CE6502 Foundation Engineering Question Bank

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1 DEPARTMENT: CIVIL SUBJECT CODE: CE6502 QUESTION BANK SEMESTER: V SUBJECT NAME: FOUNDATION ENGINEERING UNIT 1- SITE INVESTIGATION AND SELECTION OF FOUNDATION PART A (2 Marks) 1. List the various methods of soil exploration techniques. 2. Discuss the correction applied in SPT test. 3. Define depth of exploration. 4. Formulate the merits and demerits of wash boring. BT-6 5. Compare the various methods of site exploration BT-6 6. Summarize Augur boring. 7. Explain standard penetration number BT-6 8. Classify the corrections to be carried out in SPT test. 9. State the uses of soil exploration 10. What do you infer from soil exploration? 11. Write the different types of samplers. 12. Illustrate the various parameters affecting the sampling disturbance. 13. Summarize the advantages of SCPT over SPT. 14. Examine a report on spacing of bore holes. 15. Identify the difference between disturbed & un-disturbed samples. 16. Tabulate a note on representative and non-representative samples 17. Define liquefaction of sand 18. Formulate the importance of area ratio. BT State the uses of Bore log report.

2 20. The internal diameter of a sampler is 40 mm and the external diameter is 42 mm. Will you consider the sample obtained from the sampler as disturbed or undisturbed? PART B (16 Marks) 1. Enumerate the scope and objectives of methods of soil exploration. BT-6 2. Enlist the following samplers with neat sketches (i) Split spoon sampler.(8) (ii) Thin walled sampler.(8) 3. With a neat sketch, explain the types of boring (i) Auger boring(8) (ii) Wash boring(8) 4. Summarize a detailed report on various types of samplers 5. Discuss the factors incorporated in SPT test and tell about correction applied on same 6. Explain the various parameters which affect the sampling in detail 7. Illustrate the following types of Geophysical methods (i) Electrical resistivity methods(8) (ii) Seismic refraction method(8) 8. Evaluate the selection of foundation location based on soil condition. 9. Explain dynamic cone penetration test. 10 Describe the salient features of a good sub-soil investigation report. 11 Prepare a report on the following (i) Significant depth of exploration(6) (ii) Spacing of Bore holes(6) (iii) Site investigation report(4) 12 Mention the advantage and disadvantages of SPT test over SCPT test 13 Describe about following (i) Soil Exploration Methods(12) (ii) Importance of area ratio(4)

3 14 Demonstrate the following methods (i) Seismo electrical method(8) (ii) Well logging(8) UNIT 2- SHALLOW FOUNDATION PART A (2 Marks) 1. Compare shallow foundation with deep foundation. 2. Discuss the factors to be considered while designing the foundation 3. Write the difference between bearing capacity and ultimate bearing capacity BT-6 4. Summarize Safe bearing capacity and Allowable bearing pressure 5. Explain ultimate bearing capacity with the help of load settlement curve. 6. Illustrate the different modes of shear failure 7. Relate local shear failure and General shear failure. 8. Write the procedure to find effective dimension eccentrically loaded footing. 9. Select the Assumptions & Limitations made in Terzaghi s Analysis?. 10. Estimate the factors affecting Bearing capacity. 11. Define Settlement. 12. Classify the components of settlement 13. Compare Co-efficient of volume change and volume change. 14. Distinguish between Immediate Settlement and consolidation settlement. 15. State primary consolidation and secondary consolidation. 16. What do you understand from Secondary compression settlement? 17. Tabulate the corrections to be made for the Settlement due to Consolidation. 18. Show the corrections made for the observed SPT values. 19. Criticize the factors affecting Bearing capacity.

