Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics)

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1 Chapter 5 Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics) 5.1 Introduction Beam : loads acting transversely to the longitudinal axis the loads create shear forces and bending moments, stresses and strains due to V and M are discussed in this chapter lateral loads acting on a beam cause the beam to bend, thereby deforming the axis of the beam into curve line, this is known as the deflection curve of the beam the beams are assumed to be symmetric about x-y plane, i.e. y-axis is an axis of symmetric of the cross section, all loads are assumed to act in the x-y plane, then the bending deflection occurs in the same plane, it is known as the plane of bending the deflection of the beam is the displacement of that point from its original position, measured in y direction 5.2 Pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending pure bending : M = constant V = dm / dx = 0 pure bending in simple beam and cantilever beam are shown 1

2 nonuniform bending : M g constant V = dm / dx g 0 simple beam with central region in pure bending and end regions in nonuniform bending is shown 5.3 Curvature of a Beam consider a cantilever beam subjected to a load P choose 2 points m 1 and m 2 on the deflection curve, their normals intersect at point O', is called the center of curvature, the distance m 1 O' is called radius of curvature, and the curvature defined as = 1 / and we have d = ds if the deflection is small ds j dx, then 1 d d = C = C = C ds dx sign convention for curvature + : beam is bent concave upward (convex downward) - : beam is bent concave downward (convex upward) is 2

3 5.4 Longitudinal Strains in Beams consider a portion ab of a beam in pure bending produced by a positive bending moment M, the cross section may be of any shape provided it is symmetric about y-axis under the moment M, its axis is bent into a circular curve, cross section mn and pq remain plane and normal to longitudinal lines (plane remains plane can be established by experimental result) the symmetry of the beam and loading, it requires that all elements of the beam deform in an identical manner ( the curve is circular), this are valid for any material (elastic or inelastic) due to bending deformation, cross sections mn and pq rotate w.r.t. each other about axes perpendicular to the xy plane longitudinal lines on the convex (lower) side (nq) are elongated, and on the concave (upper) side (mp) are shortened the surface ss in which longitudinal lines do not change in length is called the neutral surface, its intersection with the cross-sectional plane is called neutral axis, for instance, the z axis is the neutral axis of the cross section in the deformed element, denote the distance from O' to N.S. (or N.A.), thus d = dx 3

4 consider the longitudinal line ef, the length L 1 after bending is L 1 = y ( - y) d = dx - C dx then < ef = L 1 y - dx = - C dx and the strain of line ef x = < ef CC = y - C = - y dx is x vary linear with y (the distance from N.S.) y > 0 (above N. S.) = - y < 0 (below N. S.) = + the longitudinal strains in a beam are accompanied by transverse strains in the y and z directions because of the effects of Poisson's ratio Example 5-1 a simply supported beam AB, L = 4.9 m h = 300 mm bent by M 0 into a circular arc bottom = x = determine,, and (midpoint deflection) y = - C = - CCCC x = 120 m 4

5 = 1 C = 8.33 x 10-3 m -1 = (1 - cos ) is large, the deflection curve is very flat then sin = L / 2 CC = 8 x 12 CCCC = x 2,400 = 0.02 rad = o then = 120 x 10 3 (1 - cos o ) = 24 mm 5.4 Normal Stress in Beams (Linear Elastic Materials) x occurs due to bending, the longitudinal line of the beam is subjected only to tension or compression, if the material is linear elastic then x = E x = - E y vary linear with distance y from the neutral surface consider a positive bending moment M applied, stresses are positive below N.S. and negative above N.S. no axial force acts on the cross section, the only resultant is M, thus two equations must satisfy for static equilibrium condition i.e. F x = da = - E y da = 0 E and are constants at the cross section, thus we have 5

