PILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5-134

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5-134"

Transcription

1 C H A P T E R 6 PILE FOUNDATIONS Section I. GROUP BEHAVIOR 6-1. Group action. Piles are most effective when combined in groups or clusters. Combining piles in a group complicates analysis since the characteristics of a single pile are no longer valid due to the interactions of the other group piles. The allowable load of a single pile will not be the same when that pile is combined in a cluster or in a group. There is no simple relationship between the characteristics of a single isolated pile and those of a group. Relationships depend on the size and other features of the group and on the nature and sequence of the soil strata. The ultimate bearing capacity of a group of piles is not necessarily equal to the ultimate bearing capacity of a single isolated pile multiplied by the number of piles in the group. Only in certain cases (for example where the group compacts the soil) will the ultimate bearing capacity of the group be greater than the number of piles times the ultimate bearing capacity. For end-bearing piles on rock or in compact sand or gravel with equally strong material beneath, the ultimate bearing capacity of the group will be essentially equal to the number of piles times the ultimate bearing capacity. For piles which rely on skin friction in a deep bed of cohesive material, the ultimate bearing capacity of a large group maybe substantially less than the number of piles times the ultimate bearing capacity Driving. a. Effects on the soil. When piles are installed in groups, consideration should be given to their effects on the soil. Heave and lateral displacement of the soil should be limited by the choice of a suitable type of pile and by appropriate spacing. Some soil, particularly loose sands, will be compacted by displacement piles. Piles should be installed in a sequence which avoids creating a compacted block of ground into which additional piles cannot be driven. Similar driving difficulties may be experienced where a stiff clay or compacted sand and gravel have to be penetrated to reach the bearing stratum. This may be overcome by first driving the center piles of a group and working outwards, but it is frequently more convenient to begin at a selected edge and 6-l

2 work across the group. In extreme cases, it may be necessary to predrill through a hard upper stratum. If the group is confined by sheet piling which has already been driven, it may be preferable to drive from the perimeter inward to avoid displacemer of the sheet piling. b. Effects on adjacent structures. When piles are to be driven for a new foundation alongside an existing structure, care must be taken to insure that the existing structure is not damaged by the operation. Settlement or heave caused by pile driving may seriously damage the foundations of nearby structures. For example, piles driven behind a retaining wall can increase the pressure on the wall. This increase in pressure maybe caused by densfication of a granular soil by vibration, or a plastic soil may actually be forced against the wall. To avoid or minimize the effects of vibration, the pile may be driven in a predrilled hole or jetted or jacked into place. The jetting itself could have a detrimental effect upon the soil beneath an existing structure Spacing. Piles should be spaced in relationship to the nature of the ground, their behavior in groups. and the overall cost of the foundation. The spacing should be chosen with regard to the resulting heave or compaction. Spacing should be wide enough for all piles installed to the correct penetration without damaging adjacent construction or the piles themselves. For piles founded on rock, the minimum center-to-center spacing is 2 times the average pile diameter, or 1.75 times the diagonal dimension of the pile cross section, but not less than 24 inches. An optimum spacing of 3 times the diameter of the pile is often used. This allows both adequate room for driving and economical design of the pile cap. 6-2 Section II. GROUND CONDITIONS 6-4. Rock. Site investigation should establish whether the underlying rock surface is level, inclined, or irregular. It should also determine the thickness of decomposed rock which the pile should penetrate. If the surface is inclined, driven piles may have to be pointed. The upper load limit of a pointed pile embedded in sound rock may be the allowable compressive stress of the material in the pile. If the overlying material is saturated plastic clay, displacement piles and consequent volume changes may heave piles already driven Cohesionless soils. a. Piles driven into dense sand. Piles are driven through the soft materials and into a dense, deep stratum of sand to develop adequate carrying capacity. If the sand is moderately loose, the required penetration may be deep. If the sand is dense, penetration may be only a few feet. Skin friction of compressible soil is not considered since it will disappear in a period of time. The entire load will then be carried by the firm stratum (figure 5-3). (1) Point resistance. Point resistance can be found using calculations and laboratory tests (chapter 5, section IV). It can also be determined approximately by making a load test on two piles driven about 5 feet apart. One pile is driven to refusal in the firm bearing stratum while the other is driven until its point is 3 feet above the surface of the bearing stratum. If both piles are loaded at equal rates, the effect of time on skin friction can be eliminated. The point resistance is equal to the difference between the ultimate bearing capacities of the two piles.

