# Program COLANY Stone Columns Settlement Analysis. User Manual

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1 User Manual 1

2 CONTENTS SYNOPSIS 3 1. INTRODUCTION 4 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION Material Properties 2.2 Dimensions 2.3 Units EXAMPLE PROBLEM Description 3.2 Hand Calculation COLANY Data Entry 4.2 Grid Design 4.3 Data File Example Problem 4.4 Output File Example Problem REFERENCES 24 2

3 SYNOPSIS COLANY computes the load-settlement response of a rigid foundation supported by a layer of clay stabilized with stone columns. An example problem is considered. A complete hand solution to this problem and the results produced by COLANY are included. The hand solution is included in an attempt to ensure the correct interpretation of the results generated by COLANY. Nigel Balaam May

4 1. INTRODUCTION COLANY computes the settlement response of a rigid raft supported by a layer of clay which has been stabilized with a large number of stone columns. The results from an analytical solution (Balaam and Booker, 1981) for the settlement, assuming no yield occurs in the clay or column, are calculated. The program also computes the loadsettlement response of the stabilized clay. The column is divided into a specified number of cylindrical elements and the load-deflection values are calculated at which each of the column elements yield. Therefore, the more elements the column is divided into the more points are plotted on the load-settlement curve. The analysis is described in Balaam and Booker (1985). Finally, the solution is computed for the settlement response of the stabilized clay when all the column elements have yielded. These solutions enable the complete load-settlement response to be predicted for the specified applied pressure. In these analyses a unit cell is considered and it consists of a stone column and the surrounding clay within the column s zone of influence. It is therefore assumed that the response of this unit cell adequately represents the response of the clay layer stabilized by large numbers of stone columns. 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION A regular pattern of stone columns can be analyzed by considering a typical column-clay unit (Figure 1). For a triangular arrangement each column has a hexagonal zone of influence whereas a square arrangement results in each column having a square zone of influence. In order to reduce the complexity of the analysis the zone of influence is approximated by a circle of effective diameter d e = 2b = 1.05s where s is the column spacing. A square arrangement of columns has d e = 1.13s. A consideration of the interaction between the stone columns and the surrounding clay indicates that the major principal stress direction will be close to the vertical direction and that while there may be significant yielding of the stone columns due to the high stress ratios, there will be little yield in the surrounding clay. This suggests that the problem can be idealized by assuming that the stone column is in a triaxial state but that perhaps part of it may yield, that there is no shear stress at the stone-column interface and that there is no failure in the surrounding clay so that its behavior is entirely elastic. 4

5 Soft Clay Unit Cell Stone Column s Figure 1a Plan: Stone Columns Installed in Large Numbers Smooth Rigid Foundation Boundaries of unit cell Figure 1b Elevation: Stone Columns Installed in Large Numbers 5

6 Smooth Rigid b = d e / 2 Interface shear free Outer Boundary Smooth Rigid h a = d / 2 Smooth Rigid Figure 1c Boundary Conditions on Unit Cell 2.1 Material Properties The material properties required for this analysis are: Stone Column Clay E p Young s modulus E s Young s modulus p Poisson s ratio s Poisson s ratio Ø ψ K o γ sub Angle of internal friction Dilatancy angle Coefficient of lateral stress Submerged unit weight 6

7 2.2 Dimensions The geometry is defined by these parameters: a b h Radius of the stone columns. Radius of the column s zone of influence. Depth of the clay layer and this is also the length of the stone columns because the analysis only considers columns constructed to the base of the clay layer. 2.3 Units Any consistent set of units can be used, i.e., the dimensions specified must be consistent with the units for the applied pressure, q, and the applied pressure units must be consistent with the units specified for the Young s modulus of the stone and clay. The example problem uses metres for the dimensions and kpa for the applied pressure and Young s modulus. 7

8 3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3.1 Description In this example a prediction is made of the settlement of a 40m diameter water tank supported by a rigid foundation founded on clay stabilized by stone columns. The maximum height of water stored in the tank is 20m. The stone columns have an average diameter of 1m and are installed on a triangular grid with a spacing of 1.95m. The water table is at the ground surface. 3.2 Hand Calculation This hand calculation illustrates the use of the solutions (Balaam and Booker, 1985) and references to figures and the appendix in this section are from this paper. Stone Columns Length L 25m Diameter d 1m Spacing s 1.95m on triangular grid Young s modulus E p 60,000 kpa Poisson s ratio p 0.3 Submerged unit weight γ sub 10 kn/m 3 Friction angle Ø 35 Dilatancy angle ψ 0 Coefficient of lateral stress K o 1.0 Clay Young s modulus E s 2,000 kpa Poisson s ratio s 0.3 Step 1: Calculation of one-dimensional settlement (no stabilization) For the purpose of illustration the settlement of the tank founded on unstabilized clay can be estimated from 1-D settlement theory using an average m v calculated from the average value of E s. The settlement S is 8

