. zianis Semcirebis programebis informaciis mixedvit, 2012 wels TbilisSi, Sav bazarze, opiumis erti `Ceki~ 150 ass dolari Rirda, heroinic imave Rirebulebis iyo, mxolod SedarebiT naklebad xelmisawvdomi, xolo `subuteqsis~ erti abi _ 350 ass dolari. amastan SedarebiT, sagrznoblad dabalia kustarulad damzadebuli stimulatorebisa da opioidebis fasebi: magalitad, erti doza `niangis~ fasi 10-dan 25 laramde meryeobda imis mixedvit, Tu romeli preparatisgan iqneboda damzadebuli. erti doza `jefis~ an `vintis~ Rirebulebac 20 lars ar aremateba. saqartvelosi narkotikebis moxmareba eqimis danisnulebis garese warmoadgens dasjad qmedebas, romelic rogorc administraciuli, ise sisxlis samartlis kanonmdeblobit isjeba. pirvel jerze narkotikuli sasualebebis ukanono moxmareba eqimis danisnulebis garese isjeba administraciuli wesit da sanqciis 22

7 saxit itvaliswinebs jarimas 500 laris odenobit, xolo igive qmedeba, Cadenili ganmeorebit, erti wlis ganmavlobasi, eqvemdebareba sisxlis samartlis pasuxismgeblobas da isjeba 1 wlamde Tavisuflebis arkvetit an/da jarimit. saqartvelosi narkomaniis winaarmdeg brzolis strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis Seqmnisa da ganxorcielebis, uwyebatsorisi saqmianobis koordinaciis, agretve Sesabamisi winadadebebisa da daskvnebis SemuSavebis miznit Seqmnilia narkomaniis winaarmdeg brzolis uwyebatsorisi sakoordinacio sabwo. sabwom SeimuSava narkomaniastan brzolis strategia da narkomaniis winaarmdeg brzolis wlebis samoqmedo gegma, sadac gawerilia ama Tu im RonisZiebis arsrulebis vadebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqartvelosi xorcieldeba calkeuli prevenciuli RonisZiebebi, narkomoxmarebis prevenciis mkafiod Camoyalibebuli politika ar arsebobs. winamdebare nasromis mizania qveyanasi arsebuli mdgomareobisa da resursebis gatvaliswinebit ganvsazrvrot narkotikebis moxmarebis prevenciis SesaZleblobebi da gamovavlinot mati ganxorcielebis alternatiuli mimartulebebi. kvlevis amocanas warmoadgens am alternativebidan sauketesos SerCeva da misi realizaciis rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba. politikur dokumentze musaobis processi gamoyenebuli iqneba kvlevis rogorc raodenobrivi, ise Tvisebrivi metodebi. sauketeso saertasoriso praqtikis gaziarebis miznit SeviswavliT narkotikebis moxmarebis prevenciis sferosi sxvadasxva qveynis strategiebs, samartlebriv bazebsa da sxva oficialur Tu araoficialur dokumentebs, ganvixilavt narkotikebis winaarmdeg brzolis saerta- Soriso da ucxouri organizaciebis kvlevebsa da angarisebs, ris Semdegac moxdeba saqartvelosi narkomoxmarebis prevenciis xelsemwyobi meqanizmebis Camoyalibeba. problemis arwera saqartvelosi narkotikuli danasaulis winaarmdeg brzola ZiriTadad gamoxatulia narkogamsarebelta mimart sanqciebis gamkacrebasa da narkotikebis momxmarebelta mimart fuladi jarimebis gazrdasi, ganmeorebis SemTxvevaSi ki _ sisxlis samartlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebasi. bolo wlebsi, saxelmwifos mkacri midgomis Sedegad, Semcirda narkotrafikis gzit Semosuli opioiduri narkotikuli sasualebebis (opiumi, heroini, `subuteqsi~) Sav bazarze brunva. amastan, gazrdilia iseti narkotikuli da fsiqoaqtiuri sasualebebis ukanono moxmareba, romelta xelmisawvdomoba ar aris damokidebuli narkotrafikze (marixuana, kodeinis Semcveli preparatebi, amfetaminis da metamfetaminis Semcveli wamlebi, fsiqoaqtiuri nivtierebebi). ass-is saxelmwifo departamentis saertasoriso narkotikebis kontrolis strategiis 2014 wlis angarissi saqartvelosi `jefisa~ da `vintis~ gazrdili mox- 23