3 (2) Depth estimate. The depth to which piles must extend into the sand can be estimated on the basis of driving tests combined with load tests or, in the case of small projects, calculations using dynamic or static formulas. b. Compaction piles. Compaction piles densify the sand. The design load for compaction piles is conservative. The piles are driven to equal penetration with each hammer stroke. The hammer strokes wil1 be progressively shorter as work continues because the sand becomes more compacted by driving the preceding pile. Driving resistance increases as each pile is driven because of the compaction of the soil. (1) Driving loads. On small jobs, loads of 20 tons are usually assigned to compaction piles of timber and 30 tons to precast concrete. The piles should be driven to the capacities indicated by the Engineering News formula (chapter 5, section III). On large jobs, a test group of several piles should be driven. The center pile should be driven first to a capacity indicated by the Engineering News formula. When the entire group of piles has been driven, the center pile should be redriven, and its capacity determined by the formula. The difference between the 2 computed capacities reflects the effects of densification. A load test on the center pile after redriving may be used to check the accuracy of the computed capacity. (2) Length. The length of compaction piles decreases markedly with increasing taper. Piles from 20-ton to 30-ton capacity having a taper of 1 inch to 2 ½ feet can seldom be driven more than 25 feet in loose sands. c. Piles for preventing scour. Scour, which results from currents, floods, or ship-propeller action, will significantly reduce the functional resistance of a pile. The bases of bridge piers located near river channels must be established below the level to which the river bottom is removed by scour during floods. In many cases, the depth of the river increases faster during floods than the crest rises. As bridges are located where the channel is narrow, the depth of scour is likely to be greater than average. Furthermore, the construction of the bridge usually causes additional constriction of the channel and itself increases the depth of scour. Depths of scour can be as much as 4 feet for each 1 foot of rise. For military construction, a reasonable design estimate is a depth of scour equal to 1 foot for each foot of rise of the water. Scour can be minimized by surrounding the pile foundation with sheet piles or providing riprap protection around the base of the pier (refer to TM 5-312). d. Group behavior. The ultimate bearing capacity of pile groups in cohesionless soil is equal to the number of piles times the ultimate bearing capacity of an individual pile, provided the pile spacing is not less than three pile diameters. A pile group in cohesionless soil settles more than an individual pile under the same load (figure 6-l). Ordinarily, driving to a resistance of 20 tons for timber piles or 30 tons for concrete piles as determined by the Engineering News formula will insure that settlements are within tolerable limits. Piles driven into a thick bearing stratum of dense, cohesionless materials should not settle provided correct safety and engineering analysis have been followed. e. Uplift resistance. The total uplift resistance of a pile group is the smaller of the following. The uplift resistance of a single pile times the number of piles in the group. The uplift capacity of the entire pile group as a block (figure 6-2), which is the 6-3

