Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid


 Charleen Karin Charles
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three parts: Static s, Kinematics, and Dynamics Static s Deals with fluid at rest in equilibrium state, no force no acceleration Kinematics Deals With flow behaviors of fluid like velocity, acceleration and flow patterns. Dynamics Deals with the effects of flow behaviors on fluid surroundings like forces and momentum exchange Fluid may be defined as a substance which deforms continuously (flows) when subjected to shearing forces, or A fluid is a substance which capable of flowing A fluid has no definite shape unless it is supported (conforms to the shape of the containing vessel)
2 Unit1: Fluid properties The matter or substance is classified on the bases of the spacing between the molecules of the matter as follows: In solids, the molecules are very closely spacing and then intermolecules cohesive forces is quite large, and then groups compact and rigid form. Whereas in liquids these spacing are relatively large, and then less intermolecules cohesive forces between them, and then can move freely, but it still has a definite volume (no definite shape, has free interface). While these forces is extremely small in gasses, and then have greater freedom of movement so that the gas fill the container completely in which they are placed( no definite volume, no definite shape, no free interface). General fluid (liquid) properties: 1. Density: the density (also known as mass density or specific mass) of a liquid defined as the mass per unit volume at a standard temperature and pressure. It is usually denoted by Latin character ρ (rho). Its unit are Kg/m 3
3 2. Weight Density: (also known as specific weight) is defined as the weight per unit volume at the standard temperature and pressure, it is usually denoted as γ. its unit are N/m 3. W m. g γ = = = ρ. g V V Where g gravitational acceleration=9.81 m/s 2 γ of water = 9810 N/m 3 at 4 o C and 1 Bar 3. Specific Volume: It is defined as a volume per unit mass of fluid, It is denoted by ν Its unit are m 3 /Kg. V 1 = = m ν ρ 4. Specific Gravity: It is defined as the ratio of the specific weight of the fluid to the specific weight of a standard fluid For liquids the standard fluid is pure water at 4 o C, and denoted by Sg γ liquid Sg = γ water For Gasses the standard fluid is air Example: Calculate the Specific weight, specific mass, specific volume and specific gravity of a liquid having a volume of 6m 3 and weight of 44 kn. Solution: W=44 kn V= 6 m3 Specific weight, γ: Specific mass or density, ρ: Specific volume, v: Specific gravity, Sg:
4 5. Viscosity: it is a property of a real fluid (an ideal fluid has no viscosity) which determine its resistance to shearing stresses. It is primarily due to cohesion, adhesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers. 1  For solids, shear stress depends on magnitude of angular deformation (τ ~ angular deformation) of angular deformation (τ ~ du/dy) 2 For many fluids shear stress is proportional to the time rate When tow layer of fluid at the distance of δy apart, move one over the other at different velocities, say u and u+δu, the viscosity together with relative velocity causes shear stress acting between layers. With respect to the distance between these two layers δy, the shear stress, τ, this becomes a relation between shear strain rate and velocity gradient:
5 du τ α dy Newton s law of viscosity: the shear stresses on a fluid element layers is directly proportional to the velocity gradient (rate of shear strain). The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity( absolute viscosity, dynamic viscosity, or simply viscosity) and denoted as µ (mu). du τ α dy i.e. Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity: Units: (N s/m 2 )or (Pa s) or (kg/m s) The unit Poise (p) is also used where 10 P = 1 Pa s Water µ = Pa s Mercury µ = Pa s Olive oil µ =.081 Pa s Pitch µ = Pa s Honey µ = Pa s Ketchup µ = Pa s (nonnewtonian) Kinematic Viscosity, υ is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density Units m 2 /s and Called kinematic viscosity because it involves no force (dynamic) dimensions. The unit Stoke (St) is also used where 1 St = 104 m 2 /s (1 St=cm 2 /s) For Water υ = m 2 /s. For Air υ = m 2 /s.
6 The fluid is nonnewtonian if the relation between shear stress and shear strain rate is nonlinear. Typically, as temperature increases, the viscosity will decrease for a liquid, but will increase for a gas.