6 y da = 0 we conclude that the neutral axis passes through the controid of the cross section, also for the symmetrical condition in y axis, the y axis must pass through the centroid, hence, the origin of coordinates O is located at the centroid of the cross section the moment resultant of stress x is dm = - x y da then M = - x y da = E y 2 da = E y 2 da M = E I where I = y 2 da is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area w. r. t. z axis thus = 1 C = M CC E I this is the moment-curvature equation, and EI is called flexural rigidity + M => + curvature - M => - curvature the normal stress is M M y x = - E y = - E y (CC) = - CC E I I this is called the flexure formula, the stress x is called bending stresses or flexural stresses 6

7 x vary linearly with y x j M x j 1 / I the maximum tensile and compressive stresses occur at the points located farthest from the N.A. 1 = M c 1 - CC = M - C I S 1 2 = M c 2 M CC = C I S 2 I I where S 1 = C, S 2 = C are known as the section moduli c 1 c 2 if the cross section is symmetric w.r.t. z axis (double symmetric cross section), then c 1 = c 2 = c thus S 1 = S 2 M c and 1 = - 2 = - CC = M - C I S for rectangular cross section b h 3 I = CC b h 2 S = CC 12 6 for circular cross section d 4 I = CC d 3 S = CC the preceding analysis of normal stress in beams concerned pure bending, no shear force in the case of nonuniform bending (V g 0), shear force produces warping 7

8 (out of plane distortion), plane section no longer remain plane after bending, but the normal stress x calculated from the flexure formula are not significantly altered by the presence of shear force and warping we may justifiably use the theory of pure bending for calculating x even when we have nonuniform bending the flexure formula gives results in the beam where the stress distribution is not disrupted by irregularities in the shape, or by discontinuous in loading (otherwise, stress concentration occurs) example 5-2 a steel wire of diameter d = 4 mm is bent around a cylindrical drum of radius R 0 = 0.5 m E = 200 GPa pl = 1200 MPa determine M and max the radius of curvature of the wire is = R 0 + d C 2 EI 2 EI E d 4 M = C = CCCC = CCCCC 2 R 0 + d 32(2R 0 + d) (200 x 10 3 ) 4 4 = CCCCCCC = 5007 N-mm = N-m 32 (2 x ) M M M d 2 EI d E d max = C = CCC = CC = CCCCCC = CCCC S I / (d/2) 2 I 2 I (2 R 0 + d) 2 R 0 + d 8

9 200 x 10 3 x 4 = CCCCCC = MPa < 1,200 MPa (OK) 2 x Example 5-3 a simple beam AB of length L = 6.7 m q = 22 kn/m P = 50 kn b = 220 mm h = 700 mm determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses due to bending firstly, construct the V-dia and M-dia max occurs at the section of M max M max = kn-m the section modulus S of the section is b h 2 S = CC = 0.22 x CCCC = m M kn-m t = 2 = C = CCCCC = 10.8 MPa S m 3 c = 1 = M - C = MPa S Example 5-4 an overhanged beam ABC subjected uniform load of intensity q = 3.2 kn/m for the cross section (channel section) 9

10 t = 12 mm b = 300 mm h = 80 mm determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam construct the we can find V-dia. and M-dia. first + M max = kn-m - M max = kn-m next, we want to find the N. A. of the section A(mm 2 ) y(mm) A y (mm 3 ) A 1 3, ,872 A ,400 A ,400 total 5,232 96,672 A i y i 96,672 c 1 = CCC = CCC = mm A i 5,232 c 2 = h - c 1 = mm moment of inertia of the section is I z1 = I zc + A 1 d 1 2 I zc 1 = C (b - 2t) t 3 1 = C 276 x 12 3 = mm d 1 = c 1 - t / 2 = mm I z1 = 39, ,312 x = 555,600 mm 4 similarly I z2 = I z3 = 956,000 mm 4 10

