# CEEN Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Session 7 - Direct Shear and Unconfined Compression Tests

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3 CALCULATIONS 1. Use the results of the angle of repose tests to determine the slope angle of the conical sand mound (angle of repose). Use this value as an estimate of the angle of internal friction for the loose sand, φ L. 2. Using the shear mold measurements, determine the area of the shear plane in square meters. Compute the effective normal stress (kn/m 2 ) on the shear plane for each test trial. 3. Using the recorded direct shear proving ring deformations, compute the shear load (kn) and shear stress (kn/m 2 ) acting on the soil. Prepare a plot of shear stress versus shear displacement for each test trial. From the data plots, estimate the peak and residual shear strength for each normal stress condition. Construct a plot of peak shear stress vs normal stress and determine the angle of internal friction for the dense sand, φ D. 4. Using the recorded unconfined compression proving ring and specimen deformation data pairs, compute the axial strain and normal stress of the specimen. Prepare a plot of normal stress versus axial strain and estimate the unconfined compressive strength of the soil specimen. Compare the results of all clay strength tests and comment on the similarities/differences noted. The axial strain e t, at any time t, is determined as: ε t = L / L o where: ε t = axial strain at time t, cm/cm (in/in)?l = length change of specimen at time t, cm (in) L o = initial length of test specimen, cm (in) The average cross-sectional area of the specimen A t, at any time t is determined as: A t = A o / (1 - ε t ) where: A t = cross-sectional area of specimen at time t, cm 2 (in 2 ) A o = initial cross-sectional area of the specimen, cm 2 (in 2 ) The applied normal stress σ t, at any time t is determined as: σ t = 10 P t / A t where: σ t = applied compressive stress at time t, kn/m 2 P t = applied load at time t, N

4 Angle of Repose Tests Measurement Average Radius, cm Diameter of Mound, cm Mound Height, cm Angle of Repose Direct Shear Tests Trial Diameter of Mold, cm Height of Bottom Mold, cm Height of Top Mold, cm Thickness of Tamper, cm Mass of Empty Mold, N Depth to Tamper After Compaction, cm Mass of Mold + Sand, N Mass of Brass Load Cylinder, N Added Normal Load, N 1 kn/m 2 = 1 kpa = 0.1 N/cm 2

5 Direct Shear Tests Shear Test Number A B A B A B A B A = Shear Box Displacement (0.01mm) B = Proving Rind Deformation (0.001mm) Load (N) = B 1 kn/m 2 = 1 kpa = 0.1 N/cm 2

6 Clay Strength Tests Trial Number Pocket Penetrometer Reading, tsf Pocket Shear Vane Reading, tsf Cylindrical Soil Specimen Height, cm Cylindrical Soil Specimen Diameter, cm A B A = Axial Displacement (0.001") B = Proving Rind Deformation (0.0001") Load (N) = B 1 tsf = kn/m 2 1 kn/m 2 = 1 kpa = 0.1 N/cm 2

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