7 6. Surface Tension: Surface tension is a property of liquids which is making what is like a thin tensioned membrane at the interface between the liquid and another fluid (typically a gas). Surface tension has dimensions of force per unit length and denoted as, σ (Sigma), and its unit is N/m. Surface tension is a properties of certain fluidfluid interface WaterAir.. σ =0.075 N/m at 20 o C WaterAir. σ = N/m at 100 o C MercuryAir σ = 0.1 N/m 2(2πRσ) =(π R 2 ) P bubble P bubble=8σ/d
8 Pressure inside water droplet: let P= The pressure inside the drop d= Diameter of droplet σ= Surface tension of the liquid (waterair interface) From sectional free body diagram of water droplet we have 1. P between inside and outside = P0 =P 2. Pressure force = 3. Surface tension force acting around the circumference=, under equilibrium condition these two forces will be equal and opposite, i.e. Example: From this equation we show that (with an increase in size of droplet the pressure intensity is decreases) If the surface tension of waterair interface is N/m, what is the pressure inside the water droplet of diameter mm? Given d= mm; σ= N/m The water droplet has only one surface, hence,
9 Surface Tension Capillary Property of exerting forces on fluids by fin tubes and porous media, due to both cohesion and adhesion If Cohesion < adhesion, liquid wets solid, rises at point of contact(then φ is less than 90 0 ) as in water. If Cohesion > adhesion, liquid surface depresses at point of contact, nonwetting fluid(then φ is more than 90 0 ) as in mercury. The contact angle is defined as the angle between the liquid and solid surface Meniscus: curved liquid surface that develops in a tube, Weight of fluid column = Surface tension pulling force Expression above calculates the approximate capillary rise in a small tube. The meniscus lifts a small amount of liquid near the tube walls, as r increases this amount may become insignificant. Thus, the equation developed overestimates the amount of capillary rise or depression, particularly for large r. For a clean tube, = 0 o for water, = 140 o for mercury. For r > ¼ in (6 mm), capillarity is negligible. Its effects are negligible in most engineering situations. Important in problems involving capillary rise, e.g., soil water zone, water supply to plants. When small tubes are used for measuring properties, e.g., pressure account must be made for capillarity.
10 Example: A clean tube of diameter 2.5 mm is immersed in a liquid with a coefficient of surface tension = 0.4 N/m. The angle of contact of the liquid with the clean glass can be assumed to be 135 o. the density of the liquid= kg/m 3. What would be the level of the liquid in tube relative to free surface of the liquid inside the tube? Solution: Given d= 2.5 mm, σ= 4 N/m, = 135 o ; ρ = kg/m 3 Level of the liquid in the tube, h: Negative sign indicates that there is a capillary depression (fall) of 3.39 mm. Example: Derive an expression for the capillary height change h, for a fluid of surface tension σ and contact angle between two parallel plates W apart. Evaluate h for water at 20 C (σ= N/m) if W = 0.5 mm. Solution: With (b)the width of the plates into the paper, the capillary forces on each wall together balance the weight of water held above the reservoir free surface:
11 for water at 20 C (σ= N/m, ) and W = 0.5 mm.
Ch 2 Properties of Fluids  II. Ideal Fluids. Real Fluids. Viscosity (1) Viscosity (3) Viscosity (2)
Ch 2 Properties of Fluids  II Ideal Fluids 1 Prepared for CEE 3500 CEE Fluid Mechanics by Gilberto E. Urroz, August 2005 2 Ideal fluid: a fluid with no friction Also referred to as an inviscid (zero viscosity)
More information1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids
1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids  both liquids and gases.
More information1.4 Review. 1.5 Thermodynamic Properties. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26,
CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26, 2011 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container
More informationChapter (1) Fluids and their Properties
Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance deforms continuously, or flows, when subjected to shearing forces. If a fluid is at rest, there are no shearing forces
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA. PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS of FLUID MECHANICS UNIT 13 NQF LEVEL 3
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS of FLUID MECHANICS UNIT 13 NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOUR OF FLUIDS TUTORIAL 1  SURFACE TENSION
More informationFluids and Solids: Fundamentals
Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.
