Prentice Hall Biology: Exploring Life 2004 Correlated to: Idaho Department of Education Course of Study: Biology Grades (9 12)

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1 Block 1: Applications of Biological Study To introduce methods of collecting and analyzing data the foundations of science. This block should be infused throughout the curriculum and not taught as an individual unit. Standard: : Understand scientific inquiry and develop critical thinking skills a: b: c: d: e: f: g: Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations. Design and conduct scientific investigations. Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communication. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. Communicate and defend a scientific argument. Know the differences among observations, hypotheses, and theories. SE/TE: 4-9, TECH: OA- Highlight Biology Themes SE/TE: TECH: Skills Activity-Conducting a Scientific Investigation TECH: Guided Research Labs: 1- Escape Behavior in Blackworms; 2- Cellular Respiration in Fast Plants; 3- Inheritance Patterns in Plants; 4- Diversity in Soil Invertebrates TECH: Online Collaborative Science Labs: 1- Exploring Yawning Behavior; 2- Exploring Patterns in Leaf Stomata; 3- Exploring Cardiorespiratory Fitness; 4- Exploring Lawn Diversity TECH: Skills Activity- Math Review SE/TE: 37-39, 819 OA: 2.3- Help Recreate a Famous Scientific Model SE/TE: 37-38, 231 SE/TE: 35 TECH: Science Technology & Society- Scientific Collaboration on the Internet SE/TE: OA: 2.2- Form a Hypothesis 1

2 Standard: : Understand systems, order, and organization a: Know the scientific meaning and application of the concepts of system, order, and organization. SE/TE: 11, OA: Build a Cladogram TECH: Skills Activity- Graphing Standard: : Understand concepts and processes of evidence, models, and explanation a: b: c: Know that observations and data are evidence on which to base scientific explanations. Use models to explain how things work. Develop scientific explanations based on scientific knowledge, logic, and analysis. SE/TE: OA: 2.1- Observe and Infer; 3.1- Direct a Digger Wasp TR: Lab 2- Tough Leaves TECH: Skills Activity- Organizing Information SE/TE: 39-40, 51 OA: 2.3- Help Recreate a Famous Scientific Model SE/TE: OA: 3.2- Cause a Chick to Peck 3.3- Investigate how Birds Learn Songs TR: Lab 3- Termite Tracking: Learning About TermiteBehavior Standard: : Understand constancy, change, and measurement b: c: Recognize that change occurs in and among systems and change can be measured. Measure in both the metric and customary system. OA: Study Population Dynamics; Classify Interactions of Populations; Build a Temperate Rainforest TECH: Science Technology & Society- The Alaskan Wilderness OA: 1.1-Activate a Metric Scale Bar; 1.2- Visit a Tropical Rainforest TECH: Skills Activity- Making Measurements Standard: : Understand different uses of technology in science and how they affect our standard of living a: Identify examples of technologies used in scientific fields, including, but not limited to: 2

3 Food production SE/TE: OA: Model a Cloning Procedure TECH: Science Technology & Society- Genetically Modified Foods TECH: Science Technology & Society- Releasing Genetically Modified Salmon Environmental cleanup TECH: Science Technology & Society- Plants and Bioremediation TECH: Science Technology & Society- Protecting Coral Reefs Advances in medicine SE/TE: OA: Apply the PCR Technique; Activate a Lac Operon TECH: Science Technology & Society- Fetal Surgery Communications SE/TE: TECH: Science Technology & Society-Scientific Collaboration on the Internet TECH: Skills Activity- Critical Thinking for Web Research Biotechnology SE/TE: OA: Discover DNA Applications; Cut and Paste DNA TR: Lab 13- Inserting Useful Genes into Bacteria TECH: Science Technology & Society- Genetic Control of Fruit Ripening Standard: : Understand the significance of major scientific milestones a: b: Understand the social and economic impact of historical scientific events. Understand the contributions of notable scientists. SE/TE: OA: Travel With Darwin TECH: History of Science: Discovery of Cells; Discovery of Chromosomes; Discovery or DNA; and Discovery of Blood & Circulation SE/TE: , , , TECH: History of Science- History of Evolutionary Theory OA: Explore Historical Hypotheses of Inheritance; Analyze Morgan s Fruit Fly Experiment; Experiment with Bacteriophage 3