8 marebis gamo SeSfoTebaa gamotqmuli. angarisis avtorebi miutiteben, rom kustarulad `krakadilis~ damzadeba medikamentebtan kodeinis SereviT xdeba, romelic receptit aris xelmisawvdomi, Tumca farmacevtebi mas receptis garese, `daxls qvevidan~ yidian. angarissi arnisnulia, rom saqartvelosi saxlsi damzadebuli stimulatorebisa da opioidebis stabilurad mzardi gamoyenebis winaarmdeg brzolis yovlismomcveli meqanizmi jer ar aris SemuSavebuli. eqspertebi varaudoben, rom saqartvelosi intravenur narkotikebs daaxloebit adamiani moixmars. xolo sasamartlo eqspertizis erovnuli biuros monacemebis mixedvit, registrirebul wamaldamokidebulta raodenoba s arwevs. intravenuri narkotikebis gamoyenebis macvenebeli qalebsa da axalgazrdebsi dabalia. zemoarnisnul problemebze reagirebistvis qveyanasi SemuSavebulia narkomaniastan brzolis strategia, magram ar arsebobs narkomoxmarebis prevenciis mkafiod Camoyalibebuli politika. prevencia narkotikebis avadmoxmarebisa da misgan gamowveuli zianis Tavidan acilebas gulisxmobs. misi samizne jgufi bavsvebi/mozardebi, axalgazrdoba da zogadad mosaxleobaa, romlebic ar moixmaren narkotikul sasualebebs. dreisatvis saqartvelosi xorcieldeba calkeuli prevenciuli RonisZiebebi, magram ar arsebobs pirveladi prevenciis instituciuri meqanizmebi, anu socialur, saganmanatleblo da samedicino-fsiqologiur RonisZiebaTa kompleqsi, romelic xels uwyobs narkotikuli sasualebebis/fsiqotropuli nivtierebebis moxmarebis dawyebis Tavidan acilebas. qveyanasi sistemuri narkoprevenciis zomebis naklebobaa. narkotikebis moxmarebastan dakavsirebuli ziani Tavs icens individis, ojaxis, sazogadoebis, saxelmwifo doneze da sawiroebs kompleqsur, dabalansebul midgomas. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos prevenciis miznit Sesabamis uwyebata (ganatlebisa da mecnierebis saministro; sportis da axalgazrdobis saqmeta saministro; kulturis da ZeglTa dacvis saministro; Sromis, janmr- Telobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro; iusticiis saministro; Sinagan saqmeta saministro) da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis koordinirebuli, urtiertsetanxmebuli, Tanmimdevruli moqmedeba, risi ganxorcielebac narkomoxmarebis prevenciis politikis arsebobis Sedegad iqneba SesaZlebeli. problemis gadawris gzebi (alternativebi) wamowrili problemidan gamomdinare, narkomoxmarebis prevenciistvis optima luri modelis gansazrvristvis mizansewonilia Semdegi alternativebis ganxilva: 24

