# Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 17.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 17.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS 17.3 BEARING CAPACITY OF MAT FOUNDATIONS 17.4 Example 17.5 DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT OF MATS 18.1 FIELD SETTLEMENT OBSERVATIONS FOR MAT FOUNDATIONS 18.2 COMPENSATED FOUNDATIONS 18.3 Example 19.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF MAT FOUNDATIONS Conventional Rigid Method Approximate Flexible Method Foundations on Sandy Soils Foundations on Clays PROBLEMS REFERENCE

2 Module 5 (Lectures 17) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 1.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 1.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS 1.3 BEARING CAPACITY OF MAT FOUNDATIONS 1.4 Example 1.5 DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT OF MATS

3 INTRODUCTION Mat foundations are primarily shallow foundations. They are one of four major types of combined footing (see figure 5.1a). A brief overview of combined footings and the methods used to calculate their dimensions follows: Figure 5.1 (a) Combined footing; (b) rectangular combined footing

4 Figure 5.1 (Continued) (c) Trapezoidal combined footing; (d) cantilever footing 1. Rectangular Combined Footing: In several instances, the load to be carried by a column and the soil bearing capacity are such that the standard spread footing design will require extension of the column foundation beyond the property line. In such a case, two or more columns can be supported on a single rectangular foundation, as shown in figure 5.1b. If the net allowable soil pressure is known, the size of the foundation (BB LL) can be determined in the following manner.

5 a. Determine the area of the foundation, AA: AA = QQ 1+QQ 2 qq all (net ) [5.1] Where QQ 1 + QQ 2 = column loads qq all (net ) = net allowable soil bearing capacity b. Determine the location of the resultant of the column loads. From figure 5.1b. XX = QQ 2LL 3 QQ 1 +QQ 2 [5.2] c. For uniform distribution of soil pressure under the foundation, the resultant of the column load should pass through the centroid of the foundation. Thus LL = 2(LL 2 + XX) [5.3] Where LL = length of the foundation d. Once the length L is determined, the value of LL 1 can be obtained: LL 1 = LL LL 2 LL 3 [5.4] Note that the magnitude of LL 2 will be known and depends on the location of the property line. e. The width of the foundation then is BB = AA [5.5] LL 2. Trapezoidal Combined Footings: This type of combined footing (figure 5.1c) is sometimes used as an isolated spread foundation of a column carrying a large load where space is tight. The size of the foundation that will uniformly distribute pressure on the soil can be obtained in the following manner. a. If the net allowable soil pressure is known, determine the area of the foundation: AA = QQ 1+QQ 2 qq all (net )

6 From figure 5.1c, AA = BB 1+BB 2 2 LL [5.6] b. Determine the location of the resultant for the column loads: XX = QQ 2LL 3 QQ 1 +QQ 2 c. From the property of Trapezoid, XX + LL 2 = BB 1+2BB 2 BB 1 +BB 2 LL 3 [5.7] With known values of AA, LL, XX, and LL 2, solve equations (6 and 7) to obtain BB 1 and BB 2. Note that for a trapezoid LL 3 < XX + LL 2 < LL 2 3. Cantilever Footing: This type of combined footing construction uses a strap beam to connect an eccentrically loaded column foundation to the foundation of an interior column (figure 5.1d). Cantilever footings may be used in place of trapezoidal or rectangular combined footings when the allowable soil bearing capacity is high and the distances between the columns are large. 4. Mat foundation: This type of foundation, which is sometimes referred to as a raft foundation, is a combined footing that may cover the entire area under a structure supporting several columns and walls (figure 5.1a). Mat foundations are sometimes preferred for soils that have low load-bearing capacities but that will have to support high column and/or wall loads. Under some conditions, spread footings would have to cover more than half the building area, and mat foundations might be more economical. COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS Several types of mat foundations are used currently. Some of the common types are shown schematically in figure 5.2 and include:

7 Figure 5.2 Types of mat foundation: (a) flat plate Figure 5.2 (Continued) (b) Flat plate thickened under column

8 Figure 5.2 (Continued) (c) Beams and slab Figure 5.2 (Continued) (d) Slab with basement wall

9 1. Flat plate (figure 5.2a). The mat is of uniform thickness. 2. Flat plate thickened under columns (figure 5.2b) 3. Beams and slap (figure 5.2c). The beams run both ways and the columns and, located at the intersection of the beams. 4. Slab with basement walls as a part of the mat (figure 5.2d). The walls act as stiffeners for the mat. Mats may be supported by piles. The piles help in reducing the settlement of a structure built over highly compressible soil. Where the water table is high, mats are often placed over piles to control buoyancy. BEARING CAPACITY OF MAT FOUNDATIONS The gross ultimate bearing capacity of a mat foundation can be determined by the same equation used for shallow foundations, or qq uu = cccc cc FF cccc FF cccc FF cccc + qqqq qq FF qqqq FF qqqq FF qqqq γγbbbb γγff γγγγ FF γγγγ FF γγγγ (Chapter 3 gives the proper values of the bearing capacity factors, and shape, depth, and load inclination factors). The term B in equation (25 from chapter 3) is the smallest dimension of the mat. The net ultimate capacity is qq net (u) = qq uu qq A suitable factor of safety should be used to calculate the net allowable bearing capacity. For rafts on clay, the factor of safety should not be less that 3 under dead load and maximum live load. However, under the most extreme conditions, the factor of safety should be at least 1.75 to 2. For rafts constructed over sand, a factor of safety of 3 should normally be used. Under most working conditions, the factor of safety against bearing capacity failure of rafts on sand is very large. For saturated clays with φφ = 0 and vertical loading condition, equation (25 chapters 3) gives qq uu = cc uu NN cc FF cccc FF cccc + qq [5.8] Where cc uu = undrained cohesion (Note: NN cc = 5.14, NN qq = 1, and NN γγ = 0) From table 5 (chapter 3) forφφ = 0, FF cccc = 1 + BB LL NN qq = 1 + BB 1 = BB NN cc LL 5.14 LL

10 And FF cccc = DD ff BB Substitution of the preceding shape and depth factors into equation (8) yields qq uu = 5.14cc uu BB LL DD ff + qq [5.9] BB Hence the net ultimate bearing capacity is qq net (uu) = qq uu uu = 5.14cc uu BB DD ff [5.10] LL BB For FFFF = 3, the net allowable soil bearing capacity becomes qq all (net ) = qq uu (net ) FFFF = 1.713cc uu BB DD ff [5.11] LL BB Figure 5.3 shows a plot of qq all (net ) /cc uu for various values of LL/BB and DD ff /BB, based on equation (11). The net allowable bearing capacity for mats constructed over granular soil deposits can be adequately determined from the standard penetration resistance numbers. From equation (53 chapter 4), for shallow foundations, qq all (net ) (kn/m 2 ) = 11.98NN cccccc 3.28BB BB 2 FF dd SS ee 25.4

11 Figure 5.3 Plot of qq all (net ) /cc uu against DD ff /BB Where NN cccccc = corrected standard penetration resistance BB = width (m) FF dd = (DD ff /BB) 1.33 SS ee = settlement, in mm When the width, B is large, the preceding equation can be approximated (assuming 3.28BB BB) as qq all (net ) (kn/m 2 ) 11.98NN cccccc F d SS ee 25.4 = 11.98NN cccccc DD ff BB SS ee(mm ) 25.4 [5.12] 15.93NN cccccc SS ee(mm ) 25.4