4 6-4 FM 5-134

5 sum of the weight of the pile cap, the weight of the block of soil (using buoyant weights below the water table), and the frictional resistance along the perimeter of the block. f. Driving. The driving resistance of sands does not indicate the true resistance of the pile. If the sands are loose, pore pressures allow the piles to penetrate with little resistance. However, with time these pore pressures will dissipate; and redriving or subsequent load tests will indicate a greater soil resistance. If the materials are dense, initial driving may cause negative pore pressure, making driving hard. As these pressures dissipate, both resistance and load values lower. Redrive tests should be performed when excessively high or low driving resistances are encountered clay. a. Group action. Piles driven in clay derive their capacity from friction. They are commonly driven in groups or clusters beneath individual footings or as single large groups beneath mats or rafts. The bearing capacity of a pile cluster maybe equal to the number of piles times the bearing capacity per pile, or it may be much smaller because of block failure (figure 6-3). The load on a group of piles may be sufficient to cause block failure. Block failure generally can be eliminated if the pile spacing is equal to or greater than three pile diameters. b. Settlement. The need to limit settlement will govern design of piles in clay. Procedures for computing foundation settlement are presented in TM Stress distribution 6-5

6 requirements may be found by analyzing the settlement of pile groups (figure 6-4). The reduction in settlement provided by friction piles is generally small, and therefore alternate types of shallow foundations should be considered in lieu of friction piles. 6-6

7 Settlement of a group of friction piles will tend to increase as the number of piles in the group increases. Efficiency factors can be used to calculate how to reduce the allowable load to compensate for settlement. For piles spaced wider than three pile diameters, the reduced group capacity can be found by multiplying the sum of the individual capacities times the ultimate bearing capacity times an efficiency factor which varies from 0.7 for a spacing of three pile diameters to 1 for eight pile diameters. Alternatively, the pile groups are proportioned on the basis of computed settlements. c. Uplift resistance. The resistance to uplift of pile groups in clay is governed by the same considerations that apply to uplift resistance of pile groups in sand. d. Driving. Clay soils are relatively incompressible under the action of pile driving. Hence, a volume of soil eaual to that of the pile usually will be displaced (figure 6-5). This will cause ground heave between and around the piles. Driving a pile alongside those previously driven frequently will cause those already in place to heave upward. In the case of piles driven through a clay stratum to firm bearing beneath, the heave may be sufficient to destroy the contact between the tip of the pile and the firm stratum. This may be detected by taking level readings on the tops of piles pre viously placed. Raised piles should be redriven to firm bearing. The displacement of soil by the pile may cause sufficient lateral force to move previously driven piles out of line or damage the shells of cast-in-place concrete 6-7

8 piles of the shell-less type. This problem may be solved by predrilling Negative friction (down drag). a. Cohesive soils. After a pile is installed through a stratum of cohesive soil, the downward movement of the consolidating and overlying soils will cause a drag on the pile. The consolidation may be caused by the weight of the deposit, by the imposition of a surcharge such as a fill, or by remolding during pile installation. The downward drag may cause excessive settlement. Coating the pile with a bitumen compound will reduce drag. The magnitude of the drag per unit of area cannot exceed the undrained shearing strength of the compressible soil (table 5-l). The drag acts on the vertical surface area of the entire pile foundation. Methods of analysis for drag on piles in clay are illustrated in figure Permafrost. a. Suitability. Piles are extremely satisfactory as foundations in arctic regions. Their use is discussed in detail in TM Since the bearing value of frozen ground is high, piles in permafrost will support a tremendous load. However, because freezing of the active zone creates uplift, piles maybe installed at least twice as deep as the thickness of the active zone. To reduce uplift, piles are installed butt down. Loads are not placed on piling until the permafrost has had a chance to refreeze, unless the normal skin fiction and bearing will support the load. b. Allowable load. The allowable load can be determined as follows. Immediately after construction (figure 6-7, 1). b. Sensitive clays. When piles are driven through sensitive clay, the resulting remolding may restart the consolidation process. The downward force due to negative friction may then be estimated by multiplying the cohesion of the remolded clay by the surface area of the pile shaft. Particular care should be given to the design of friction pile foundations if the soil is sensitive. In such circumstances it maybe preferable not to use piles. c. Design allowance. If drag will develop, the point resistance of the piles should be evaluated separately by means of analysis or load tests. The drag load should be added to the load earned by the bearing stratum. When drag causes an overload, the allowable load may be reduced by 15 percent if a safety factor from 2.5 to 3 is provided for the working load. 6-8