More informationCE 204 FLUID MECHANICS
CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS Onur AKAY Assistant Professor Okan University Department of Civil Engineering Akfırat Campus 34959 TuzlaIstanbul/TURKEY Phone: +902166771630 ext.1974 Fax: +902166771486 Email:
More informationHigher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher
Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering
More informationENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids
ENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids Spring 2009 Prepared by: M. Bahrami Mechatronics System Engineering, School of Engineering and Sciences, SFU 1 Pressure Pressure is the (compression) force
More informationLecture 24  Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics
Lecture 24  Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms
More informationVatten(byggnad) VVR145 Vatten. 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar)
Vatten(byggnad) Vätskors egenskaper (1) Hydrostatik (3) Grundläggande ekvationer (5) Rörströmning (4) 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar) Vätska som kontinuerligt medium
More informationA drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension
A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic
More informationCE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York
1 Drag Coefficient The force ( F ) of the wind blowing against a building is given by F=C D ρu 2 A/2, where U is the wind speed, ρ is density of the air, A the crosssectional area of the building, and
More informationSURFACE TENSION. Definition
SURFACE TENSION Definition In the fall a fisherman s boat is often surrounded by fallen leaves that are lying on the water. The boat floats, because it is partially immersed in the water and the resulting
More informationERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Fluid Mechanics. Lecture 3  Solved Examples (7 examples)  Home works
ERBIL PLOYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ERBIL TECHNICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE Fluid Mechanics Lecture 3  Solved Examples (7 examples)  Home works By Dr. Fahid Abbas Tofiq 1 Example 1: A plate 0.025 mm distant from
More informationFluid Mechanics Definitions
Definitions 91a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V $0& #V ) Specific Gravity
More informationFLUID DYNAMICS. Intrinsic properties of fluids. Fluids behavior under various conditions
FLUID DYNAMICS Intrinsic properties of fluids Fluids behavior under various conditions Methods by which we can manipulate and utilize the fluids to produce desired results TYPES OF FLUID FLOW Laminar or
More informationBasic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho
Basic Fluid Mechanics MEM 220 Prof. Young I Cho Summer 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction What is fluid? Give some examples of fluids. Examples of gases: Examples of liquids: What is fluid mechanics? Mechanics
More informationBasic Principles in Microfluidics
Basic Principles in Microfluidics 1 Newton s Second Law for Fluidics Newton s 2 nd Law (F= ma) : Time rate of change of momentum of a system equal to net force acting on system!f = dp dt Sum of forces
More informationCharacteristics of a fluid
Characteristics of a fluid Fluids are divided into liquids and gases. A liquid is hard to compress and as in the ancient saying Water takes the shape of the vessel containing it, it changes its shape according
More informationNotes on Polymer Rheology Outline
1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes  laminar vs. turbulent  Reynolds number  definition of viscosity
More information1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts)
1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Applications of fluid mechanics
More informationI SOIL WATER POTENTIAL
I SOIL WATER POTENTIAL 1.1. Introduction Soil water content is not sufficient to specify the entire status of water in soil. For example, if soils with a same water content but with different particle
More informationXI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA
Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A
More informationME19b. SOLUTIONS. Feb. 11, 2010. Due Feb. 18
ME19b. SOLTIONS. Feb. 11, 21. Due Feb. 18 PROBLEM B14 Consider the long thin racing boats used in competitive rowing events. Assume that the major component of resistance to motion is the skin friction
More informationFluid Mechanic & Fluid Machine
Fluid Mechanic & Fluid Machine Contents Chapter Topic Page Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 s s s Problems Pressure and Its Measurements s s s Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces s s s No 7 8 15 15 20 22 22 24
More information01 The Nature of Fluids
01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 1/17 01 The Nature of Fluids (Water Resources I) Dave Morgan Prepared using Lyx, and the Beamer class in L A TEX 2ε, on September 12, 2007 Recommended Text 01 The Nature of
More informationCE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK PART  A
CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART  A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today
More informationAP2 Fluids. Kinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same
A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall that
More informationWhy Study Fluids? Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Crystal lattice structure:
States of Matter Gas In a gas, the molecules are far apart and the forces between them are very small Solid In a solid, the molecules are very close together, and the form of the solid depends on the details
More informationCHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER B.20.2
CHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER 1. A tank is filled with seawater to a depth of 12 ft. If the specific gravity of seawater is 1.03 and the atmospheric pressure at this location is 14.8 psi, the absolute pressure (psi)
More informationDifferential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationHomework 9. Problems: 12.31, 12.32, 14.4, 14.21
Homework 9 Problems: 1.31, 1.3, 14.4, 14.1 Problem 1.31 Assume that if the shear stress exceeds about 4 10 N/m steel ruptures. Determine the shearing force necessary (a) to shear a steel bolt 1.00 cm in
More informationTYPES OF FLUID FLOW. Laminar or streamline flow. Turbulent flow
FLUID DYNAMICS We will deal with Intrinsic properties of fluids Fluids behavior under various conditions Methods by which we can manipulate and utilize the fluids to produce desired results TYPES OF FLUID
More informationCBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology
CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology The Continuum Hypothesis: We will regard macroscopic behavior of fluids as if the fluids are perfectly continuous in structure. In reality,
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationWhen the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.
Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs
More informationp atmospheric Statics : Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure: linear change in pressure with depth Measure depth, h, from free surface Pressure Head p gh
IVE1400: n Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Statics : Pressure : Statics r P Sleigh: P..Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk r J Noakes:.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk January 008 Module web site: www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/ive/fluidslevel1
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationUnit 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.Introduction 1.2.Objectives
Structure 1.1.Introduction 1.2.Objectives 1.3.Properties of Fluids 1.4.Viscosity 1.5.Types of Fluids. 1.6.Thermodynamic Properties 1.7.Compressibility 1.8.Surface Tension and Capillarity 1.9.Capillarity
More informationE 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block
More informationProperties of Fluids
CHAPTER Properties of Fluids 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION A fluid can be defined as a substance which deforms or yields continuously when shear stress is applied to it, no matter how small it is. Fluids can be subdivided
More informationIntroduction to Microfluidics. Date: 2013/04/26. Dr. YiChung Tung. Outline
Introduction to Microfluidics Date: 2013/04/26 Dr. YiChung Tung Outline Introduction to Microfluidics Basic Fluid Mechanics Concepts Equivalent Fluidic Circuit Model Conclusion What is Microfluidics Microfluidics
More informationBasic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters
Chapter 2 Basic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters In the foregoing chapter, many basic concepts related to the present investigation and the associated literature survey were
More informationFor Water to Move a driving force is needed
RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationViscosity. Desmond Schipper Andrew R. Barron. 1 Introduction
OpenStaxCNX module: m50215 1 Viscosity Desmond Schipper Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStaxCNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 Abstract This module discusses
More informationThese slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.
Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers
More informationOUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1  HYDROSTATICS
Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1  HYDROSTATICS 1. Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters
More informationSoil Mechanics Prof. B.V.S. Viswanathan Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture 19 Effective StressI I I
Soil Mechanics Prof. B.V.S. Viswanathan Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture 19 Effective StressI I I Welcome to the third lecture on effective stress. In the
More informationPractice Problems on Viscosity. free surface. water. y x. Answer(s): base: free surface: 0
viscosity_01 Determine the magnitude and direction of the shear stress that the water applies: a. to the base b. to the free surface free surface U y x h u water u U y y 2 h h 2 2U base: yx y 0 h free
More informationDimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis An Important Example from Fluid Mechanics: Viscous Shear Forces V d t / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Ƭ = F/A = μ V/d More generally, the viscous
More informationVISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia. Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries?
VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW VISCOSITY POISEUILLE'S LAW? Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries? Why does the engine runs more freely as
More informationModule 2: Review of Fluid Mechanics Basic Principles for Water Resources Engineering. Basic Definitions. Basic Definitions.
