# CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions)

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1 CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions) P. 1) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (1) Question: The footing shown in the figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 300 kn/m 2 to the soil. Determine vertical stress increase due to uniform pressure, at a point of 4 m directly under; (a) point A, (b) point B. B A Solution: a) Point A; L Shaped Footing (Plan view) a b 1 c d 4 m 2 g f e z = q.i r By the use of Figure 1.6 in Lecture Notes, page 10; 1

2 For area 1 : A(abcfg) z = 4 m mz = 4 m = 4/4 = 1 I r = 0.12 nz = 2 n = 2/4 = 0.5 For area 2 : A(cdef) z = 4 m mz = = 2/4 = 0.5 I r = nz = 2 n = 2/4 = 0.5 z = 300 ( ) = 61.5 kpa the stress at 4 m depth under point A due to 300 kn/m 2 uniform pressure b) Point B; 1 B 2 3 Area 1 = Area 2 = Area 3 mz = nz = = n = 2/4 = 0.5 I r = z = 300 (3 x 0.085) = 76.5 kpa the additional stress at 4 m depth under point B due to 300 kpa uniform pressure 2

3 P. 2) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (2) Question: A rectangular footing as shown in figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 420 kn/m 2. Determine the vertical stress due to uniform pressure at point A for a depth of 3 m. 6 m A uniform pressure of 420 kn/m 2 5 m A Composite footing Solution: a 1.5 m Plan View b i j c 1.5 m h g m f k d e For area (abkh) : z = 3 m mz = 4 m = 4 / 3 = 1.33 I r = nz = 3.5 n = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17 For area (bcdk) : mz = 3.5 m = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17 I r = nz = 2 n = 2 / 3 = 0.67 For area (defk) : mz = = 2 / 3 = 0.67 I r = nz = 1.5 n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5 3

4 For area (fghk) : mz = 4 m = 4 / 3 = 1.33 I r = nz = 1.5 n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5 For area (ijkm) : mz = nz = = n = 2 / 3 = 0.67 I r = z = I r = 420 [ I r 1 + I r 2 + I r 3 + I r 4 - I r 5 ] = 420 [ ] z = kpa Note: Where do we use the vertical stress increase, z, values? For example, in a consolidation settlement problem, stress increase, z, values are needed to calculate settlement under a foundation loading. We make the following calculations for a point located under the foundation at a certain depth (for example, at the mid-depth of the compressible layer): (1) First, calculate the initial effective vertical stress, v,o, before the building was constructed, (2) Then, find the vertical stress increase z at that depth, by using Boussinesq stress distribution or by approximate methods (for example 2V: 1H approximation) (3) Find the final effective vertical stress, v,f = v,o + z, after the building is constructed. (4) Use these values in calculating the settlement under the foundation. 4

5 P. 3) IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT Question: A foundation 4 m, carrying a net uniform pressure of 200 kn/m 2, is located at a depth of 1.5 m in a layer of clay 5 m thick for which the value of E u is 45 MN/m 2. The layer is underlain by a second layer, 10 m thick, for which the value of E u is 80 MN/m 2. A hard stratum lies below the second layer. Ground water table is at the depth of foundation. Determine the average immediate settlement under the foundation. Hint: Since soil is SATURATED CLAY, =0.5. So the following equation can be used: q B Si 0 1 E u Solution: q = 200 kn/m m E u = 45 MN/m m E u = 80 MN/m 2 10 m Hard stratum q B Si 0 1 E u 5

6 D H B q Hard stratum B is the smaller dimension! We obtain, 0 from D / B 1 from H / B and L / B D / B = 1.5 / 2 = = 0.95 (Figure 3.3, p.62 Lecture Notes) (1) Consider the upper layer with E u = 45 MPa. D H = 3.5 m Hard stratum E u = 45 MPa H / B = 3.5 / 2 = = 0.65 L / B = 4 / 2 = 2 q B (200) 2 S (0.95) (0.65) 5. mm i E u (2) Consider the two layers combined with E u = 80 MPa. D H = 13.5 m E u = 80 MPa H / B = ( ) / 2 = = 0.9 L / B = 4 / 2 = 2 q B (200) 2 S (0.95) (0.9) 4. mm i E u Hard stratum (3) Consider the upper layer with E u = 80 MPa. D H = 3.5 m Hard stratum E u = 80 MPa H / B = 3.5 / 2 = = 0.65 L / B = 4 / 2 = 2 q B (200) 2 S (0.95) (0.65) 3. mm i E u 6