9 alternativa # 1 narkotikuli nivtierebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizacia narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis kriminalizacias itvaliswinebs administraciuli da sisxlis samartlis kodeqsebi. administraciul samartaldarrvevata kodeqsis 45-e muxlis Tanaxmad, narkotikuli sasualebis mcire odenobit ukanonod SeZena an Senaxva gasarebis miznis garese anda narkotikuli sasualebis moxmareba eqimis danisnulebis garese isjeba jarimit 500 laris odenobit an, saqmis garemoebebis gatvaliswinebit, administraciuli patimrobit 30 dremde vadit. arnisnuli qmedebis erti wlis ganmavlobasi ganmeorebis SemTxvevaSi, igi sisxlis samartlis danasauli xdeba, rasac aregulirebs sisxlis samartlis kodeqsis 273-e muxli. am muxlis Tanaxmad, sisxlis samartlis danasauls warmoadgens amgvari qmedebistvis administraciul saxdelsefardebuli an am danasaulistvis nasamartlevi piris mier piradi moxmarebistvis narkotikuli sasualebis, misi analogis an prekursoris mcire odenobit ukanonod damzadeba, SeZena, Senaxva anda eqimis danisnulebis garese ukanonod moxmareba. sssk-is 260-e muxlit ki narkotikuli sasualebis, misi analogis an prekursoris ukanono damzadeba, warmoeba, SeZena, Senaxva, gadazidva, gadagzavna an gasareba isjeba Tavisuflebis arkvetit TerTmet wlamde vadit. narkotikuli nivtierebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizacia gulisxmobs, rom narkotikebis piradi moxmareba ar unda iyos sisxlis samartlis danasauli da unda gauqmdes narkotikuli danasaulistvis sasjelis saxit Tavisuflebis arkve- Ta. sisxlis samartlis pasuxismgebloba xels uslis narkodamokidebulis resocializacias, vinaidan cixidan gamosul adamians aqvs nasamartleoba da es mas kidev ufro urtulebs cxovrebas, magalitad, samsaxuris dawyebas. Sesabamisad, igi sazogadoebistvis ufro met sasisroebas warmoadgens, vidre im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki is sazogadoebriv cxovrebasi CaerTveboda. evropis bevr qveyanasi, rodesac narkotikebis piradi moxmareba ar aris dakav- Sirebuli mis gayidvastan an sxva raime damamzimebel garemoebastan, sasamartlo xelisufleba Tavs aridebs narkotikebis momxmareblebistvis patimrobis sasjelis gamoyenebas da nacvlad amisa upiratesoba eniweba administraciul, samedicino da sazogadoebrivi xasiatis RonisZiebebs. espanetsa da luqsemburgsi narkotikebis piradi moxmareba akrzalulia sazogadoebriv adgilebsi da isjeba mxolod administraciuli sasjelit. irlandiasa da did britanetsi kanoni oficialurad krzalavs opiumis preparatebis gamoyenebas, magram narkotikebis gamoyeneba `per se~ 1 ar aris dasjadi. am mxriv sainteresoa portugaliis gamocdileba, romelmac mis winase mdgari gamowvevebis sapasuxod axleburi narkopolitika SeimuSava. portugaliasi 90-1 iuridiuli cneba, romelic gansazrvravs piris mier narkotikuli sasualebis gamoyenebas piradi moxmarebis miznit da ganasxvavebs mas sxva kanonsawinaarmdego qmedebebisgan, rogoricaa, magalitad, Senaxva, warmoeba, gadazidva an gaiydva. 25

10 iani wlebis dasawyissi uprecedentod marali iyo narkotikebis momxmarebelta ricxvi. eqspertebi miicnevdnen, rom cixe axdenda narkomanta izolacias da metad artulebda mati socialuri reintegraciis process, amastan, ar amcirebda narkotikuli danasaulis macvenebels. dekriminalizaciis Semdeg portugaliasi piris narkotikuli zemoqmedebis qves yofnis an narkotikebis mcire raodenobit (arasarealizeacio miznit) armocenis SemTxvevaSi, es piri waredgineba specialurad Seqmnil e.w. gadarwmunebis komitets, narkotiks ki CamoarTmeven. komitetis wevrebi esaubrebian mas. komiteti, romelsac garkveuli msubuqi sanqciebis gamoyenebis uflebamosileba aqvs, dakompleqtebulia socialuri musakit, iuristita da fsiqiatrit, romlebic pirtan individualuri midgomis safuzvelze ireben gadawyvetilebas samartaldamrrvevis mimart sanqciis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb: jarima 25-dan 150 evromde, Tanamdebobisa da saqmianobis uflebis CamorTmeva, garkveul adgilebsi (gasartobi centrebi da a.s.) Sesvlis akrzalva, ucxoetsi gamgzavrebis SezRudva. narkotikebze damokidebuli adamiani SeiZleba CarTon sareabilitacio programasi an daekisros sazogadoebisatvis sasargeblo Sroma. komitets ar SeuZlia pirs daunisnos izulebiti mkurnaloba an daakisros sazogadoebisatvis sasargeblo Sroma, misi gadawyvetilebebi sarekomendacio xasiatisaa da nebayoflobit sruldeba. nebayoflobit mkurnalobis SemTxvevaSi sanqciebi Cerdeba. dekriminalizaciis Sedegebi dadebiti armocnda: narkotikuli danasaulis mimart midgomis Secvlam met-naklebad Seamcira rogorc daavadebebi, aseve narkomanta raodenoba wels kvlevitma centrma `Cato Institute -is monacemebi gamoaqveyna, romlis mixedvitac, kanonis mirebidan 5 wlis manzilze mnisvnelovnad Semcirda narkodanasauli mozardebsi; Tavisuflebis arkvetis saxit gatvaliswinebuli sasjeli Terapiam Caanacvla; cixeebsi gacilebit Semcirda narkodamokidebulta ricxvi; warmatebuli armocnda narkodamokidebulebisagan gatavisuflebis organo, e.w. gadarwmunebis komiteti, romelic ara iusticiis saministros, aramed jandacvis saministros daqvemdebarebasia da sadac mosamartle da policia ar aris CarTuli. mis winase yovelwliurad sasualod 7500 adamiani warsdgeba. saqartvelos SemTxvevaSi sawiroa SemuSavdes narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizaciis Sesaxeb kanonproeqti. narkomomxmareblebs gankurnebisa da sazogadoebasi integraciis ufro meti Sansi miecemat, vidre amas sapatimrodan gamosulebi moaxerxeben. didi albatobit, dekriminalizaciis Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxdeba e.w. farul narkomomxmareblebis wvdoma, romeltac ar aqvt kontaqti jandacvis sferostan. faruli narkomomxmareblebi safrtxesi arian ara mxolod imitom, rom Tavad SeiZleba daavaddnen SidsiT an С-hepatitiT, aramed aseve safrtxes uqmnian mtel sazogadoebasac. 26