9 6-9

10 c. Spacing. A minimum spacing of 6 feet is d. Installation seasons. The best season to used if the piles are placed in holes thawed by install piles in the arctic is autumn, as soon a steam or water jet. Normal design should as the ground surface has frozen sufficiently space piles 10 to 14 feet apart. For very heavy to support equipment. If working conditions construction, excellent results have been permit, winter is an equally good season. obtained by using 8-inch diameter, standardweight steel pipes, placed in holes drilled without steam or water jetting, and spaced 6 feet center-to-center. 6-10

11 Section III. DESIGN EXAMPLES 6-9. Point-bearing piles in sand. a. Task. Design a pile structure for soft soils over a thick stratum of sand. Determine the number of 15-inch timber piles required to support an isolated column footing which carries a vertical load of 180 tons, including the weight of the pile cap. b. Conditions. The soil consists of 10 feet of soft organic clay underlain by sands. The groundwater table is at ground surface. The submerged unit weights of the clay and sands are 40 and 62 pounds per cubic foot respectively. A split spoon boring indicates that the penetration resistance of the sand is 30 blows per foot. A test pile has been driven through the organic clay, penetrating 5 feet into the sand. Time is not available to perform a pile load test. c. Dynamic formula. A 3,000-pound hammer with a drop of 6 feet is used to drive the test pile. The average penetration of the pile during the last 6 blows of the hammer is 0.25 inch. Using the Engineering News formula applicable for drop hammers, the estimated allowable load for the pile is as follows. d. Static formula. The allowable load on a single pile also maybe estimated by means of the static formula (figure 5-4, 2). Based on the penetration resistance of 30 blows per foot, the sand stratum can be assumed to be in a medium dense condition with an angle of internal friction of 36 degrees. FS=factor of safety 6-11

12 e. Allowable load and spacing. Both the dynamic and static formulas indicate that an allowable load of 15 tons per pile is reasonable. The number of piles required to support the load is 180/15 = 12 piles. As the piles are founded in sand, no reduction for group action is necessary. The piles should be spaced 3 feet (three times the pile diameter) center-to-center and could be arranged in 3 rows of 4 piles each. Piles should be 17 feet long, providing an additional 2 feet required for embedment and for differences in driving resistances. If a concrete cap is used, allowance must be made for embedment of piles into the cap Point-bearing piles in sands with deep clay stratum. a. Task. Design a pile structure for soft soils over a thick stratum of sand. Determine the number of 15-inch timber piles required to support a load of 180 tons including the weight of the pile cap. b. Conditions. Foundation conditions are similar to those in paragraph 6-9 except that the sand stratum is of limited thickness and underlain by clay. The soil profile and available soils data are shown in figure 6-8. c. Allowable load. The allowable load per pile, based on either the dynamic or static formula, is determined to be 15 tons, as noted in paragraph 6-9. d. Settlement. The clay layer underlying the sand stratum could result in undesirable settlement of the pile foundation. Settlement caused by consolidation is a matter of concern if the structure is not temporary. Consolidation settlement can be estimated using the stress distribution based on figure 6-4 and the approximate method of settlement analysis explained in TM (1) Basic equation. The basic equation for settlement due to consolidation of a normally loaded clay of low sensitivity is as follows. (2) Pressure calculations..all pressure calculations will be referred to the center of the clay layer (elevation 268). where: P O = existing overburden pressure For simplicity, it is assumed that the piles are arranged in a square pattern of 4 x 4. The increase in pressure, is obtained by assuming that the load is spread at angle of 2 vertical to 1 horizontal, starting at the lower third point of the pile embedment in sands. 6-12

13 (3) Settlemet formula. Estimated settlement as follows. (4) Settlement estimate. The settlement may now be estimated as follows. 6-13