4 20. Examine the factors consider in seismic design of shallow foundation. PART B (16 Marks) 1. Explain the IS code recommendations for the location and depth of foundation. 2. Illustrate the different modes of failure of foundation soil. 3. Evaluate the following (i)spt(6) (ii) SCPT and Plate load test(10) 4. Calculate the Safe bearing capacity per unit area of 1. a strip footing 1 m wide(4) 2. a square footing 3m x 3m(4) 3. a circular footing of 3m diameter.(4) 4. a rectangular footing of 1.3x2.2m(4) Unit weight of the soil 1.8 t/m3, cohesion = 2t/m 2 And Ф = 20 o,nc = 17.5, Nq = 7.5 and N γ = 5. Depth of footing is 1.6m below ground surface. 5. An R.C. Column footing 2.26 m in square shape is to rest 1.5 m below level ground level is on cohesive soil. The unit weight is 17.6kN/m 3. What is the safe load if cohesion is 30kN/m 3 factor of safety 2.4. Angle of internal friction 33 by IS code. 6. Design a strip footing to carry a load of 750kN/m at a depth of 1.6m in a cohesive soil having unit weight of 18kN/ m 3 & c=20kn/ m 2 and angle of internal friction is 25 degree. Determinethe width of footing, using F.O.S as 3. Use terzhagi s equations. Nc = 25.1, Nq = 12.7 and N γ = In a plate bearing test on pure clayey soil failure occurred at a load of 12.2 tones. The size of the plate was 45 cm x 45 cm and the test was one at a depth of 1.0 m below ground level. Find out the ultimate bearing capacity for a 1.5 m wide continuous wall footing with its base at a depth of 2m below ground level. The unit wt. of clay may be taken as 1.9 gm/ c.c. and Nc = 5.7, Nq = 1 and Nγ = A square footing located at a depth of 1.5 m below the ground surface in cohesionless soil carries a column load of 1280 kn. The soil is submerged having an effective unit weight of 11.5 kn/m3 and an angle of shearing resistane of 30 o. Find the size of the following for Fs = 3 by Terzaghi s theory of general shear failure. 9. A footing foundation of 3m X 3m is to be constructed at a site at a depth of 1.5 m below ground level. The water table is at the base level of foundation. The average static cone

5 penetration resistance obtained at the site is 20 Kg/m 2.the soil is cohesive determine the safe bearing capacity for a settlement of 40mm. 10. Two plate load test s were conducted at the level of a prototype foundation in cohesion less soil close to each other. The following data are given. Size of plate Load Settlement 0.3x0.3m 30 KN 25mm 0.6x0.6m 90 KN 25mm Find the size of the square footing to carry a load of 800 KN at the same specifying of settlement of 25mm 11. (i)an RCC foundation of size 18m x 36m have a uniform pressure of 180KN/m2 on a soil mass with modulus of elasticity 45KN/m2.Determine the immediate settlement Assume poisons ratio as 0.5(10) (ii)draw the pressure distribution of rigid footing in cohesive soil(4) 12. Summarize the following (i) General Shear failure(6) (ii) Local shear failure(5) (iii) Punching shear failure(5) 13. (i) A footing 2m x 2m is at a depth of 1.5 m in a sand deposit for which the N value is 27,Water table is at 2m from the Ground level. Determine the safe bearing capacity if the permissible settlement is 40 mm.(10) (ii) Write about influence of water table in determination of bearing capacity(6) 14. Write about the following methods of bearing capacity determination (i) Terzhagi method(4) (ii) Meyerhoff method(4) (iii) IS Code Method(4) (iv) Skempton method(4)

6 UNIT 3- FOOTINGS AND RAFTS PART A (2 Marks) 1. Select the types of shallow foundations 2. Define spread or Isolated footing 3. Examine the behavior of Cantilever footing 4. Write about Raft or mat foundation BT-6 5. Evaluate the concept of eccentric loading. 6. What are the circumstances necessitating combined footing? 7. Under what circumstances a rectangular and trapezoidal combined footings are adopted 8. Estimate the circumstances of strap footing adoption. 9. Where the Raft or Mat Foundation would be used? 10. Select the condition for selecting the critical section for bending moment of a spread or isolated footing. 11. What is the condition for selecting the critical section for checking diagonal shear and Punching shear of a spread (or) isolated footing? 12. How the overall depth of isolated footings is determined? 13. Explain about floating foundation. 14. Compare the two methods of design of raft foundation as per IS code BT Mention the assumptions made in the conventional method of design of raft foundation 16. State the criteria for selecting P.C.C. and R.C.C. strip footings 17. Compare differential settlement with consolidation settlement 18. Compare angular distortion and angle of internal friction. 19. Define contact pressure. 20. What is mean by modulus of sub grade reaction (Ks)?

7 PART B (16 Marks) 1. State the Principles of proportioning of footings BT-6 2. Summarize the following (i) Seismic considerations in foundation design(8) (ii) Design Procedure of strip footing.(8) 3. Explain the procedure for the Design of spread or isolated footings. 4. Illustrate the procedure for proportioning and designing of the following footings (i) Rectangular combined footings. (8) (ii) Trapezoidal combined footings.(8) 5. Describe the following (i) Proportioning and designing of the strap footings.(8) (ii) Pressure distribution in foundation (8) 6. A trapezoidal footing is to be produced to support two square columns of 30 cm and 50 cm sides respectively. Columns are 6 meters apart and the safe bearing capacity of the soil is 400 kn/m2. The bigger column carries a load of 500 kn and the smaller carries a load of 3000kN. Design a suitable size of the footing so that if does not extend beyond the face of the columns. BT-6 7. Explain the Procedure of conventional design of the raft footings. BT-6 8. Design a square footing to carry a load of 1000kN on a column 300x300 mm. allowable soil pressure 200kN/m2. Permissible stress 500kN/m2.use M20 & Fe415 steel. 9. The plan of a mat foundation with 9 columns. Assuming that the mat is rigid, determine the soil pressure distribution. All the columns are of size 0.6m x 0.6m. 10. Write about the following (i) Differential settlement (4) (ii) Causes for differential settlement(6) (iii) Remedies for differential Settlement(6) 11. Summarize the following (i) Types of mat foundation.(8) (ii) Application and condition for mat foundation(8) 12. Design a footing to carry a load of 1000KN and a column size of 0.3m x 0.3m.Allowable soil pressure 200 Kn/m2.Permissible Stress 500Kn/m2.Use M20 and Fe415 BT-6 BT Examine (i) Types of floating foundation(8)