11 dekriminalizaciis paralelurad aucilebelia pirveladi prevenciis zomebis mireba skolis asakidan mozardebtan da Semdegom umarles saswavleblebsi studentebtan narkotikebis Temaze aqtiuri musaoba unda ganxorcieldes, rata penitencialuri sistemis mimart SiSi narkotikebis moxmarebis ertaderti Semakavebeli faqtori ar iyos. prevenciuli saganmanatleblo aqtivobebi farto da yovlismomcveli unda iyos. saswavlo dawesebulebebsi moswavleebisa da studentebistvis permanentulad unda Catardes Sexvedrebi, sadac miwodebuli informacia unda iyos amomwuravi da ara mxolod negatiuri Sedegebis Cvenebaze orientirebuli. antinarkotikuli saswavlo programa ganatlebis principebs unda emyarebodes, ris Sedegadac axalgazrdebi gadawyvetilebis mirebas informaciis safuzvelze SesZleben. alternativa # 2 narkotikuli nivtierebis piradi moxmarebis liberalizacia narkologiuri daxmarebis Sesaxeb saqartvelos kanoni moicavs ukanono mflobelobidan an brunvidan amorebuli narkotikuli sasualebebisa da fsiqotropuli nivtierebebis mcire, didi da gansakutrebit didi odenobebis nusxas. Sesabamisad, nusxasi nivtierebebs aqvt miniwebuli sakutari mcire, didi da gansakutrebt didi odenoba. magalitad, opiumis nayenis mcire odenoba aris 0.3 gr., didi _ 3 gr., gansakutrebit didi _ 30 gr.; piri, 0.3 gr. heroinis armocenis SemTxvevaSi, pirvel jerze pasuxisgebasi miecema administraciuli kodeqsis 45-e muxlis mixedvit, xolo ganmeorebit armocenis SemTxvevaSi _ sisxlis samartlis kodeqsis 273-e muxlit. narkotikuli nivtierebis piradi moxmarebis liberalizaciasi vgulisxmobt ukanono mflobelobidan an brunvidan amorebuli narkotikuli sasualebebisa da fsiqotropuli nivtierebebis mcire odenobis gazrdas da masze sasjelis vadis Semcirebas. aqedan gamomdinare, meore alternativis ganxorcielebisatvis sawiroa cvli lebebi Sevides `narkotikuli sasualebebis, fsiqotropuli nivtierebebis, prekursorebisa da narkologiuri daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ kanonsi. kerzod, 1) gaizardos zogierti nivtierebis mcire odenoba. 2) moqmedi kanonmdeblobit ar aris gansazrvruli mravali narkotikuli sasualebis (magalitad, eqstazis (MDMA)) mcire odenoba da, Sesabamisad, am narkotikebis nebismieri odenoba, romelic SeiZleba armoacndes adamians, kvalificirdeba, rogorc didi odenoba, rac sisxlis samartlis kodeqsis 260-e muxlit isjeba da Tavisuflebis arkvetas vadit 11 wlamde itvaliswinebs. narkotikuli nivtierebis piradi moxmarebis liberalizaciis paralelurad aucilebelia pirvel alternativasi arnisnuli aqtiuri saganmanatleblo RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba. 27