9 For 1-D conditions ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) The is given by The is given by The settlement Step 2: Calculate settlement of tank founded on stabilized clay assuming stone columns and clay are elastic The elastic settlement is calculated using the equations in Appendix I. i) Elastic parameters of stone column E 1 = E p = 60,000 kpa 1 = p = 0.3 ( )( ) 9

10 ( ) ii) Elastic parameters of clay E 2 = E s = 2,000 kpa 2 = s = 0.3 ( )( ) ( ) iii) Constant F (equation 10) ( )( ) [ ( ) ( )] For a triangular spacing of 1.95m the diameter d e of the unit cell is given by d e = 1.05s =1.05 x 1.95 = 2.05m b = d e / 2 = 1.025m The diameter d (=2a) of the stone columns is 1m. ( ) ( ) [ ( ) ( )] F =

11 iv) Strain [ ε z (=ε) from equation 11 [( ) ( )( ) ( ) ] [( ) ( )( ) ] [ ( ) ] The elastic total final settlement of the tank founded on stabilized clay is Step 3: Correct settlement to take account of contained yielding in the stone columns The non-dimensional load level is: Referring to Figures 6 to 9 the following settlement correction factors can be tabulated. TABLE 1 Settlement Correction Factors Ø Note: The tabulated values are for the modular ratio E p / E s = 30. Linear interpolation for de / d = 2.05 and Ø = 35 results in a settlement correction factor; 11

12 = 0.43 Settlement of Tank = This settlement corresponds to a settlement ratio = / 1.82 = Some Comments This example illustrates quantitatively that an analysis in which the stone columns and clay are assumed to be elastic throughout the range of applied load overestimates the effectiveness of the stone columns in reducing settlement. The hand calculated value for the settlement ratio (= 0.373) is close to the value calculated by COLANY (= 0.40) and the error of 7% is expected considering the interpolation of values read from figures in the publication. Finally, at sites where numerous tanks are constructed (e.g., refineries) or where the load is widespread the use of 1-D settlement theory is justified. However, in the example considered, if the tank were isolated the elastic settlement theory predicts a settlement of 1.37m when the clay is not stabilized. In these situations the settlement of the tank founded on the stabilized clay can be predicted with sufficient accuracy by applying the settlement reduction factor (= 0.373) to the elastic displacement theory settlement (1.37m). Therefore, for an isolated tank the predicted settlement theory is; Settlement = = 12

13 4. COLANY 4.1 Data Entry After starting COLANY and selecting File/New Project the data entry screen shown in Figure 2 is displayed. Figure 3 shows the data that has been entered for the example problem described in Section 3. The data is self-explanatory except the value of 20 entered for the number of elements. This is the number of equal sized cylindrical elements the column is divided into and is used to calculate the progressive yielding of the column. For example, when 20 elements are specified there are 21 points defining the load-settlement response, one for each element yielding and the final, 21 st point, defining the response when the column has fully yielded. 13

14 Figure 2 Data Entry Screen 14

15 Figure 3 Data Entry for Example Problem Figure 3 Example Problem Data 15

16 4.2 Results The analysis is performed when the Start Analysis command button is clicked. The results are shown in Figure 4. The results are : 1-D settlement of unreinforced clay = 1.82m. Settlement of stone column reinforced clay = 0.727m. Settlement ratio = / 1.82 = Ratio of stone column volume to total volume of the unreinforced clay layer = 23.9%. 16

17 Figure 4 Screen Displayed After Start Analysis Button Clicked 17

18 4.2 Grid Design When the Grid Design button (highlighted in Figure 4) is clicked multiple analyses of the problem are performed. The loading, column diameter, column length, material properties etc. all remain unchanged. The only parameter that is changed is the column spacing and analyses are performed for both triangular and square arrangements of the columns. These multiple analyses are summarized in tabular form and are shown in Figure 5. The first row in the table corresponds to the unreinforced soil and then each row below this summarizes the results for a 5% increases in stone column material. The values in the grid can be used to select an appropriate arrangement and spacing of columns to meet a specific design criterion. For example, in the example problem considered in this manual, if the maximum allowable settlement of the tank is 0.5m then referring to the highlighted row in Figure 5 this arrangement of columns would satisfy the requirement because the predicted settlement is 0.47m The values on this row are; % (Ac/As) 35% of the soil has to be replaced with stone columns. Settlement 0.47m (satisfies maximum allowable settlement = 0.5m) SR Settlement Ratio = Settlement of Reinforced Soil / Settlement Unreinforced n Improvement factor. n = 1 / SR Triangular(s) Columns on triangular grid spaced at 1.61m. Specify 1.6m. Square Columns on square grid spaced at 1.5m. Figure 5 Grid Design Screen 18