12 In English units, equation (12) may be expressed as qq all (net ) (kip/ft 2 ) = 0.25NN cccccc DD ff BB [S e(in. )] [5.13] 0.33NN cccccc [S e (in. )] Note that equation (13) could have been derived from equations (54 and 56 from chapter 4) Note that the original equations (53 and 56 from chapter 4) were for a settlement of I in. (25.4 mm) with a differential settlement of about 0.75 in. (19mm). However, the widths of the raft foundations are larger than the isolated spread footings. As table 3 chapter 4 shows, the depth of significant stress increase in the soil below a foundation depends on the foundation width. Hence, for a raft foundation, the depth of the zone of influence is likely to be much larger than that of a spread footing. Thus the loose sol pockets under a raft may be more evenly distributed, resulting in a smaller differential settlement. Hence the customary assumption is that, for a maximum raft settlement of 2 in. (50.8 mm), the differential settlement would be 0.75 in. (19 mm). Using this logic and conservatively assuming that FF dd equals 1, we can approximate equations (12 and 13) as qq all (net ) (kn/m 2 ) 23.96NN cccccc [5.14] And qq all (net ) (kip/ft 2 ) = 0. 5NN cccccc [5.15] The net pressure applied on a foundation (figure 5.4) may be expressed as Figure 5.4 Definition of net pressure on soil caused by a mat foundation

13 qq = QQ AA γγdd ff [5.16] Where QQ = dead weight of the structure and the live load AA = area of the raft In all cases, q should be less than or equal to qq all (net ). Example 1 Determine the net ultimate bearing capacity of a mat foundation measuring 45 ft 30 ft on saturated clay with cc uu = 1950 lb/ft 2, φφ = 0, and DD ff = 6.5 ft. Solution From equation (10) qq net (u) = 5.14cc uu BB DD ff LL BB = (5.14)(1950) = 12,307 lb/ft 2 Example What will the net allowable bearing capacity of a mat foundation with dimensions be of 45 ft 30 ft constructed over a sand deposit? Here, DD ff = 6 ft, allowable settlement = 1 in., and corrected average penetration number NN cccccc = 10. Solution From equation (13) qq all (net ) = 0.25NN cccccc DD ff SS BB ee 0.33NN cccccc SS ee qq all (net ) = 0.25(10) (6) (1) 2.67kip/ft 2 30 DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT OF MATS

14 The American Concrete Institute Committee 336 (1988) suggested the following method for calculating the differential settlement of mat foundations. According to this method, the rigidity factor (KK rr ) is calculated as KK rr = EE II bb EE ss BB 3 [5.17] Where EE = modulus of elasticity of the material used in the structure EE ss = modulus of elasticity of the soil BB = width of foundation II bb = moment of inertia of the structure per unit length at right angles to BB The term EE II bb can be expressed as EE II bb = II FF + II bb + aah 3 Where 12 [5.18] EE II bb = flexural rigidity of the superstructure and foundation per unit length at right angles to BB E II bb = flexural rigidity of the framed members at right angles to BB (EE aah 3 /12) = flexural rigidity of the shear walls aa = shear wall thickness h = shear wall height EE II FF = flexibility of the foundation Based on the value of KK rr the ratio (δδ) of the differential settlement to the total settlement can be estimated in the following manner: 1. If KK rr > 0.5, it can be treated as a rigid mat, and δδ = If KK rr = 0.5, then δδ If KK rr = 0, then δδ = 0.35 for square mats (BB/LL = 1) and δδ = 0.5, for long foundations (BB/LL = 0).

### Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS

Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS Topics 24.1 INTRODUCTION 24.2 GRAVITY AND CANTILEVER WALLS 24.3 PROPORTIONING RETAINING WALLS 24.4 APPLICATION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES TO DESIGN 24.5

### Module 4 : Design of Shallow Foundations. Lecture 16 : Introduction [ Section16.1 : Introduction ] Objectives

Lecture 16 : Introduction [ Section16.1 : Introduction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Introduction Different types of footings Lecture 16 : Introduction [ Section16.1 : Introduction

### CE-632 Foundation Analysis and Design

CE-63 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations 1 SUMMARY of Terminology Gross Loading Intensity Total pressure at the level of foundation including the weight of superstructure, foundation, and

### Given informations about construction on foundation plan:

FOUNDATIONS Foundations are structure members having different types of design that carry and transmit the dead, live and earthquake loads of structure. Foundation plans are drawn with 1/50 or 1/100 scale

### Mat Foundations. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Combined Footings

6 Mat Foundations 6.1 Introduction Under normal conditions, square and rectangular footings such as those described in Chapters 3 and 4 are economical for supporting columns and walls. However, under certain