4 Standard: : Understand the relationship between science and technology and develop the abilities of technological design and application a: c: e: Know the ways that science advances technology and technology advances science. Know that critical thinking, creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and engineering. Use available technology to assist in solving problems. SE/TE: 41 TECH: Science Technology & Society- Fluoridation; Controlling Mosquitoes with Pesticides; Living Organ Donors; Fetal Surgery SE/TE: 24-29, TECH: Skills Activity- Critical Thinking for Web Research SE/TE: OA: Discover DNA Applications TECH: Science Technology & Society- Environmental Effects on Phenotypes TR: Lab 13- Inserting Useful Genes into Bacteria Standard: : Understand that interpersonal relationships are important in scientific endeavors a: Know the importance of working in interdisciplinary teams to solve scientific problems TECH: Careers: Meet Two Biochemists; Meet a Lab Technician; Meet an Ecologist Standard: : Understand technical communication a: Read for information. TECH: Skills Activity- Reading a Scientific Article b: Write and articulate technical information. TECH: Online Collaborative Science Labs: 1- Exploring Yawning Behavior; 2- Exploring Patterns in Leaf Stomata; 3- Exploring Cardiorespiratory Fitness; 4- Exploring Lawn Diversity; Skills Activity- Math Review; Skills Activity- Organizing Information; Science Technology & Society- Online Collaborative Science 4

5 Block 2: Cells To gain insights into how organisms function through a firm understanding of cell structure, cell function and the cell theory. Standard: : Understand concepts of form and function a: Know that form refers to function and function refers to form. SE/TE: 13, 124, , OA: 20.2, Identify Plant Tissues; Dissect a root; Magnify a Tree Trunk; Match Structure and Function Standard: : Understand the cell is the basis of form and function for all living things and how living things carry out their life functions a: b: c: d: e: Know that cells have particular structures that underlie their functions. Know that most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Know that cells store and use information in the form of DNA to guide their functions. Know that cell functions are regulated by expressed genes that provide code for the synthesis of proteins. Know that cellular differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes and that a single cell can differentiate to form many specialized cells, tissues, and organs. SE/TE: OA: 6.2- Dissect a Plasma Membrane; 6.3- Investigate Movement Across the Membrane TR: Lab 6- Design a Cell SE/TE: , OA: 6.4- Transport Insulin to the Bloodstream; 7.2- Burn a Marshmallow; 7.3- Examine how ATP Stores Energy; 7.4- Make Electrons Fall; 7.5- Explore a Pinball Analogy for Respiration SE/TE: , OA: Pair Up Nucleotide Bases TECH: History of Science- Discovery of DNA TR: Lab 11- Berry Full of DNA SE/TE: OA: Discover the Protein-Phenotype Connection; Translate RNA to a Protein SE/TE: 282, 285 TECH: OA Activate a Lac Operon 5

6 Block 3: Genetics/Heredity Understand the function of a gene at three levels: The structure and function of the DNA molecule; How genes and chromosomes operate in a cell; and The overall effect genes have on an organism. Standard: : Understand the form and function of DNA a: b: c: d: e: Know that the instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA. Know that genetic information is both encoded in genes and replicated. Know that most of the cells in a human contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, and that transmission of chromosomal information to offspring occurs through the combination of the egg and sperm cells. Know that the changes in DNA (mutations) occur spontaneously at low rates. Some of these changes make no difference to the organism whereas others can change cells and organisms. Only mutations in gametes can create the variation that changes an organism s offspring. Know that DNA plays a major role in health issues. Through the development of new technologies we have discovered new information about the human genome, medical disorders, and forensic sciences. SE/TE: , OA: Identify a Base Sequence; Discover the Protein-Phenotype Connection SE/TE: OA: Pair Up Nucleotide Bases; Replicate DNA Strands SE/TE: , OA: 9.5- Explore the Process of Meiosis in Depth; 12.2-Discover the Effects of Chromosome Changes TR: Lab 12- Observing Human Chromosomes SE/TE: , , TECH: OA Mutate a DNA Molecule; Alter a Gene Pool SE/TE: , , , OA: Analyze Sickle Cell Genotypes; Apply the PCR Technique; Interpret a Pedigree 6