7 Using the principle of superposition, the settlement of the foundation is given by; S i = S i 1 + S i 2 - S i 3 S i = S i = 6.69 mm P. 4) SCHMERTMAN Question: A soil profile consists of deep, loose to medium dense sand ( dry = 16 kn/m 3, sat = 18 kn/m 3 ). The ground water level is at 4 m depth. A 3.5 m x 3.5 m square footing rests at 3 m depth. The total (gross) load acting at the foundation level (footing weight + column load + weight of soil or footing) is 2000 kn. Estimate the elastic settlement of the footing 6 years after the construction using influence factor method (Schmertman, 1978). End resistance values obtained from static cone penetration tests are; Depth (m) q c (kn/m 2 ) Note that; for square footing; z (depth)(from foundation level) I z (strain factors) B/ B 0.0 Where; B : width of footing E s = 2.0 q c 7

8 Solution: S i = C 1 C 2 q net E I z z q net = net foundation pressure ' C o correction factor for footing depth 1 q net ' o = effective overburden pressure at foundation level C 2 t log correction factor for creep 0.1 t = time at which the settlement is required (in years) q gross = 2000 kn 4m 3m dry = 16 kn/m 3 deep loose to medium dense sand sat = 18 kn/m qnet 3x kpa 3.5x3.5 gross pressure. initial effective overburden pressure o = 3x16 = 48 kpa C 1 C log

9 ground surface q c (kn/m 2 ) 0.0 m I z Layer 1 z B = 1.75m Layer 2 z Layer 3 z enter from mid-height of each layer Layer 4 z B=2x3.5 = 7m 12 Width of foundation, B = 3.5 m E s = 2.0 q c Layer No Depth(m) z(m) q c (kpa) Es(kPa) I z (I z /E s ) z x x x x10-5 x S i = (0.792) (1.356) (115.26) (9.625x10-5 ) = m S i = mm 9

10 P5. CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT Question: Ignore the immediate settlement, and calculate total consolidation settlement of soil profile composed of two different types of clay, i.e. Clay 1 and Clay 2 due to 150 kpa net foundation loading. Take unit weight of water as 10 kn/m 3 and assume that Skempton- Bjerrum Correction Factor is 0.7 for both clay layers. Note that σ c (or sometimes shown as σ p) is the preconsolidation pressure. 10 m x 10 m CLAY 1 q net = 150 kpa z CLAY 1 6 m γ dry = 19 kn/m 3 γ sat = 20 kn/m 3 C r = 0.05; C c = 0.15 e o = 0.80; σ c = 80 kpa CLAY 2 6 m γ sat = 20 kn/m 3 C r = 0.03; C c = 0.10 e o = 0.60; σ c = 200 kpa INCOMPRESSIBLE Solution: Settlement will take place due to loading (q net = 150 kpa) applied at a depth of. Thus, all (consolidation) settlement calculations will be performed for clayey soil beneath the foundation (z > ). Reminder: General equation of 1D consolidation settlement (one dimensional vertical consolidation) for an overconsolidated clay is;, log log, 1 1, 10

11 Note that, all calculations are done for the mid-depth of the compressible layers under the loading. Consolidation settlement in Clay 1: Initial effective overburden stress, σ v,o = (2*19) + (3*(20-10)) = 68 kpa Stress increment due to foundation loading, Δσ= [150*(10*10)] / [(10+3)*(10+3)] = 88.8 kpa Final stress, σ v,f = = kpa This is an overconsolidated clay (overconsolidation ratio OCR = σ c / σ v,o = 80 / 68 > 1.0) ; and the final stress, σ v,f is greater than σ c ( σ v,f > σ c ) therefore we should use both C r and C c in consolidation settlement calculation (see figure below). e (void ratio) Recompression curve: C r = e / log 1 2 Compression curve (virgin line): C c = e / log σ c = 80 kpa log σ σ v,0 = 68 kpa σ v,f = kpa 0.05, log log Consolidation settlement in Clay 2: Initial effective overburden stress, σ v,0 = (2*19) + (6*(20-10)) + (3*(20-10)) = 128 kpa Stress increment due to foundation loading, Δσ= [150*(10*10)] / [(10+9)*(10+9)] = 41.6 kpa 11

12 Final stress, σ v,f = = kpa This is an overconsolidated clay (overconsolidation ratio OCR = σ c / σ v,o = 200 / 128 > 1.0) ; and the final stress, σ v,f is less than σ c ( σ v,f < σ c ) therefore we should use only C r in consolidation settlement calculation (see figure below). [Note: If a soil would be a normally consolidated clay (OCR = σ c / σ v,o = 1.0), we would use only C c in consolidation settlement calculation.] e (void ratio) Recompression curve 1 Compression curve (virgin Line) σ c = 200 kpa log σ σ v,0 = 128 kpa σ v,f = kpa 0.03, 6 log Total Consolidation Settlement (1D):, Corrected Settlement for 3D Consolidation (Skempton-Bjerrum Factor):,,

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