### The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (6) Mat Foundation. Instructor : Dr.

The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (6) Mat Foundation Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad Introduction Under normal conditions, square andrectangularfootings

### Cost Effectiveness of Several Types of Foundation

Cost Effectiveness of Several Types of Foundation Dinesh S.Patil 1, Prof.Anil S.Chander 2 PG Student, Dept. Of Civil Engg. S.N.D.College Of Engineering & Research Center, Yevola., MH, India 1 Assistant

### TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 1 Foundation Systems Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation Pile Foundation Pier (Caisson) Foundation Isolated spread footings Wall footings Combined footings Cantilever or strap footings

### GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS. A handy reference for use in geotechnical analysis and design

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS A handy reference for use in geotechnical analysis and design TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. SOIL CLASSIFICATION...3 1.1 USCS: Unified Soil Classification System...3 1.1.1

### METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 45-66, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

### Module 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ]

Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Introduction Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction

### DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

### SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:

Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems

### FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 14-1 Load Path and Transfer to

### CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions)

CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions) P. 1) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (1) Question: The footing shown in the figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 300 kn/m 2 to the soil. Determine vertical

### Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column

Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend

### Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics)

Chapter 5 Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics) 5.1 Introduction Beam : loads acting transversely to the longitudinal axis the loads create shear forces and bending moments, stresses and strains due to V and

### DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements

### REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for:

HANDOUT REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition RETAINING WALLS Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

### Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications

### A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.

Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTO-LRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular

### Settlement of Shallow Foundations Placed on Limestone Rock Formations with Open or Closed Cavities

Settlement of Shallow Foundations Placed on Limestone Rock Formations with Open or Closed Cavities Ahmed T. M. Farid Geotechnical Institute Housing and Building National Research Center (HBRC) Cairo, Egypt

### 6 1. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at A and B exert only vertical reactions on the shaft.

06 Solutions 46060_Part1 5/27/10 3:51 PM Page 329 6 1. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the shaft. The bearings at and exert only vertical reactions on the shaft. 250 mm 800 mm 24 kn 6 2. Draw the

### Investigation of strip footings under column loads

Investigation of strip footings under column loads Group: Greg Deacon, John Brogan, David McDonnell and Richard Delaney Course: Structural Engineering (Dt024/4) Lecturers: Dr. Colin Caprani, Lacour Ayompe

### Introduction to Spread Footings and Mat Foundations

Introduction to Spread Footings and Mat Foundations Course No: G02-008 Credit: 2 PDH J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court

### CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS

CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS SOIL PROPERTIES Classified into four groups - Sands & gravels - Clays - Silts - Organics Subsurface Exploration Core borings: undisturbed samples of soil - Recovered bore samples

### Module 1 (Lecture 3) GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND OF REINFORCED SOIL

Module 1 (Lecture 3) GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND OF REINFORCED SOIL Topics 1.1 CAPILLARY RISE IN SOIL 1.2 CONSOLIDATIONS-GENERAL 1.3 CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT CALCULATION 1.4 TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION

### CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS The soil beneath structures responsible for carrying the loads is the FOUNDATION. The general misconception is that the structural element which transmits the load

### Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil

Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Settlement of Spreadfootings Founded in Soil Jae H. Chung, Ph.D. Bid Bridge Software Institute t University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Content 1. Background 2.

### Problem 1: Computation of Reactions. Problem 2: Computation of Reactions. Problem 3: Computation of Reactions

Problem 1: Computation of Reactions Problem 2: Computation of Reactions Problem 3: Computation of Reactions Problem 4: Computation of forces and moments Problem 5: Bending Moment and Shear force Problem

### Design Manual to BS8110

Design Manual to BS8110 February 2010 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 The specialist team at LinkStudPSR Limited have created this comprehensive Design Manual, to assist

### MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTOIAL 1 STESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING This is the first tutorial on bending of beams designed for anyone wishing to study it at a fairly advanced level. You should judge

