# PDHonline Course S151A (1 PDH) Steel Sheet Piling. Instructor: Matthew Stuart, PE, SE. PDH Online PDH Center

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1 PDHonline Course S151A (1 PDH) Steel Sheet Piling Instructor: Matthew Stuart, PE, SE 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA Phone & Fax: An Approved Continuing Education Provider

2

3 SHEET PILING SHEET PILING WALLS Cantilever sheetpiling walls depend on the passive resisting capacity of the soil below the depth of excavation to prevent overturning. The depth of sheetpiling walls below the bottom of the excavation are determined by using the difference between the passive and active pressures acting on the wall. The theoretical depth of pile penetration below the depth of excavation is obtained by equating horizontal forces and by taking moments about an assumed bottom of piling. The theoretical depth of penetration represents the point of rotation of the piling. Additional penetration is needed to obtain some fixity for the piling. Computed piling depths are generally increased 20% to 40% to obtain some fixity and to prevent lateral movement at the bottom of the piling. It is not within the scope of this text to go into great detail concerning the design and analysis of sheet piling. A few of the more common situations complete with sample problems are presented on the following pages. A more adequate. and lengthy dissertation with example problems can-be found in the USS Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual. The cohesive value of clay adjacent to sheet pile walls approaches zero with the passage of time. Design and analysis for clay soil conditions must generally meet the conditions of cohesionless soil design if the sheet piling support system is to be in use for more than a month. For those few cases where a clay analysiswill be appropriate, reference is made to the USS Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual. It is possible to have negative pressure values with cohesive soils. Since cohesive soil adjacent to sheet pile walls loses its effective cohesion with the passage of time it is recommended that negative values be ignored. Do not use negative pressure values for the analysis of sheet piling systems. Any theoretical negative values should be converted to zero. Friction: The friction value at the soil-wall interface, or adhesion between the clay and the wall, should be ignored with sheet piling walls when the walls are in close proximity to pile driving or other vibratory operations - including functional railroad tracks. Similarly, above the depth of excavation, the cohesive value of the clay of a combined clay-sand soil should be ignored under the same circumstances. 8-1 Revised 06/95

4 Wall Stabilitv: CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL The stability of cantilever steel sheet pile walls will need to be considered in cohesive soils. The sheetpiling will fail if this height is exceeded. The stability number relates to kick out at the toe of the sheetpiling wall. Therefore, for design of sheetpiling walls in cohesive soils, the first step should be the investigation of the limiting height. A stability number S has been defined for this analysis as: and was derived from the net passive pressure in front of the wall in the term: Teng found that adhesion of the cohesive soil to the sheets would allow modification to the stability equation and adjusted S from 0.25 to A minimum stability number of 0.31 times an appropriate factor of safety could be used in design. However, when dynamic loadings near or at the sheets is considered (such as trains, pile driving operations, heavy vibrational motions, etc.) the adhesional effect must be excluded from the design and a stability number of S = 0.25 is to be used with an appropriate factor of safety in the height determination equation. Rakers: When rakers are supported on the ground the allowable soil bearing capacity for the raker footing must be considered. Cohesionless soil having small internal friction angles will have lower soil bearing capacity. Additionally, when the footings are sloped relative to the ground surface reduced soil bearing capacities will result. A Department of the Navy publication (NAVFAC DM-7) includes reduction factors for footings near the ground surface. See the graphs entitled, "Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Continuous Footings With Inclined Loads" in Appendix B. 8-2 Revised 06/95

5 The NAVFAC figures assume that soil will be replaced over the footings. When such is the case a factor of D/B (bottom of footing distance below ground surface divided by the footing width) may be used. When the bottom of footing is at grade no D/B factor is to be used. Good judgement will be needed to determine an effective D/B value based on anticipated construction. The safety factor of 3 for footings recommended by NAVFAC is generally considered to be for permanent installations. For short term shoring conditions a safety factor of 2 might be used. A reduced safety factor, however, could allow greater soil settlement, which in turn would permit additional outward wall rotation. Therefore, when wall deflection or rotation is not deemed critical a safety factor of 2 may be used for short term conditions. Tieback Walls: See the Chapter on TIEBACKS for analysis of any tieback systems. Tieback sheetpiling wall sample problems are included in the tieback chapter. Sample Problems: Sample problems are included in this chapter to demonstrate the principles of sheetpiling design for both cohesionless and for cohesive soils. Additional soil pressure diagrams which relate to sheet piling are presented in the section on soldier piles. 8-3 Revised 06/95