14 (5) Other considerations. This foundation may be expected to settle approximately 4 inches. Settlement may be reduced slightly by increasing the spacing between the piles. An increase in pile spacing above four times the pile diameter frequently results in uneconomical design of the pile cap. If this amount of settlement is excessive, longer timber piles may be driven through the sand and clay to bedrock. Jetting may be necessary to get the piles through the sand layer. If this is done, the load on each pile maybe increased to 20 tons or more, and the number of piles may be reduced from 16 to 9. Piles 42 feet long will be required Friction piles in clay. a. Task. Design a pile foundation in a location where borings indicate a uniform clay deposit to a depth of 80 feet (figure 6-9). Determine the number of 12-inch timber piles (readily available in 45 foot lengths) required to support a load of 120 tons. b. Conditions. The clay is medium stiff, with an average unconfined shear strength of 600 pounds per square foot (0.3 tons per square foot). The allowable load on a single pile may be estimated by using the soil test results and other information (figure 5-3). Time is not available to perform a pile load test. c. Required embedment. The ultimate load on a single pile using the analysis shown in figure 5-3 is as follows. Based on a safety factor of 2.0, the required embedment to provide an allowable load per pile of 20 tons is as follows. d. Pile spacing and group action. If the piles are arranged in 3 rows of 3 piles each with a spacing of 3 feet 6 inches, center-tocenter, the pile group can carry a gross load of 9 (20) = 180 tons. To accommodate the larger settlement expected from a group of piles compared to a single pile, the capacity should be multiplied by an efficiency factor, E, which (as previously noted) is equal to 0.7 for a pile spacing of 3 pile diameters. Thus, the group capacity corrected for settlement to 0.7 x 180 tons (126 tons) is a value greater than the actual load of 120 tons. e. Block failure. To check for block failure (figure 6-3) the bearing capacity of the pile group is computed as follows. 6-14

15 With a safety factor of 3, the allowable load on the pile group is 595/3 = 198 tons. Since this is greater than the load which the group will carry (120 tons), the design is satisfactory from the standpoint of block failure. f. Settlement. The settlement of the pile group may be estimated using the approximate method described in paragraph 6-10, assuming that the pile loads are applied on a plane located one-third of the length of the piles above their tips. Using the data shown in figure 6-9, the following calculations are made with pressures calculated at elevation 125. Assuming that a long-term settlement of 3 inches is acceptable, the design is considered satisfactory. If the computed settlement is excessive, the amount could be reduced by using greater pile spacings or longer piles. It should be noted that long-term settlements exceeding 1 inch can cause serious problems for rigid structures. This is particularly true when differential settlements occur. 6-15

16 6-16

ALLOWABLE LOADS ON A SINGLE PILE

ALLOWABLE LOADS ON A SINGLE PILE C H A P T E R 5 ALLOWABLE LOADS ON A SINGLE PILE Section I. BASICS 5-1. Considerations. For safe, economical pile foundations in military construction, it is necessary to determine the allowable load capacity

More information

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS. Section I. DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS FM 5-134

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS. Section I. DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS FM 5-134 C H A P T E R 1 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS Section I. DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 1-1. Definitions. a. Piles. A pile is a long, columnar element made of timber, steel, concrete, or a combination of these

More information

Module 5 : Design of Deep Foundations Lecture 22 : Ultimate pile capacity [ Section 22.1 : Procedure for ultimate pile capacity : Static analysis ]

Module 5 : Design of Deep Foundations Lecture 22 : Ultimate pile capacity [ Section 22.1 : Procedure for ultimate pile capacity : Static analysis ] Lecture 22 : Ultimate pile capacity [ Section 22.1 : Procedure for ultimate pile capacity : Static analysis ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Static analysis Piles in granular soils

More information

ITEM 404 DRIVING PILING. Table 1 Size of Driving Equipment Minimum Maximum Ram Weight