8 (ii) Problems to be considered in design of floating foundation.(8) 14. Determine the dimension for strap footing for the two columns of size 0.4m x 0.4m,allowable soil pressure is 100 KN/m2.Distance between 2 columns is 6m.Take eccentricity of footing of column is 1m.Assume necessary data if available. UNIT 4- PILE FOUNDATION PART A (2 Marks) 1. Where the deep foundations are employed? 2. Identify the General forms of deep foundation. 3. Tabulate the different types of piles according to Material of construction. 4. Draw the failure pattern of pile foundation 5. Examine the different types of piles according to its function 6. What are the different types of piles according to its method of Installation? 7. Draw the various patterns of pile arrangements 8. State the methods of pile driving 9. Explain the Protection of pile during driving. 10. What are the precautions should be to ovoid heaving of soil while driving the pile? 11. Classify the methods for estimating the load carrying capacity of a pile. 12. Report on reasons for conducting initial tests on piles. 13. What are the preparations should be made for pile load test 14. Define Negative skin friction (or) down drag 15. Write about Group action of piles 16. Give the importance of spacing of piles in group action 17. Define Pile group efficiency 18. What are the factors affecting pile group efficiency?

9 19. State the reasons for the settlement of pile groups 20. State the seismic considerations in pile foundation PART B (16 Marks) 1. What are the different types of piles and explain it? 2. (i) A wooden pile is being driven with a drop hammer weighing 20 KN having a free fall of 1m.Thepenetration in the last blow is 5mm.Determine the load carrying capacity using engineering news formula.(8) (ii) Compare and contrast engineering news and hileys formula(8) 3. Summarize the following methods of load carrying capacity of pile (i) Static formula (8) (ii) Dynamic formula(8) 4. Illustrate the following methods (i) Pile load test(12) (ii) Negative skin friction(4) 5. A concrete pile 30 cm diameter is driven into a medium dense sand (φ = 35, γ = 21kN/m 3 ), k = 1.0, tan δ = 0.7, Nq = 60). For a depth of 8m, Estimate the safe load. Taking a factor of safety of 2.5, if the water table rises to 2 m below the ground surface take γ w = 10 kn/m2.assume necessary data if available. 6. A square concrete pile (30cm side) 10 m long is driven into coarse sand having γ = 18.5 BT-6 kn/m 3 & N = 20. Determine the allowable load (F.S = 3.0) 7. A reinforced concrete piles weights 30 KN,is driven by a drop hammer weights 40 KN having an effective fall of 0.8m.The average set per blow is 1.4cm.The total temporary elastic compression is 1.8.Assuming coefficient of resistance as 0.25.Determine the safe load using (i) Engineering News Formula(8) (ii) Hileys Formula(8) 8. A pile group consists of 9 friction piles of 30cm diameter and 10m length driven in clay (Cu = 100kN/m2. r = 20kN/m3). Determine the safe load for the group (F.S =3, α = 0.6) 9. Design a square pile group to carry 400kN in clay with an unconfined compressive strength of 60kN/m2. The piles are 30 cm diameter and 6 m long. Adhesion may be taken as 0.6