Module : Review of Fluid Mechanics Basic Principles for Water Resources Engineering Robert Pitt University of Alabama and Shirley Clark Penn State  Harrisburg Mass quantity of matter that a substance
More informationPHYSICS FUNDAMENTALSViscosity and flow
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALSViscosity and flow The origin of viscosity When a force is applied to a solid, it will yield slightly, and then resist further movement. However, when we apply force to a fluid, it
More informationSolution for Homework #1
Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen
More informationViscosity Measurement Guide
Viscosity Measurement Guide For using Viscotester 32041 Higashimotomachi, Kokubunji, Tokyo 1858533, Japan http://www.rion.co.jp/english/ Contents Introduction...1 What is viscosity?...2 Viscosity unit:
More informationBoundary Conditions in Fluid Mechanics
Boundary Conditions in Fluid Mechanics R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University The governing equations for the velocity and pressure fields are partial
More informationSurface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Surface Tension surface tension is a property of liquids that results from the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area in order to minimize their surface
More informationLecture 5 Hemodynamics. Description of fluid flow. The equation of continuity
1 Lecture 5 Hemodynamics Description of fluid flow Hydrodynamics is the part of physics, which studies the motion of fluids. It is based on the laws of mechanics. Hemodynamics studies the motion of blood
More information土 壤 物 理 題 庫 1. Prove the following relation of porosity to particle density and to bulk density: ƒ=(ρ s  ρ b )/ρ s = 1  ρ b /ρ s
土 壤 物 理 題 庫 1. Prove the following relation of porosity to particle density and to bulk density: ƒ=(ρ s  ρ b )/ρ s = 1  ρ b /ρ s 2. Prove the following relation between volume wetness, mass wetness,
More informationMin218 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
Excerpt from "Chap 3: Principles of Airflow," Practical Mine Ventilation Engineerg to be Pubished by Intertec Micromedia Publishing Company, Chicago, IL in March 1999. 1. Definition of A Fluid A fluid
More informationViscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version
Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version California Science Content Standards: 1. Motion and Forces: Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. 1b. Students know that when forces are balanced,
More informationFluid Mechanics. Fluid Statics [31] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri. [3] Fall 2010 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri [31] Fluid Statics
1 Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics [31] Dr. Mohammad N. Almasri Fluid Pressure Fluid pressure is the normal force exerted by the fluid per unit area at some location within the fluid Fluid pressure has the
More informationNatural Convection. Buoyancy force
Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient
More informationExperiment 3 Pipe Friction
EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A crosssectional
More informationFundamental Concepts in Fluid Mechanics
A significant portion of these notes summarizes various sections of Massey, but additional material from other sources is also included. Note that the notes are incomplete; they will be completed during
More informationBasics and Concepts. 2.1 Introduction Force, Weight, and Mass Density Specific Gravity Pressure...
2 Fluids Basics and Concepts TOPIC PAGE 2.1 Introduction... 22 2.2 Force, Weight, and Mass... 22 2.3 Density... 23 2.4 Specific Gravity... 23 2.5 Pressure... 23 2.6 Temperature... 25 2.7 Viscosity... 26
More informationThe Use Of CFD To Simulate Capillary Rise And Comparison To Experimental Data
The Use Of CFD To Simulate Capillary Rise And Comparison To Experimental Data Hong Xu, Chokri Guetari ANSYS INC. Abstract In a microgravity environment liquid can be pumped and positioned by cohesion
More informationHANDLY & FREQUENTLY USED FORMULAS FOR THERMAL ENGINEERS
HANDLY & FREQUENTLY USED FORMULAS FOR THERMAL ENGINEERS GEOMETRY & MATH GEOMETRI & MATEMATIK Cylindrical (Tube) Volume V = p / 4 d 2 L [m 3 ] Cylindrical (Tube) Surface A = p d L [m 2 ] Rectangular Triangle
More informationoil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1
Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This printout should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiplechoice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making
More informationPractice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22
BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =
More informationLaboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport
Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Water vapor transport in porous materials Due to the thermal conductivity of water and other unfavourable properties and effects in porous
More informationDefinition of interface Liquidgas and liquidliquid interfaces (surface tension, spreading, adsorption and orientation at interfaces)
Definition of interface Liquidgas and liquidliquid interfaces (surface tension, spreading, adsorption and orientation at interfaces) Definition of interface How can we define the interface? How we can
More informationCHAPTER 2: LIQUID VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT
CHAPTER 2: LIQUID VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT Objective Calculate viscosity (dynamic or absolute, and kinematic) and determine how this property varies with changes in temperature for a constantcomposition
More information10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory
The first scheduled quiz will be given next Tuesday during Lecture. It will last 5 minutes. Bring pencil, calculator, and your book. The coverage will be pp 36444, i.e. Sections 0.0 through.4. 0.7 Theory
More informationMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D PRELIMINARY LEVEL TUTORIAL 1 BASIC STUDIES OF STRESS AND STRAIN
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D PRELIMINARY LEVEL TUTORIAL 1 BASIC STUDIES O STRESS AND STRAIN This tutorial is essential for anyone studying the group of tutorials on beams. Essential prerequisite knowledge
More informationTeil I. Student Laboratory Manuals
Teil I Student Laboratory Manuals 1 IR1 5. Fluid friction in liquids 5.1 Introduction Generally the term fluid is understood to be matter either in the gaseous or liquid state. The physics involved on
More informationChapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?
Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility
More informationENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIFICATE LEVEL
ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIICATE LEVEL ENGINEERING SCIENCE C103 TUTORIAL  BASIC STUDIES O STRESS AND STRAIN You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. These may be sent
More informationFluid Dynamics Viscosity. Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che
Fluid Dynamics Viscosity Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che che.rochester.eduedu 1 Chemical Engineering What do Chemical Engineers Do? Manufacturing
More information1 The basic equations of fluid dynamics
1 The basic equations of fluid dynamics The main task in fluid dynamics is to find the velocity field describing the flow in a given domain. To do this, one uses the basic equations of fluid flow, which
More informationChapter 12 Elasticity
If I have seen further than other men, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants. Isaac Newton 12.1 The Atomic Nature of Elasticity Elasticity is that property of a body by which it experiences
More information3 rd Year Dental Materials Science
3 rd Year Dental Materials Science Dr. Graham Cross School of Physics and CRANN SFI Nanoscience Building, Rm 1.5 http://www.tcd.ie/physics/people/graham.cross/ Graham.Cross@tcd.ie 16.11.2007 Dental Materials
More informationTyphoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure. 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings
Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings 3. Atmospheric Pressure variation driving the Typhoon s winds 4. Energy of Typhoon 5. Height
More informationBasic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible
More informationColumn Design. Gavin Duffy School of Electrical Engineering Systems DIT, Kevin Street
Column Design Gavin Duffy School of Electrical Engineering Systems DIT, Kevin Street Learning Outcomes After this lecture you should be able to. Explain why the ratio of vapour and liquid velocities is
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows Welcome back to the video course on fluid mechanics. So
More informationProblem 1. 12ft. Find: Velocity of truck for both drag situations. Equations: Drag F Weight. For force balance analysis: Lift and Drag: Solution:
Problem 1 Given: Truck traveling down 7% grade Width 10ft m 5 tons 50,000 lb Rolling resistance on concrete 1.% weight C 0.96 without air deflector C 0.70 with air deflector V 100 7 1ft Find: Velocity
More informationGeneral Physics (PHY 2130)
General Physics (PHY 30) Lecture 3 Solids and fluids buoyant force Archimedes principle Fluids in motion http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy30/ Lightning Review Last lecture:. Solids and fluids different
More informationOUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 3 Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters of real fluid
More informationF mg (10.1 kg)(9.80 m/s ) m
Week 9 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution
More informationSoil Suction. Total Suction
Soil Suction Total Suction Total soil suction is defined in terms of the free energy or the relative vapor pressure (relative humidity) of the soil moisture. Ψ = v RT ln v w 0ω v u v 0 ( u ) u = partial
More informationmomentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3
Kinetic Molecular Theory This explains the Ideal Gas Pressure olume and Temperature behavior It s based on following ideas:. Any ordinary sized or macroscopic sample of gas contains large number of molecules.
More informationRheological Properties of Topical Formulations
Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Hemi Nae, PhD Hydan Technologies, Inc. Key Words Complex Modulus, Creep/Recovery, Dilatant Flow, Dynamic Viscosity, Flow, Flow Curve, Flow Models, Frequency
More informationCHAPTER 7: CAPILLARY PRESSURE
CHAPTER 7: CAPILLARY PRESSURE Objective To measure capillary pressure of unconsolidated sand packs. Introduction Capillary pressure is important in reservoir engineering because it is a major factor controlling
More informationFluids flow conform to shape of container. Mass: mass density, Forces: Pressure Statics: Human body 5075% water, live in a fluid (air)
Chapter 11  Fluids Fluids flow conform to shape of container liquids OR gas Mass: mass density, Forces: Pressure Statics: pressure, buoyant force Dynamics: motion speed, energy friction: viscosity Human
More information