11 then the centroidal moment of inertia I z is I z = I z1 + I z2 + I z3 = x 10 6 mm 4 I z S 1 = C = 133,600 mm 3 S 2 = C = 40,100 mm 3 c 1 c 2 at the section of maximum positive moment M x 10 3 x 10 3 t = 2 = C = CCCCCCC = 50.5 MPa S 2 40,100 M x 10 3 x 10 3 c = 1 = - C = - CCCCCCC = MPa S 1 133,600 I z at the section of maximum negative moment t = 1 = M - C = x 10 3 x CCCCCCC = 26.9 MPa S 1 133,600 M x 10 3 x 10 3 c = 2 = C = - CCCCCCCC = MPa S 2 40,100 thus ( t ) max occurs at the section of maximum positive moment ( t ) max = 50.5 MPa and ( c ) max occurs at the section of maximum negative moment ( c ) max = MPa 5.6 Design of Beams for Bending Stresses design a beam : type of construction, materials, loads and environmental conditions 11

12 beam shape and size : actual stresses do not exceed the allowable stress for the bending stress, the section modulus S must be larger than M / i.e. S min = M max / allow allow is based upon the properties of the material and magnitude of the desired factor of safety if allow are the same for tension and compression, doubly symmetric section is logical to choose if allow are different for tension and compression, unsymmetric cross section such that the distance to the extreme fibers are in nearly the same ratio as the respective allowable stresses select a beam not only the required S, but also the smallest cross-sectional area Beam of Standardized Shapes and Sizes steel, aluminum and wood beams are manufactured in standard sizes steel : American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Eurocode e.g. wide-flange section W 30 x 211 depth = 30 in, 211 lb/ft HE 1000 B depth = 1000 mm, 314 kgf/m etc other sections : S shape (I beam), C shape (channel section) L shape (angle section) aluminum beams can be extruded in almost any desired shape since the dies are relatively easy to make wood beam always made in rectangular cross section, such as 4" x 8" (100 mm x 200 mm), but its actual size is 3.5" x 7.25" (97 mm x 195 mm) after it 12

13 is surfaced consider a rectangular of width b and depth h b h 2 S = CC = A h CC = A h 6 6 a rectangular cross section becomes more efficient as h increased, but very narrow section may fail because of lateral bucking for a circular cross section of diameter d d 3 S = CC = A d CC = A d 32 8 comparing the circular section to a square section of same area h 2 = d 2 / 4 => h = d / 2 S square A h d / CC = CCCCC = CCCCCCC = CCC = S circle A d d the square section is more efficient than circular section the most favorable case for a given area A and depth h would have to distribute A / 2 at a distance h / 2 from the neutral axis, then A h 2 A h 2 I = C (C) x 2 = CC I S = CC = A h CC = 0.5 A h h / 2 2 the wide-flange section or an I - section with most material in the flanges would be the most efficient section 13

14 for standard wide-flange beams, S is approximately S j 0.35 A h wide-flange section is more efficient than rectangular section of the same area and depth, much of the material in rectangular beam is located near the neutral axis where it is unstressed, wide-flange section have most of the material located in the flanges, in addition, wide-flange shape is wider and therefore more stable with respect to sideways bucking Example 5-5 a simply supported wood beam carries uniform load L = 3 m q = 4 kn/m allow = 12 MPa wood weights 5.4 kn/m 3 select the size of the beam (a) calculate the required S q L 2 M max = CC = (4 kn/m) (3 m) 2 CCCCCCC = 4.5 kn-m 8 8 M max S = CC = 4.5 kn-m CCCC = x 10 6 mm 3 allow 12 MPa (b) select a trial size for the beam (with lightest weight) choose 75 x 200 beam, S = x 10 6 mm 3 and weight N/m (c) now the uniform load on the beam is increased to N/m 14

15 4.077 S required = (0.375 x 10 6 mm 3 ) CCC = x 10 6 mm (d) S required < S of 75 x 200 beam (0.456 x 10 6 mm 3 ) (O.K.) Example 5-6 a vertical post 2.5 m high support a lateral load P = 12 kn at its upper end (a) allow for wood = 15 MPa determine the diameter d 1 (b) allow for aluminum tube = 50 MPa determine the outer diameter d 2 if t = d 2 / 8 M max = P h = 12 x 2.5 = 30 kn-m (a) wood post 3 d 1 S 1 = CC = M max CC = 30 x 10 3 x 10 3 CCCCCC = 2 x 10 6 mm 3 32 allow 15 d 1 = 273 mm (b) aluminum tube 4 I 2 = C [d 2 - (d 2-2 t) 4 4 ] = d I d 2 3 S 2 = C = CCCCC = d 2 c d 2 / 2 M max S 2 = CC = 30 x 10 3 x 10 3 CCCCCC = 600 x 10 3 mm 3 allow 50 solve for d 2 => d 2 = 208 mm 15