10 10. A 16 pile group has to be arranged in the form of a square in soft clay with uniform spacing. Neglecting end bearing, determine the optimum value of the spacing of the piles in terms of the pile assuming a shear mobilization factor of Determine the group capacity of 15 piles arranged in 3 rows of diameter 300mm.If the piles are driven 8m in to clay with cohesion = 25 kn/m2.take spacing of piles as 0.8m 12. Analyze the following (i) Under reamed pile foundation(8) (ii) Group capacity of pile(4) (iii) Seismic Consideration in pile design(4) 13. For a pile group of 3000 KN of base 5m in a clay layer of 20m having a length of 10.5m.Find the Settlement of pile group.take liquid limit as 60% at an angle of load dispersion =30 degree. Assume necessary data if available. 14. A group of nine piles of 300mm diameter,spaced at 1m.Find the efficiency of pile group using (i) Felds rule(8) (ii) Converse-Labarra formula(8) UNIT 5- RETAINING WALLS PART A (2 Marks) 1. State Active Earth pressure. 2. Define passive Earth pressure. 3. Summarize coefficient of earth pressure 4. Enumerate the assumptions made in Rankine s theory. 5. What is the critical height of an unsupported vertical cut in cohesive soil? 6. Evaluate the assumptions made in Coulomb s Wedge theory. 7. Distinguish Coloumb s wedge theory from Rankine s theory. 8. Sketch the variation of earth pressure and coefficient of earth pressure with the movement of the wall 9. Give the minimum factor of safety for the stability of a retaining wall. 10. If a retaining wall of 5 m high is restrained from yielding, what will be the total earth pressure at rest per metre length of wall? Given: the back fill is cohesion less soil having φ = 30 and γ = 18 kn/m Make an estimate of lateral earth pressure coefficient on a basement wall supports soil to a depth of 2 m. Unit weight and angle of shearing resistance of retained soil

11 are 16 kn/m3 and 32 respectively. 12. Is granular materials are preferred for the backfill of a retaining wall? Why 13. How do tension cracks influence the distribution of active earth pressure in pure cohesion? 14. Why lateral wall movement required for complete mobilization of passive state is higher than that for active state? 15. Draw the force polygon for a rough retaining wall with slanting back retains a cohesive soil in coulombs active state? 16. What do you understand by plastic equilibrium in soils? 17. State critical failure plane. 18. Write about surcharge angle. BT Discuss about earth pressure at rest 20. If the poissons ratio of soil is 0.4, Find its coefficient of earth pressure at rest. PART B (16 Marks) 1. A retaining wall is 4 metres high. Its back is vertical and it has got sandy backfill upto its top. The top of the fill is horizontal and carries a uniform surcharge of 85 kn/m2. Dry density of soil = 18.5 kn/m3. Moisture content of soil above water table = 12%. Angle of internal friction of soil = 30, specific gravity of soil particles = Porosity of backfill = 30%. The wall friction may be neglected. Determine the following (i) Depth of Zero tension Crack(4) (ii) Active pressure acting on the wall(12) 2. Explain Rankine s Active earth pressure theory for cohesion less soil and cohesive soil 3. Show how Rankine s Passive earth pressure theory varies for cohesion less and cohesive soil 4. Construct a coulomb s wedge theory for soil pressure distribution. BT-6 5. Critize the Culmann s construction for active pressure of cohesion less soil 6. Analyze the Effect of line load on retaining wall.

12 7. A retaining wall of 6 m high has a saturated backfill of soft clay soil. The properties of the clay soil are γ sat = kn/m3, unit cohesion Cu = 18 kn/m2. Determine (i) the expected depth of tensile crack in the soil(6) (ii) the active earth pressure before the occurrence of tensile crack(6) (iii) the active pressure after the occurrence of tensile crack(4) 8. A wall of 8 m height retains sand having a density of Mg/m3 and angle of internal friction of 34. If the surface of the backfill slopes upwards at 15 to the horizontal, find the active thrust per unit length of the wall. Use Rankine s conditions. 9. A retaining wall has a vertical back and is 7.32 m high. The soil is sandy loam of unit weight 17.3kN/m3. it shows a cohesion of 12 kn/m2 and φ = 20. Neglecting wall friction, determine the thrust on the wall. The upper surface of the fill is horizontal. 10. A smooth rigid retaining wall of 6 m high carries a uniform surcharge load of 12 kn/m2. The backfill is clayey sand possessing the following properties. γ = 16.0 kn/m3, φ = 25, and c = 6.5 kn/m2 for a retaining wall system, the following data were available: (i) Height of wall = 7 m. (ii) Properties of backfill: γd =16 kn/m3, φ = 35 (iii) Angle of wall friction, δ = 20 (iv) Back of wall is inclined at 20 to the vertical (positive batter) (v) Backfill surface is sloping at 1:10. Find the following (i) Active earth pressure(8) (ii) Passive earth pressure(8) 11. Prepare a short note on (i) Plastic Equillibrium of Soils.(10) (ii) Stability of retaining Wall.(6) 12. Sketch the variation of the earth pressure and explain it for the following (i) Active state(8) (ii) Passive State(8) 13. Summarize the following (i) Depth of Tension Crack(6) (ii) Economical design of Retaining Walls.(6) (iii) Nature and magnitudes of earth pressures(4) 14. Give a brief note on the following with variation of pressure distribution (i) Cantilever Retaining Wall(8) (ii) Counterfort Retaining Wall(8)

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