ITEM 404 DRIVING PILING. Table 1 Size of Driving Equipment Minimum Maximum Ram Weight ITEM 404 DRIVING PILING 404.1. Description. Drive piling. 404.2. Equipment. A. Driving Equipment. Use power hammers for driving piling with specified bearing resistance. Use power hammers that comply with

More information

SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS Lesson 09

SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS Lesson 09 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS Lesson 09 Chapter 9 Deep Foundations Testing Theory Experience Lesson Plan g Topic 1 (Section 9.0 to 9.8) - Driven piles - Static capacity g Topic 2 (Section 9.9) - Driven Piles -

More information

9.3. Factors Affecting the Selection of the Suitable Type of Piles for a Given Project: 1. Type, size and weight of the structure to be supported.

9.3. Factors Affecting the Selection of the Suitable Type of Piles for a Given Project: 1. Type, size and weight of the structure to be supported. Chapter 9 Piles and Pile-Driving Equipment 9.1. Introduction: This chapter deals with the selection of load-bearing piles and the equipment required to drive the piles. Load-bearing piles, as the name

More information

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2014

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2014 ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN DR. ANNE NICHOLS SPRING 2014 lecture twenty six concrete construction: www.tamu.edu foundation design Foundations 1 Foundation the engineered

More information

twenty seven concrete construction: foundation design ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN HÜDAVERDİ TOZAN SPRING 2013 lecture

twenty seven concrete construction: foundation design ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN HÜDAVERDİ TOZAN SPRING 2013 lecture ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN HÜDAVERDİ TOZAN SPRING 2013 lecture twenty seven concrete construction: Bright Football Complex www.tamu.edu foundation design Foundations 1 Foundation

More information

Types of foundation. Shallow foundations. Pad foundations. Shallow foundations Deep foundations

Types of foundation. Shallow foundations. Pad foundations. Shallow foundations Deep foundations Types of foundation Shallow foundations Deep foundations Shallow foundations (sometimes called 'spread footings') include pads ('isolated footings'), strip footings and rafts. Deep foundations include

More information

Module 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 29 : Braced cuts [ Section 29.1 : Introduction ]

Module 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 29 : Braced cuts [ Section 29.1 : Introduction ] Lecture 29 : Braced cuts [ Section 29.1 : Introduction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Introduction Lecture 29 : Braced cuts [ Section 29.1 : Introduction ] Introduction Deep

More information

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design Foundation Structural vs. Foundation Design Structural vs. Foundation Design

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design Foundation Structural vs. Foundation Design Structural vs. Foundation Design ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN DR. ANNE NICHOLS SRING 2014 lecture twenty six Foundation the engineered interface between the earth and the structure it supports that

More information

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design Foundation Structural vs. Foundation Design Structural vs. Foundation Design

twenty six concrete construction: foundation design Foundation Structural vs. Foundation Design Structural vs. Foundation Design ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES: FORM, BEHAVIOR, AND DESIGN DR. ANNE NICHOLS SRING 2013 lecture twenty six Foundation the engineered interface between the earth and the structure it supports that

More information

FOUNDATIONS. Further reading of geotechnical books is recommended to get in depth details.

FOUNDATIONS. Further reading of geotechnical books is recommended to get in depth details. INTRODUCTION: FOUNDATIONS In the following paragraphs the failure of foundation is briefly explained with respect to earthquake. The failures do occur even for gravity forces but due care has to be considered

More information

Soil and Building Support/Stresses

Soil and Building Support/Stresses Foundations Soil and Building Support/Stresses Bearing : Settlement : Uniform or Differential Shear: Sloped Conditions Non-Uniform Bearing Earth Movement Overturning Shifting Ground Hydrostatic Pressure

More information

CE-6502 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING UNIT 1 SITE INVESTIGATION AND SELECTION OF FOUNDATION PART A 1. List the various methods of soil exploration techniques. 2. What is the scope of soil investigation? 3. What

More information

PILE DRIVING BEST PRACTICE. TxDOT Bridge Presentations Webinar Sean Yoon, P.E.