16 Example 5-7 a simple beam AB of length 7 m q = 60 kn/m allow = 110 MPa select a wide-flange shape firstly, determine the support reactions R A = kn R B = kn the shear force V for 0 x 4 m is V = R A - q x for V = 0, the distance x 1 is R A kn x 1 = CC = CCCC = m q 60 kn/m and the maximum moment at the section is M max = x / 2 = kn-m the required section moudlus is M max x 10 6 N-mm S = CC = CCCCCCCC = x 10 6 mm 3 allow 110 MPa from table E-1, select the HE 450 A section with S = 2,896 cm 3 the weight of the beam is 140 kg/m, now recalculate the reactions, M max, and S required, we have R A = kn R B = kn V = 0 at x 1 = m => M max = KN-m 16

17 M max S required = CC = 2,770 cm 3 < 2,896 cm 3 (O. K.) allow Example 5-8 the vertical posts B are supported planks A of the dam post B are of square section b x b the spacing of the posts s = 0.8 m water level h = 2.0 m allow = 8.0 MPa determine b the post B is subjected to the water pressure (triangularly distributed) the maximum intensity q 0 is q 0 = h s the maximum bending moment occurs at the base is q 0 h h h 3 s M max = CC (C) = CCC and M max S = CC = h 3 s CCC = b 3 C allow 6 allow 6 h 3 s 9.81 x 2 3 x 0.8 b 3 = CC = CCCCCC = m 3 = x 10 6 mm 3 allow 8 x 10 6 b = 199 mm use b = 200 mm 17

18 5.7 Nonprismatic Beams nonprismatic beams are commonly used to reduce weight and improve appearance, such beams are found in automobiles, airplanes, machinery, bridges, building etc. = M / S, S varying with x, so we cannot assume that the maximum stress occur at the section with M max Example 5-9 a tapered cantilever beam AB of solid circular cross section supports a load P at the free end with d B / d A = 2 determine B and max x d x = d A + (d B - d A ) C L 3 d x x 3 S x = CC = C [d A + (d B - d A )C] L M x = P x, then the maximum bending stress at any cross section is 1 = M x C = 32 P x CCCCCCCCCC S x [d A + (d B - d A ) (x/l)] 3 at support B, d B = 2 d A, x = L, then 4 P L B = CCC d A 3 to find the maximum stress in the beam, take d 1 / dx = 0 => x = L / 2 18

19 at that section (x = L/2), the maximum is 128 P L P L max = CCCC = CC d A d A it is 19% greater than the stress at the built-in end Example 5-10 a cantilever beam of length L support a load P at the free end cross section is rectangular with constant width b, the height may vary such that max = allow for every cross section (fully stressed beam) determine the height of the beam M = P x 2 b h x S = CC 6 M P x 6 P x allow = C = CCC = CC S b h x 2 / 6 b h x 2 solving the height for the beam, we have 6 P x 1/2 h x = ( CCC ) b allow at the fixed end (x = L) 6 P L 1/2 h B = ( CCC ) b allow 19

20 x 1/2 then h x = h B ( C ) L the idealized beam has the parabolic shape 5-8 Shear Stress in Beam of Rectangular Cross Section for a beam subjected to M and V with rectangular cross section having width b and height h, the shear stress acts parallel to the shear force V assume that is uniform across the width of the beam consider a beam section subjected the a shear force V, we isolate a small element mn, the shear stresses act vertically and accompanied horizontally as shown the top and bottom surfaces are free, then the shear stress must be vanish, i.e. = 0 at y =! h/2 for two equal rectangular beams of height h subjected to a concentrated load P, if no friction between the beams, each beam will be in compression above its N.A., the lower longitudinal line of the upper beam will slide w.r.t. the upper line of the lower beam for a solid beam of height 2h, shear stress must exist along N.A. to prevent sliding, thus single beam of depth 2h will much stiffer and stronger than two separate beams each of depth h 20