### Seismic Design of Shallow Foundations

Shallow Foundations Page 1 Seismic Design of Shallow Foundations Reading Assignment Lecture Notes Other Materials Ch. 9 FHWA manual Foundations_vibrations.pdf Homework Assignment 10 1. The factored forces

### EXAMPLE 1 DESIGN OF CANTILEVERED WALL, GRANULAR SOIL

EXAMPLE DESIGN OF CANTILEVERED WALL, GRANULAR SOIL A sheet pile wall is required to support a 2 excavation. The soil is uniform as shown in the figure. To take into account the friction between the wall

### 9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I)

9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are

### Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5

Lesson 5: Deflection in reinforced concrete beams Content 4.1 Introduction 4. Definitions 4..1 Tension 4.. Compression 4.3 Initial sizing 4.3.1 Worked example 4.4 Reinforcement details 4.5 Anchorage at

### Design Of Reinforced Concrete Structures ii Two-Way Slabs

1. Inroduction When the ratio (L/S) is less than 2.0, slab is called two-way slab, as shown in the fig. below. Bending will take place in the two directions in a dish-like form. Accordingly, main reinforcement

### MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS This is the second tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.

### Part 1. Dimensions and Properties. Load and Resistance Factor Design, 3 rd Editioni. Most widely used section. Two flanges held apart by a web

Manual of Steel Construction Load and Resistance Factor Design, 3 rd Editioni Part 1 Dimensions and Properties C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. University of Maryland at College Park 1 Wide-flange (W) Shapes Most

### Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites

Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked example to accompany MBIE Guidance on the seismic design of retaining

### Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Equations

Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Equations Bearing capacity equation Bearing capacity factors Bearing capacity Chart Example 1: trip footing on cohesionless soil Example 2: quare footing on clay soil Example

### ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design

This image cannot currently be displayed. ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations Total and Differential Settlement Schmertmann s Method This image cannot currently be displayed. Strength

### Since the Steel Joist Institute

SELECTING and SPECIFYING Wesley B. Myers, P.E. An insider s guide to selecting and specifying K-series, LH, DLH-series joists and joist girders Since the Steel Joist Institute adopted the first standard

### MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 3 THE DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL THE DEECTION OF BEAMS This is the third tutorial on the bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. On completion

### Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

### Centre, Bandar Tasik Selatan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Methodology for Design of Piled Raft for Five-Storeys Buildings on Very Soft Clay Tan, Y.C. 1, Cheah, S.W. 1 and Taha, M.R. 2 Abstract Conventional piled foundation is usually designed for buildings to

### Shallow Foundation Analysis on Heterogeneous Soil Formation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

Shallow Foundation Analysis on Heterogeneous Soil Formation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria Akpila, S.B Department of Civil Engineering Rivers State University of Science & Technology, PortHarcourt. Eluozo,

14.53 THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples: -Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples:

### MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY

13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 4 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY Tomohiko KAMIMURA

### Analysis of Underground Water Tank

Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 (Metric Units) Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 Table of Content Objective... 3 Problem... 3 Step by Step... 6 1. Start Model with Template...

### The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

### ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P This material is duplicated in the Mechanical Principles module H2 and those

### PILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5-134

C H A P T E R 6 PILE FOUNDATIONS Section I. GROUP BEHAVIOR 6-1. Group action. Piles are most effective when combined in groups or clusters. Combining piles in a group complicates analysis since the characteristics

### 1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona

for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures SECTION 70 - GENERAL "APPENDIX CHAPTER 7 - EARTHEN MATERIAL STRUCTURES 70. Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to establish minimum standards of safety

### Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Woodframe floor systems and concrete slab-on-grade floors are discussed in this chapter. Although cold-formed steel framing for floor systems also is permitted by the IRC,

VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL Point Loads (P) TYPES OF LOADING Line Loads (q/unit length) Revised 0/015 Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples: - Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples: - Railroad

### The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

EGN-5439 The Design of Tall Buildings Lecture #14 The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Via the Direct Method as per ACI 318-05 L. A. Prieto-Portar - 2008 Reinforced concrete floor systems provide an