PILE DRIVING BEST PRACTICE. TxDOT Bridge Presentations Webinar Sean Yoon, P.E. PILE DRIVING BEST PRACTICE TxDOT Bridge Presentations Webinar Sean Yoon, P.E. July 16, 2014 What is a pile? A pile is a prefabricated element, made of concrete, steel or timber. It is generally long and

More information

Auger Grouted Steel Core Displacement Piles. A vast and growing network.

Auger Grouted Steel Core Displacement Piles. A vast and growing network. A vast and growing network. IDEAL is a C.S. Stroyer & Sons company. Est. 1956 and began manufacturing in 2004. Headquarters in Greater Rochester, NY 15 acres 13,500 Sq Ft Corporate office and Training

More information

Prestressed Concrete Piles

Prestressed Concrete Piles FOUNDATION ALTERNATIVES TO MITIGATE EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS 13.17 FIGURE 13.11 Excavation for the grade beam that will span between the two piers. Usually this foundation system is designed by the structural

More information

Subsoil conditions are examined using test borings, provided by soil engineer (geotechnical).

Subsoil conditions are examined using test borings, provided by soil engineer (geotechnical). SOIL & FOUNDATION TYPES: Subsurface investigations: Subsoil conditions are examined using test borings, provided by soil engineer (geotechnical). Number of borings and location of borings depends on building

More information

SECTION XXXXX STONE COLUMNS PART 1 - GENERAL

SECTION XXXXX STONE COLUMNS PART 1 - GENERAL SECTION XXXXX STONE COLUMNS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS: Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and other Division 00 and Division 01

More information

GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY

GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY AUTHORIZED PILE LENGTHS - (a.k.a. Authorized Pile Lengths letter) Official letter stating Engineer's recommended length of concrete piles to be cast for construction of foundation.

More information

PILE FOUNDATION. Pile

PILE FOUNDATION. Pile PILE FOUNDATION. One or more of the followings: (a)transfer load to stratum of adequate capacity (b)resist lateral loads. (c) Transfer loads through a scour zone to bearing stratum 1 (d)anchor structures

More information

SOLDIER PILE SYSTEMS

SOLDIER PILE SYSTEMS SOLDIER PILE SYSTEMS SOLDIER PILE SYSTEMS SOLDIER PILES Soldier piles of varying materials and sections are used, often in conjunction with some form of lagging to support soils as a continuous wall above

More information

Introduction to Bearing Capacity Analysis

Introduction to Bearing Capacity Analysis Introduction to Bearing Capacity Analysis Course No: G02-004 Credit: 2 PDH J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point,

More information

Remedial Piling and Settlement Twin Residential Towers. Scenario Overview and Data Compilation

Remedial Piling and Settlement Twin Residential Towers. Scenario Overview and Data Compilation Remedial Piling and Settlement Twin Residential Towers Scenario Overview and Data Compilation Introduction The redevelopment of a major inner city riverbank included the construction of several residential

More information

c. Heavy Tamping and Dynamic Consolidation (Dynamic compaction )

c. Heavy Tamping and Dynamic Consolidation (Dynamic compaction ) c. Heavy Tamping and Dynamic Consolidation (Dynamic compaction ) Dynamic compaction involves lifting and dropping a heavy weight several times in one place. The process is repeated on a grid pattern across

More information

Large and deep cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles using of shaft grout

Large and deep cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles using of shaft grout IABSE-JSCE Joint Conference on Advances in Bridge Engineering-II, August 8-10, 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ISBN: 978-984-33-1893-0 Amin, Okui, Bhuiyan (eds.) www.iabse-bd.org Large and deep cast-in-place

More information

ARCH 1230 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY II. Professor Friedman FALL 2012