21 consider a small section of the beam subjected M and V in left face and M + dm and V + dv in right face for the element mm 1 p 1 p, acts on p 1 p and no stress on mm 1 if the beam is subjected to pure bending (M = constant), x acting on mp and m 1 p 1 must be equal, then = 0 on pp 1 for nonuniform bending, M acts on m 1 n 1, consider mn and M + dm acts on da at the distance y form N.A., then on mn M y x da = CC da I hence the total horizontal force on mp is M y F 1 = CC da I similarly (M + dm) y F 2 = CCCCC da I and the horizontal force on pp 1 is F 3 = b dx equation of equilibrium F 3 = F 2 - F 1 21

22 (M + dm) y M y b dx = CCCCC da - CC da I I dm 1 V = CC C y da = CC y da dx Ib I b denote Q = y da is the first moment of the cross section area above the level y (area mm 1 p 1 p) at which the shear stress acts, then for = V Q CC shear stress formula I b V, I, b are constants, ~ Q for a rectangular cross section h h/2 - y 1 b h 2 Q = b (C - y 1 ) (y 1 + CCC) = C (C - y 1 2 ) V h 2 then = CC (C - y 1 2 ) 2 I 4 = 0 at y 1 =! h/2, max occurs at y 1 = 0 (N.A.) V h 2 V h 2 3 V 3 max = CC = CCCC = CC = C ave 8 I 8 b h 3 /12 2 A 2 max is 50% larger than ave V = resultant of shear stress, V and in the same direction Limitations the shear formula are valid only for beams of linear elastic material with 22

23 small deflection the shear formula may be consider to be exact for narrow beam ( is assumed constant across b), when b = h, true max is about 13% larger than the value given by the shear formula Effects of Shear Strains vary parabolically from top to bottom, and = / G must vary in the same manner thus the cross sections were plane surfaces become warped, no shear strains occur on the surfaces, and maximum shear strain occurs on N.A. max = max / G, if V remains constant along the beam, the warping of all sections is the same, i.e. mm 1 = pp 1 =, the stretching or shortening of the longitudinal lines produced by the bending moment is unaffected by the shear strain, and the distribution of the normal stress is the same as it is in pure bending for shear force varies continuously along the beam, the warping of cross sections due to shear strains does not substantially affect the longitudinal strains by more experimental investigation thus, it is quite justifiable to use the flexure formula in the case of nonuniform bending, except the region near the concentrate load acts of irregularly change of the cross section (stress concentration) Example 5-11 a metal beam with span L = 1 m q = 28 kn/m b = 25 mm h = 100 mm 23

24 determine C and C at point C the shear force V C and bending moment M C at the section through C are found M C = 2.24 kn-m V C = kn the moment of inertia of the section is b h 3 I = CC = 1 C x 25 x = 2,083 x 10 3 mm normal stress at C is M y C = - CC 2.24 x 106 N-mm x 25 mm = - CCCCCCCCCCC = MPa I 2,083 x 10 3 mm 4 shear stress at C, calculate Q C first A C = 25 x 25 = 625 mm 2 y C = 37.5 mm Q C = A C y C = 23,400 mm 3 V C Q C 8,400 x 23,400 C = CCC = CCCCCCC = 3.8 MPa I b 2,083 x 10 3 x 25 the stress element at point C is shown Example 5-12 a wood beam AB supporting two concentrated loads P b = 100 mm h = 150 mm 24