12 alternativa # 3 `status-kvo~ e.w. nulovani alternativa gulisxmobs arsebuli mdgomareobis ucvlelad SenarCunebas. arsebuli mdgomareoba ki Semdegia: qveyanasi aqcenti ufro metad narkotikuli nivtierebis aralegalur brunvastan dakavsirebuli danasaulis gamovlenasa da arkvetaze ketdeba, vidre narkotikebis moxmarebis prevenciaze. xorcieldeba narkomaniis winaarmdeg brzolis wlebis samoqmedo gegmit gatvaliswinebuli aqtivobebi: axali fsiqoaqtiuri nivtierebebis miwodebis Semcirebis miznit SemuSavda axal fsiqoaqtiur nivtierebebtan dakavsirebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis paketi, romlis mixedvitac moxda qimiur naertta klasebis kriminalizacia; `saaftiaqo narkomaniis~ dasazlevad saqartvelos Sinagan saqmeta saministrom da saqartvelos Sromis, janmrtelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministrom SeimuSaves sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi, romlis mixedvitac kriminalizebul iqna kodeinis, efedrinis, norefedrinisa da fsevdoefedrinis Semcveli kombinirebuli samkurnalo sasualebebis aralegaluri brunva; Tbilisis saertasoriso aeroportsi daiwyo kinologiuri proeqti, romlis mizania narkotikebis aralegaluri brunvis arkveta. proeqtis farglebsi Sinagan saqmeta da finansta saministros warmomadgenlebisgan Seqmnilia operatiuli danayofi, romelic aeroportsi narkotikuli sasualebebis armocenis sakitxebze samomsaxureo ZaRlebTan ertad musaobs; narkotikul danasaultan brzolis efeqturobis gazrdistvis mimdinareobs Sssis TanamSromelTa kvalifikaciis amarleba. am miznit isini sxvadasxva treningsi ireben monawileobas. narkomoxmarebis prevenciis calkeul aqts warmoadgens Sss-is mier Catarebuli antinarkotikuli sainformacio kampaniebi wlis martidan, sazogadoebasi narkotikebis da fsiqotropuli nivtierebebis avadmoxmarebis sakitxze cnobierebis gazrdisa da mosaxleobasi jansari wesis popularizaciis miznit, Sss-m daiwyo antinarkotikuli kampania `ara _ bionarkotiks~. antinarkotikuli kampaniis farglebsi Sss ministri da saministros sxva warmomadgenlebi, jandacvis sferos warmomadgenlebtan ertad, skolebsa da universitetebsi xvdebian axalgazrdebs. isini mat acnoben rogorc narkotikebis aralegalur brunvastan dakavsirebul samartlebriv Sedegebs, aseve narkotikebis moxmarebis negatiur gavlenas adamianis sicocxlesa da janmrtelobaze. upiratesi alternativis SesarCevad ganvixilot warmodgenili alternativebis mosalodneli Sedegebis matrica, multifaqtoruli analizi e.w. `gestimeitis~ metodit (ix. cxrili # 1). 28

13 cxrili # 1 alternativebis mosalodneli Sedegebis matrica, multifaqtoruli analizi e. w.,,gestimeitis~ metodit (skala 1-5-mde) kriteriumebi narkomomxmarebelta raodenobis Semcireba narkotikebis moxmarebis dawyebis macveneblis Semcireba narkotikebis moxmarebit sazogadoebistvis miyenebuli zianis Semcireba narkomomxmarebelta resocializaciis macveneblis zrda ganxorcielebis vadebi sul ranjireba (%) alternativa alternativa ,5 28,5 alternativa , ,5 rogorc matricidan Cans, narkomoxmarebis prevenciistvis pirvel alternativas aqvs Sedegianobis yvelaze marali macvenebeli. rekomendaciebi winamdebare nasromsi analizis safuzvelze sami alternatiuli modelidan upiratesad SevarCieT pirveli narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizacia. SerCeuli alternativis gansaxorcieleblad rekomendebulia gadaidgas Semdegi nabijebi: Seiqmnas eqspertebit da Sesabamisi uwyebebis warmomadgenlebit dakompleqtebuli jgufi, romelic detalurad Seiswavlis narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizaciis evropul gamocdilebas. evropul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobit SemuSavdes kanonproeqti, romlis mixedvitac moxdeba narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizacia. narkotikuli nivtierebebis moxmarebisa da narkotikuli danasaulis prevenciis miznit saswavlo dawesebulebebsi gaaqtiurdes da metad intensiuri gaxdes saganmanatleblo aqtivobebi. jandacvis saministros Sesabamisma struqturebma gazardon samkurnalo, rogorc fsiqosocialuri, ise farmakologiuri tipis programebis raodenoba. 29