6 CANTILEVER SHEET PILING - GRANULAR SOIL FIGURE 8-l 8-4 Revised 06/95

7 SHEET PILING CANTILEVER SHEET PILING - GRANULAR SOIL (CONVENTIONAL METHOD) Solve the two equations simultaneously for D (or use trial and error methods). In most real situations there will be some sort of surcharge present. Simplifying the resulting pressure diagrams (usingsound engineering judgement) should not alter the results significantly and will make the problems much easier to resolve. The surcharge pressures can be added directly to the soil diagram or may be drawn separately. Passive resistance may be initially reduced by dividing K P by 1.5 to l.75, which will increase the moment requirement; or alternatively increase the computed D by 20% to 40% to fix the pile tips. 8-5 Revised 06/95

8 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL 8-6 Revised 06/95

9 SHEET PILING FIGURE Revised 06/95

10 SAMPLE PROBLEM 8-1: CANTILEVER SHEET PILING This problem serves as a comparison between the Simplified Method (after Teng) and the conventional procedure when a surcharge load is included. Given: 8-8 Revised 06/95

11 SHEET PILING SIMPLIFIED METHOD 8-9 Revised 06/95

12 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL 8-10 Revised 6/95

13 SHEET PILING SAMPLE PROBLEM 8-2: STEEL SHEET PILING WITH RAKER FIGURE Revised 06/95

14 Determine d 1 by taking moments about T: Determine T: 8-12 Revised 06/95

15 SHEET PILING Determine Maximum Moment And Section Modulus Required: SHEAR DIAGRAM FIGURE Revised 06/95

16 Check Wales: (WlO X 21) CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL Check Raker: (12 X 6' Spacing) 8-14 Revised O6/95

17 SHEET PILING Check Corbel: (HP10 x 42) Summary: 8-15 Revised 06/95

18 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL CANTILEVER SHEET PILING - COHESIVE SOIL ( = 0 METHOD) * FIGURE Revised 06/95

19 CANTILEVER SHEET PILING - COHESIVE SOIL (ALTERNATE METHOD) FIGURE Revised 06/95

20 SAMPLE PROBLEM 8-3: CANTILEVER SHEET PILE WALL (CLAY) FIGURE 8-13 FIGURE Revised 06/95

21 SHEET PILING FIGURE Revised 06/95

22 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL Areas: 8-20 Revised 06/95

23 SHEET PILING Sample Problems 8-2 and 8-3 were reanalyzed using no surcharge below the excavation depth. A comparison of results for computed depth and moment are tabulated below. This tabulation may be of help in Checking computer results. The following tabulation is for comparative purposes only: Use Surcharge Below Excavation Depth No Surcharge Below Excavation Depth Sample Problem 8-2 Sample Problem Revised 06/95

24 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL The following tables furnish selected properties for various steel sheet piles. TABLE 8-l 8-22 Revised O6/95

25 SHEET PILING UNITED STATES STEEL SHEET PILING TABLE 8-l 8-23 Revised O6/95

26 TABLE 8-l 8-24 Revised 06/95

27 SHEET PILING 8-25 Revised 06/95

28 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL ARBED Esch-Belval STEEL SHEET PILING TABLE 8-l 8-26 Revised 06/95

29 SHEET PILING ARBED STEEL SHEET PILING TABLE 8-l 8-27 Revised 06/95

30 CALIFORNIA TRENCHING AND SHORING MANUAL HOESCH STEEL SHEET PILING TABLE 8-l 8-28 Revised 06/95

31 FOSTER STEEL SHEET PILING TABLE 8-l 8-29 Revised 06/95

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