25 a = 0.5 m allow = 11 MPa allow = 1.2 MPa determine P max the maximum shear force and bending moment are V max = P M max = P a the section modulus and area are b h 2 S = CC 6 A = b h maximum normal and shear stresses are max = M max CC = 6 P a CC max = 3 V max CCC = 3 P CCC S b h 2 2 A 2 b h allow b h 2 P bending = CCCC = 11 x 100 x CCCCCCC = 8,250 N = 8.25 kn 6 a 6 x allow b h P shear = CCCC = 2 x 1.2 x 100 x 150 CCCCCCCC = 12,000 N = 12 kn 3 3 P max = 8.25 kn 8-9 Shear Stresses in Beam of Circular Cross Section = V Q CC r 4 I = CC for solid section I b 4 the shear stress at the neutral axis r 2 4 r 2 r 3 Q = A y = (CC) (CC) = CC b = 2 r

26 max = V (2 r 3 / 3) CCCCCC = 4 V CCC = 4 V CC = 4 C ave ( r 4 / 4) (2 r) 3 r 2 3 A 3 for a hollow circular cross section I = C (r r 4 1 ) Q = 2 C (r r 3 1 ) 4 3 b = 2 (r 2 - r 1 ) then the maximum shear stress at N.A. is V Q 4 V r r 2 r 1 + r 1 2 max = CC = CC (CCCCCC) I b 3 A r r 1 2 where A = (r r 1 2 ) Example 5-13 a vertical pole of a circular tube d 2 = 100 mm d 1 = 80 mm (a) determine the max in the pole P = 6,675 N (b) for same P and same max, calculate d 0 of a solid circular pole (a) The maximum shear stress of a circular tube is 4 P r r 2 r 1 + r 1 2 max = CC (CCCCCC) 3 r r 1 4 for P = 6,675 N r 2 = 50 mm r 1 = 40 mm max = 4.68 MPa (b) for a solid circular pole, max is 26

27 then max = 4 P CCCCC 2 d 0 = 3 (d 0 /2) 2 16 P 16 x 6,675 CCCC = CCCCC = 2.42 x 10-3 m 2 3 max 3 x 4.68 d 0 = mm the solid circular pole has a diameter approximately 5/8 that of the tubular pole 5-10 Shear Stress in the Webs of Beams with Flanges for a beam of wide-flange shape subjected to shear force V, shear stress is much more complicated most of the shear force is carried by shear stresses in the web consider the shear stress at ef, the same assumption as in the case in rectangular beam, i.e. // y axis and uniformly distributed across = V Q CC is still valid with b = t I b the first moment Q of the shaded area is divided into two parts, i.e. the upper flange and the area between bc and ef in the web t 27

28 h A 1 = b (C - h 1 C) h 1 A 2 = t (C - y 1 ) then the first moment of A 1 and A 2 w.r.t. N.A. is h 1 h/2 - h 1 /2 h 1 /2 - y 1 Q = A 1 (C + CCCC) + A 2 (y 1 + CCCC) b t = C (h 2 - h 2 1 ) + C (h y 2 1 ) 8 8 V Q V b t = CC = CC [C (h 2 - h 1 2 ) + C (h y 1 2 )] I b 8 I t 8 8 b h 3 3 (b - t) h 1 1 where I = CC - CCCC = C (b h 3 - b h t h 3 1 ) maximum shear stress in the web occurs at N.A., y 1 = 0 max = V CC (b h 2-2 b h 1 8 I t + t h 1 2 ) h 1 /2 minimum shear stress occurs where the web meets the flange, y 1 =! V b min = CC (h 2 - h 1 2 ) 8 I t the maximum stress in the web is from 10% to 60% greater than the minimum stress the shear force carried by the web consists two parts, a rectangle of area h 1 min and a parabolic segment of area b h 1 ( max - min ) V web = h 1 min + b h 1 ( max - min ) 28