14 narkodamokidebuli pirebis mkurnalobasi unda moiazrebodes iseti servisi, romelic narkodamokidebulebis Semcirebasa da pirta sazogadoebasi reintegracias emsaxureba. narkotikul danasaulebebtan brzolisatvis moxdes samartaldamcav organota institucionaluri gazliereba da TanamSromelTa kvalifikaciis amarleba. sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis amarlebis kutxit mediasasualebebma gaagrzelon zemoarnisnul Tematikaze videorgolebis gasveba da gadacemebis momzadeba. garrmavdes TanamSromloba iusticiis, Sinagan saqmeta, jandacvis, ganatlebis da mecnierebis, sportisa da axalgazrdobis saministroebsa da aseve narkotikebis Tematikaze momusave arasamtavrobo organizaciebs Soris. daskvna narkomaniis efeqtiani saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi kontroli SesaZlebeli gaxdeba mxolod kompleqsuri, Tanmimdevruli da dabalansebuli antinarkotikuli politikit, romlis umtavresi Semadgeneli nawilic iqneba prevencia. iqidan gamomdinare, rom prevenciuli saqmianoba narkotikebis avadmoxmarebisa da misgan gamowveuli zianis Tavidan acilebas gulisxmobs, man bavsvs/axalgazrdas/ moqalaqes unda misces jansari cxovrebis wesis sasargeblod arcevanis gaketebis satanado codna. prevenciuli midgoma unda efuznebodes ara akrzalvebsa da dasjis SiSs, aramed arcevanis gaketebis SesaZleblobis Seqmnas. Sesabamisad, skolebsi Camoyalibebuli prevenciis erovnuli programebi da narkotikebis piradi moxmarebis dekriminalizacia sauketeso gza iqneba saqartvelosi narkomoxmarebis pirveladi da meoradi prevenciisa da narkomoxmarebaze motxovnis Semcirebis- Tvis. narkotikebze motxovnis Semcireba gamoiwvevs: narkotikebis moxmarebis dawyebis Semcirebas; narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis Semcirebas; narkomaniit daavadebul pirta ricxvis Semcirebas; narkotikebis moxmarebit gamowveuli sikvdilianobis Semcirebas; narkotikebis moxmarebit gamowveuli gartulebebis Semcirebas; narkotikebtan dakavsirebuli problemebis gadawyvetaze finansuri da socialuri danaxarjebis Semcirebas; narkotikebis moxmarebit sazogadoebistvis miyenebuli zianis Semcirebas. 30

15 bibliografia 1. saqartvelos Sinagan saqmeta saministros 2014 wlis ganvitarebis strategia 2. narkomaniis winaarmdeg brzolis saxelmwifo strategia, narkotikebis moxmareba saqartvelosi, zianis Semcirebis saqartvelos qseli, saqartvelos narkopolitikis samoqmedo gegma mkurnalobisa da riskis minimizaciis sferosi wlebistvis, jozef radimecki, davit otiasvili, vano cercvaze 5. narkotikuli sasualebebis kontroli saqartvelosi: narkotestireba da narkotikebis moxmarebis Semcireba? davit otiasvili, peter sarosi, gabor l. samogia 6. narkovitareba saqartvelosi 2012, wliuri angarisi, `alternative jorjia~ 7. World Drug Report, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Country Report: Georgia, 2014 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Departments of State 9. Drug policy profiles, Country overview: Georgia, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 10. Taking Control: Pathways to Drugs That Work, Global Commission on Drug Policy, The Negative Impact of the War on Drugs on Public Health: The Hidden Hepatitis C Epidemic, Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy, The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS: How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic, Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy,

16 Eter Buziashvili Senior Inspector Division of Monitoring and Analysis of the Occupied Territories Analytical Main Division, Information-Analytical Department Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia Priorities of Drug Abuse Prevention Policies in Georgia SUMMARY The fight against drug crime in Georgia is mainly manifested in toughening the sanctions against drug dealers, increasing the penalties for drug users and, in the cases of repeated use, instituting criminal proceedings against them. The main focus is on exposing and eliminating the crime related to illegal trade in narcotic substances rather than on preventing drug use. The public policy paper describes the problems existing in the country in regard to the use of drugs as well as their prevention, it overviews alternative solutions and provides recommendations for the implementation of best alternatives. 84

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