19 The file produced for the example problem when the Print Report button is pressed is: COLANY v1.0 Grid Design Balaam & Booker (1985) Job Description Settlement analysis of a water tank on stabilised clay Loading Applied Pressure (q) = Stone Columns Length of column (h) = 25.0 Diameter(d) = 1.0 Friction angle(phi) = 35.0 Submerged unit weight = 10.0 Coefficient(Ko) = 1.0 Dilatancy angle(psi) = 0.0 Young's Modulus = Poisson's ratio = 0.3 Soil Young's Modulus = Poisson's ratio = 0.3 %(Ac/As) Settlement SR n Triangular(s) Square(s) Unreinforced soil Soil fully replaced Ac = Area of columns As = Area of soil SR = Settlement Ratio = Settlement(Reinforced)/Settlement(Unreinforced) n = Improvement factor = Settlement(Unreinforced)/Settlement(Reinforced) s = Column spacing 19

20 4.3 Data File Example Problem The content of the data file for the example problem is: [TITLE] Settlement analysis of a water tank on stabilised clay [APPLIED PRESSURE] 196 [COLUMN LENGTH] 25.0 [COLUMN DIAMETER] 1.0 [COLUMN SPACING] 1.95 [COLUMN PATTEREN 1=Triangular 2=Square] 1 [NUMBER OF ELEMENTS] 20 [COLUMN MODULUS] [COLUMN POISSON'S RATIO] 0.3 [COLUMN SUBMERGED UNIT WEIGHT] 10.0 [COLUMN FRICTION ANGLE] 35.0 [COLUMN DILATANCY ANGLE] 0.0 [COLUMN COEFFICIENT OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE] 1.0 [SOIL MODULUS] 2000 [SOIL POISSON'S RATIO]

21 4.4 Output File Example Problem The content of the output file for the example problem is: **************************************************************** * Balaam and Booker (1985) * * Settlement of Rigid Raft on Clay Stabilized by Stone Columns * **************************************************************** Output File: C:\COLANY\Data Files\Manual.out ********* * TITLE * ********* Settlement analysis of a water tank on stabilised clay ************ * GEOMETRY * ************ Triangular Grid Spacing = 1.95 a = b = de = ***************** * STONE COLUMNS * ***************** Length of column (h) = Diameter (d) = 1.00 Number of elements = 20 Friction angle (phi) = Submerged unit weight = Coefficient (K0) = 1.00 Dilatancy angle (psi) = 0.00 Young's Modulus = Poisson's ratio = 0.30 ******** * CLAY * ******** Young's Modulus = Poisson's ratio =

22 ******************** * ELASTIC SOLUTION * ******************** Elastic Solution (Balaam & Booker 1981) For unit applied pressure the solution is : STONE COLUMN: Radial displacement u(r) = Sigma(rr) = E-01 Sigma(00) = E-01 Sigma(zz) = E+00 Strain (zz) = E-05 Surface deflection (delta) = E E-03 CLAY : Sigma(zz) = E-01 ********************************** * INITIAL EFFECTIVE STRESS STATE * ********************************** Element Sigma(zz)' Sigma(rr)'

23 **************************** * LOAD-SETTLEMENT RESPONSE * **************************** Load Average Surface Total Column Soil Step Pressure Settlement Load Load Load ************************ * COLUMN FULLY PLASTIC * ************************ For an increment in deflection of 1.0 (ie. an increment in strain of E-02 ) the following increments occur : CLAY : d Sigma(rr) = d Sigma(zz) = d Load (clay)= COLUMN : d u(r) = E-03 d Sigma(rr) = d Sigma(zz) = d Load (column) = d Load (clay+column) = d q(a) =

24 5. REFERENCES Balaam, N.P. and Booker, J.R. (1981), Analysis of Rigid Rafts Supported by Granular Piles, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol.5, pp Balaam, N.P. and Booker, J.R. (1985), Effect of Stone Column Yield on Settlement of Rigid Foundations in Stabilized Clay, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol.9, pp

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