### 16. Beam-and-Slab Design

ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. Beam-and-Slab Design Beam-and-Slab System How does the slab work? L- beams and T- beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil

### (Lecture 7) NATURAL SOIL DEPOSITS AND SUBSOIL EXPLORATION

Module 2 (Lecture 7) NATURAL SOIL DEPOSITS AND SUBSOIL EXPLORATION Topics 1.17 CONE PENETRATION TEST 1.18 PRESSUREMETER TEST (PMT) 1.19 DILATOMETER TEST 1.20 CORING OF ROCKS 1.21 PREPARATION OF BORIN LOGS

### Two Way Slab. Problem Statement:

Two Way Slab Problem Statement: Use the ACI 318 Direct Design Method to design an interior bay of a flat plate slab system of multi bay building. The Dimensions of an interior bay are shown in Figure 1.

### Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for Non-Geotechnical Engineers

PDHonline Course C155 (2 PDH) Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for Non-Geotechnical Engineers Instructor: Richard P. Weber, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA

### National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination

Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8-hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)

### ETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Concrete Shear Wall Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all

### Bending Stress in Beams

936-73-600 Bending Stress in Beams Derive a relationship for bending stress in a beam: Basic Assumptions:. Deflections are very small with respect to the depth of the beam. Plane sections before bending

### 11/1/2010 3:57 PM 1 of 11

Masonry Wall 6.0 - MASONRY WALL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ================================================================================ Job ID : Job Description : Designed By : ================================================================================

### SIMPLE DESIGN LOAD AND SPAN CHARTS FOR CORCON

CORCON Design, Construction and Technical Information Manual SIMPLE DESIGN CHART & SAMPLE CALCULATIONS INDEX DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS SIMPLE DESIGN LOAD AND SPAN CHARTS FOR CORCON SAMPLE CALCULATION BEAM

### Stress: The stress in an axially loaded tension member is given by Equation (4.1) P (4.1) A

Chapter 4. TENSION MEMBER DESIGN 4.1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS Stress: The stress in an axially loaded tension member is given by Equation (4.1) P f = (4.1) A where, P is the magnitude of load, and A is the

### 4B-2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections.

Shear Walls Buildings that use shear walls as the lateral force-resisting system can be designed to provide a safe, serviceable, and economical solution for wind and earthquake resistance. Shear walls

### HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and

### Steel Deck. A division of Canam Group

Steel Deck A division of Canam Group TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE OUR SERVICES... 4 NOTES ABOUT LOAD TABLES... 5 P-3615 & P-3606 DIMENSIONS & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... 6 FACTORED AND SERVICE LOADS... 7 P-2436 &

### Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder

### Aluminium systems profile selection

Aluminium systems profile selection The purpose of this document is to summarise the way that aluminium profile selection should be made, based on the strength requirements for each application. Curtain

### 8.2 Shear and Bending-Moment Diagrams: Equation Form

8.2 Shear and ending-oment Diagrams: Equation Form 8.2 Shear and ending-oment Diagrams: Equation Form Eample 1, page 1 of 6 1. Epress the shear and bending moment as functions of, the distance from the

### SEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:

SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the

### Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250

Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..

### BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD

SENRA Academic Publishers, British Columbia Vol., No. 1, pp. 27-2774, February 20 Online ISSN: 0-353; Print ISSN: 17-7 BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT RESPONSE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ON SAND USING STANDARD

### 11 CHAPTER 11: FOOTINGS

CHAPTER ELEVEN FOOTINGS 1 11 CHAPTER 11: FOOTINGS 11.1 Introuction Footings are structural elements that transmit column or wall loas to the unerlying soil below the structure. Footings are esigne to transmit

### 4 Shear Forces and Bending Moments

4 Shear Forces and ending oments Shear Forces and ending oments 8 lb 16 lb roblem 4.3-1 alculate the shear force and bending moment at a cross section just to the left of the 16-lb load acting on the simple

### SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams

### A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible

Chapter. Design of Beams Flexure and Shear.1 Section force-deformation response & Plastic Moment (M p ) A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible axial

### EFFECT OF GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF A COARSE SAND BED

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 01 06, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

### Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Chapter 4 Shear Forces and Bending Moments 4.1 Introduction Consider a beam subjected to transverse loads as shown in figure, the deflections occur in the plane same as the loading plane, is called the

### General Approach. Structure Components. Is all lumber the same? Lumber Grades. Rafters Girders / Beams Columns. Sketch general structural layout

General Approach Sketch general structural layout Determine roof loading Determine required lumber dimensions Transfer load down the structure Structure Components Plants Structure Components Top Side

### Formwork for Concrete

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CM 420 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES Winter Quarter 2007 Professor Kamran M. Nemati Formwork for Concrete Horizontal Formwork Design and Formwork Design

This document downloaded from vulcanhammer.net since 1997, your source for engineering information for the deep foundation and marine construction industries, and the historical site for Vulcan Iron Works

### Steel Design Guide Series. Column Base Plates

Steel Design Guide Series Column Base Plates Steel Design Guide Series Column Base Plates Design of Column Base Plates John T. DeWolf Professor of Civil Engineering University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut

### Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS

CHAPTER Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition SHEAR IN BEAMS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part I Concrete Design and Analysis 4a FALL 2002 By Dr.

### International Society for Helical Foundations (ISHF)

QUICK DESIGN GUIDE For Screw-Piles and Helical Anchors in Soils Ver. 1.0 Prepared by Dr. Alan J. Lutenegger, P.E., F. ASCE for International Society for Helical Foundations (ISHF) Copyright 2015 (ISHF)

### Design Parameters for Steel Special Moment Frame Connections

SEAOC 2011 CONVENTION PROCEEDINGS Design Parameters for Steel Special Moment Frame Connections Scott M. Adan, Ph.D., S.E., SECB, Chair SEAONC Structural Steel Subcommittee Principal Adan Engineering Oakland,

### Period #16: Soil Compressibility and Consolidation (II)

Period #16: Soil Compressibility and Consolidation (II) A. Review and Motivation (1) Review: In most soils, changes in total volume are associated with reductions in void volume. The volume change of the

### Structural Steel Design Project

Job No: Sheet 1 of 1 Rev Job Title: Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Group Worked Example 1 Checked by Date Design Example 1: Design a bolted connection between a bracket 8 mm thick and the flange of an ISHB

### Structures and Stiffness

Structures and Stiffness ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering Ken Youssefi/Thalia Anagnos Engineering 10, SJSU 1 Wind Turbine Structure The Goal The support structure should be optimized for weight and

### Design of an Industrial Truss

Design of an Industrial Truss Roofing U 2 U 3 Ridge U 4 Sagrod 24 U 1 U 5 L 0 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L 6 6@20 = 120 Elevation of the Truss Top Cord Bracing Sagrod Purlin at top, Bottom Cord Bracing at bottom

### Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments

Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments Positive Internal Forces Acting Recall from mechanics of materials that the internal forces P (generic axial), V (shear) and M (moment) represent resultants

### Composite Sections and Steel Beam Design. Composite Design. Steel Beam Selection - ASD Composite Sections Analysis Method

Architecture 324 Structures II Composite Sections and Steel Beam Design Steel Beam Selection - ASD Composite Sections Analysis Method Photo by Mike Greenwood, 2009. Used with permission University of Michigan,

### P4 Stress and Strain Dr. A.B. Zavatsky MT07 Lecture 4 Stresses on Inclined Sections

4 Stress and Strain Dr. A.B. Zavatsky MT07 Lecture 4 Stresses on Inclined Sections Shear stress and shear strain. Equality of shear stresses on perpendicular planes. Hooke s law in shear. Normal and shear

### Design of cross-girders and slabs in ladder deck bridges

130 Chris R Hendy Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Jessica Sandberg Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David Iles Steel Construction Institute Design

### New building plans on the surface above the existing underground Willemspoortunnel in Rotterdam

New building plans on the surface above the existing underground Willemspoortunnel in Rotterdam Ragavan Appiah, Aronsohn raadgevende ingenieurs bv, Rotterdam, The Netherlands The development of new projects