7 Standard: Understand the cell is the basis of form and function for all living things and how living things carry out their life functions. SE/TE: , TECH: History of Science- Discovery of Cells e: Know that cellular differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes and that a single cell can differentiate to form many specialized cells, tissues, and organs. SE/TE: OA: Activate a Lac Operon Block 4: Systems of Biological Change Understand organisms are constantly changing from generation to generation due to alterations in their environment and pressure from other organisms. SE/TE: , OA: 14.2-Locate Homologous Structures; Model the Spread of Pesticide Resistance; Alter a Gene Pool TECH: Closer Look- Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium TR: Lab 14- Birds on an Island; A Simulation of Natural Selection Standard: Understand concepts of form and function a: Know that form refers to function and function refers to form. SE/TE: 13, 124, , OA: 20.2, Identify Plant Tissues; Dissect a root; Magnify a Tree Trunk; Match Structure and Function Standard: : Understand the theory that evolution is a process that relates to the gradual changes in the universe and of equilibrium as a physical state b: Understand evolution as a series of changes, some gradual and some sporadic, that account for present form and function of objects, organisms, and natural or mechanical systems. SE/TE: OA: Build a Complex Eye TR: Lab 15- Exploring Classification 7

8 Standard: : Understand the theory of biological evolution a: Know that the theory of evolution explains how species evolve over time and how evolution is the consequence of interactions of: Potential of a species to increase its numbers; SE/TE: OA: Study Population Dynamics; Analyze Population Growth DATA Genetic variability; SE/TE: OA: Explore Speciation; Build a Complex Eye A finite supply of resources; SE/TE: , OA: Classify Interactions of Populations Selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring. SE/TE: , OA: Analyze Sickle Cell Genotypes b: c: d: Know that natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well as for the striking molecular similarities observed among the diverse species of organisms. Know that the theory of evolution explains how different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent from common ancestors. Know that biological classifications are based on similarities, which reflect their evolutionary relationships. SE/TE: , OA: Locate Homologous Structures; Solve a Fossil Mystery; Build a Cladogram TECH: Science Technology & Society- New DATA on Dinosaur Evolution SE/TE: OA: Explore Speciation; Build a Cladogram SE/TE: OA: Locate Homologous Structures TR: Lab 15- Exploring Speciation 8

9 Block 5: Behavior of Organisms Understand that an organism s behavior is controlled by its nervous system and serves to help the species survive. Standard: : Understand the individual behavior of organisms and their interactions in populations and communities as influenced by physiological and environmental factors a: Know that multi-cellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. SE/TE: 51, 54-59, 525, 591, , OA: 3.3- Investigate how Birds Learn Songs TECH: Science Technology & Society- Smell and Behavior b: c: d: Know that the nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. Know that organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli and that broad patterns of behavior have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Know that behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of natural selection. SE/TE: TECH: OA Examine how Neurons Function; Map Divisions of the PNS; Get an Inside View of Vision TECH: Closer Look- Action Potentials TR: Lab 28- What Gives your Vision Precision? SE/TE: OA: 3.2- Cause a Chick to Peck SE/TE: OA: 3.3- Investigate how Birds Learn Songs; 3.4- Interpret Canine Behavior TR: Lab 3- Learning about Termite Behavior Block 6: Interdependence of Organisms Understand the interactions between and organism and its environment. Standard: : Understand the interdependence of organisms a: Know that atoms and molecules cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. SE/TE: OA: 8.4- Interpret Carbon Dioxide DATA; Examine the Nitrogen Cycle; Analyze the Effects of Deforestation 9