29 t h 1 = CC (2 max + min ) 3 V web = 90% ~ 98% of total V for design work, the approximation to calculate max is max = V CC t h 1 <= total shear force <= web area for typical wide-flange beam, error is within! 10% when considering y in the flange, constant across b cannot be made, e.g. at y 1 = h 1 /2, t at ab and cd must be zero, but on bc, = min actually the stress is very complicated here, the stresses would become very large at the junction if the internal corners were square Example 5-14 a beam of wide-flange shape with b = 165 mm, t = 7.5mm, h = 320 mm, and h 1 = 290 mm, vertical shear force V = 45 kn determine max, min and total shear force in the web the moment of inertia of the cross section is 1 I = C (b h 3 b h t h 1 3 ) = x 10 6 mm

30 the maximum and minimum shear stresses are max min V = CC (b h 2 b h t h 2 1 ) = 21.0 MPa 8 I t V b = CC (h 2 h 2 1 ) = 17.4 MPa 8 I t the total shear force is t h 1 V web = CC (2 max + min ) = 43.0 kn 3 tnd the average shear stress in the web is ave V = CC = 20.7 MPa t h 1 Example 5-15 a beam having a T-shaped cross section b = 100 mm t = 24 mm h = 200 mm V = 45 kn determine nn (top of the web) and max 76 x 24 x x 24 x 100 c 1 = CCCCCCCCCCCC = mm 76 x x 24 c 2 = c 1 = mm I = I aa - A c 2 2 b h 3 (b - t) h 1 3 I aa = CC - CCCC = x 10 6 mm A c 2 2 = x 10 6 mm 3 30

31 I = x 10 6 mm 3 to find the shear stress 1 ( nn ), calculate Q 1 first Q 1 = 100 x 24 x ( ) = 153 x 10 3 mm 3 V Q 1 45 x 10 3 x 153 x = CC = CCCCCCCC = 10.9 MPa I t x 10 6 x 24 to find max, we want to find Q max at N.A. Q max = t c 2 (c 2 /2) = 24 x x (124.23/2) = 185 x 10 3 mm 3 max = V Q max CCC = 45 x 10 3 x 185 x 10 3 CCCCCCCC = 13.2 MPa I t x Built-up Beams and Shear Flow 5.12 Beams with Axial Loads beams may be subjected to the simultaneous action of bending loads and axial forces, e.g. cantilever beam subjected to an inclined force P, it may be resolved into two components Q and S, then M = Q (L - x) V = - Q N = S and the stresses in beams are M y = - CC V Q = CC N = C I I b A the final stress distribution can be obtained by combining the stresses 31

32 associated with each stress resultant M y = - CC + N C I A whenever bending and axial loads act simultaneously, the neutral axis no longer passes through the centroid of the cross section Eccentric Axial Loads a load P acting at distance e from the x axis, e is called eccentricity N = P M = - P e then the normal stress at any point is = P e y CC + P C I A the position of the N.A. nn can be obtained by setting = 0 I y 0 = - CC A e minus sign shows the N.A. lies below z-axis if e increased, N.A. moves closer to the centroid, if e reduced, N.A. moves away from the centroid Example 5-15 a tubular beam ACB of length L = 1.5 m loaded by a inclined force P at mid length P = 4.5 kn d = 140 mm b = 150 mm A = 12,500 mm 2 32

33 I = x 10 6 mm 4 P h = P sin 60 o = 3,897 N P v = P cos 60 o = 2,250 N M 0 = P h d = 3,897 x 140 = x 10 3 N-mm the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams are sketched first the maximum tensile stress occurs at the bottom of the beam, y = - 75 mm mm N M y 3,897 1,116.8 x 10 3 (-75) ( t ) max = C - CC = CCC - CCCCCCCC A I 12, x 10 6 = = 2.79 MPa the maximum compressive stress occurs at the top of the beam, y = 75 N M y 3,897 1,116.8 x 10 3 x 75 ( c ) left = C - CC = CCC - CCCCCCCC A I 12, x

34 = = MPa N ( c ) right = C M y - CC = x 75 CCCCCCC A I x 10 6 = MPa thus ( c ) max = MPa occurs at the top of the beam to the left of point C 5.13 Stress Concentration in Beams 34

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