10 b: Trace energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers. SE/TE: OA: Build an Aquatic Food Chain; Graph Primary Productivity in Ecosystems c: d: e: Know that organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems. Know that living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. Know that human beings live within the world s ecosystems. Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. SE/TE: OA: Classify Interactions of Populations; Build a Temperate Rainforest Community SE/TE: OA: Study Population Dynamics; Analyze Population Growth DATA SE/TE: , 783, OA: Plot Human Population Growth Over Time; Investigate Threats to Biodiversity TECH: Science Technology & Society- Releasing Genetically Modified Salmon Standard: : Understand common environmental quality issues, both natural and human induced a: Identify issues, including but not limited to: Water quality SE/TE: 801 TR: Lab 36- Can Life Remain Despite Acid Rain? Air quality SE/TE: , 800, Hazardous waste SE/TE: 802 Forest health SE/TE: OA: Investigate Threats to Biodiversity Standard: : Understand the causes and effects of population change a: Understand the impact of technological development and the growth of human population on the living and nonliving environment. TECH: Science Technology & Society- The Alaskan Wilderness 10

11 b: Understand the impact of population change on natural resources and community infrastructure. SE/TE: OA: Classify Interactions of Populations Standard: : Understand the relationship between matter, energy, and organization to trace matter as it cycles and energy as it flows through living systems and between living systems and the environment g: Know that the distribution and abundance of organisms and populations in ecosystems are limited by the availability of matter and energy. SE/TE: OA: Build an Aquatic Food Chain; Graph Primary Productivity in Ecosystem h: Trace how matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems: cells, organs, organisms, communities, and between living systems and the physical environment. SE/TE: OA: Examine the Nitrogen Cycle Standard: : Understand the importance of natural resources and the need to manage and conserve them a: b: c: Understand the differences between renewable and nonrenewable resources. Understand the differences between preservation and conservation. Understand the role and effect of management of natural resources. SE/TE: SE/TE: OA: Investigate Threats to Biodiversity SE/TE:

12 Block 7: Matter, Energy and Organization In Living Systems Understand that molecules, and the energy they hold, move between organisms and the environment and from organism to organism. Standard: : Understand that the total energy in the universe is constant a: b: Understand that energy can be transferred but it can neither be destroyed nor created. Know that energy can be classified as either potential energy, kinetic energy, or energy contained by a field. SE/TE: 15-16, OA: 7.1- Explore Light Energy in Action; 7.2- Burn a Marshmallow TR: Lab 7- Food as Fuel SE/TE: , OA: 7.3- Examine how ATP Stores Energy; 7.4- Make Electrons Fall Standard: : Understand the relationship between matter, energy and organization to trace matter as it cycles and energy as it flows through living systems and between living systems and the environment a: Know that all matter tends toward more disorganized states b: c: d: Know that living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organization. Know that the energy for life is primarily derived from the sun through photosynthesis. Understand cellular respiration and the synthesis of macromolecules. SE/TE: OA: 7.2- Burn a Marshmallow TR: Lab 7- Measuring the Chemical Energy Stored in Food SE/TE: OA: 8.1-Explore Photosynthesis in Action; 8.2- Investigate the Nature of Light; 8.3-Take a Trip Around the Calvin Cycle TECH: Closer Look- Light Reactions TR: Lab 8-Photo Finish: Comparing the Rates of Photosynthesis SE/TE: OA: 7.4- Make Electrons Fall TECH: Guided Research Lab 2- Cellular Respiration in Fast Plants 12

13 e: Know that chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy, which is released when the bonds are broken. OA: 7.6- Explore a Pinball Analogy of Fermentation TECH: Science Technology & Society- Aerobic and Anearobic Performance TECH: Closer Look: Respiration Stages; Fermentation in Muscle and Yeast f: Know that cells usually store energy as Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). SE/TE: OA: 7.3- Examine how ATP Stores Energy Reference: 13

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