ARCH 1230 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY II. Professor Friedman FALL 2012 ARCH 1230 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY II Professor Friedman FALL 2012 SUBJECT DATE Building Technology II Foundations Part II FALL 2012 PROFESSOR Friedman spread the load into the earth Professor Friedman arch

More information

CHANCE HELICAL ANCHOR/PILE BEARING CAPACITY

CHANCE HELICAL ANCHOR/PILE BEARING CAPACITY 1 Experience has shown that in most cases the footing and stem wall foundation system that will withstand a given long term working load will withstand a pier installation force of up to 1.5 times that

More information

8.5 Structural arrangement of foundation

8.5 Structural arrangement of foundation 8.5 Structural arrangement of foundation Based on structural arrangement of foundations, the various type of foundations are possible. The necessity of erecting towers on a variety of soils has made it

More information

Civil Engineering Construction Chapter 3

Civil Engineering Construction Chapter 3 Civil Engineering Construction Chapter 3 Substructure / Foundation Dr Mohamad Syazli Fathi Department of Civil Engineering UTM RAZAK School of Engineering & Advanced Technology UTM International Campus

More information

STRUCTURES. 1.1. Excavation and backfill for structures should conform to the topic EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL.

STRUCTURES. 1.1. Excavation and backfill for structures should conform to the topic EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL. STRUCTURES 1. General. Critical structures may impact the integrity of a flood control project in several manners such as the excavation for construction of the structure, the type of foundation, backfill

More information

Module 5 : Design of Deep Foundations. Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ]

Module 5 : Design of Deep Foundations. Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1 : Different types of pile groups ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Different types of pile groups Lecture 25 : Pile Groups [ Section 25.1

More information

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 1 Foundation Systems Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation Pile Foundation Pier (Caisson) Foundation Isolated spread footings Wall footings Combined footings Cantilever or strap footings

More information

SECTION 702 LOAD-BEARING PILES

SECTION 702 LOAD-BEARING PILES SECTION 702 LOAD-BEARING PILES 702.1 Description. This work shall consist of furnishing and driving concrete and steel loadbearing piles to the minimum nominal axial compressive resistance and penetration

More information

FINAL REPORT GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING FOR STURGEON CREEK BRIDGE REPLACEMENT

FINAL REPORT GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING FOR STURGEON CREEK BRIDGE REPLACEMENT FINAL REPORT GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING FOR STURGEON CREEK BRIDGE REPLACEMENT Prepared for STANTEC 905 WAVERLEY STREET WINNIPEG, MANITOBA R3T 5P4 Prepared by THE NATIONAL TESTING

More information

Table 1. Pile test program data summary.

Table 1. Pile test program data summary. Test Pile No. Time After Equivalent Initial Penetration Toe Penetration Penetration Capacity Driving Drive, in Depth, in Elevation, Resistance, Resistance, Mobilized Capacity, kips Fully Status days feet

More information

Partial Factors of Safety

Partial Factors of Safety APPENDIX A Partial Factors of Safety A.I Introduction The capacity of single piles in axial compression should provide an adequate safety factor against failure due to insufficient soil-pile interface

More information

CE-632 Foundation Analysis and Design

CE-632 Foundation Analysis and Design CE-63 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations 1 SUMMARY of Terminology Gross Loading Intensity Total pressure at the level of foundation including the weight of superstructure, foundation, and

More information

Helical Torque Anchors Design Examples

Helical Torque Anchors Design Examples Chapter 3 Helical Torque Anchors Heavy Weight New Construction Light Weight New Construction Basement Wall Tieback Anchors Retaining Wall Tieback Anchors Foundation Restoration Motor Output Torque Ultimate

More information

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS The soil beneath structures responsible for carrying the loads is the FOUNDATION. The general misconception is that the structural element which transmits the load

More information

EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL

EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 1. General. Excavation and backfill in the critical area of a flood control project could have a direct impact on the stability of the flood control project. Improper excavation

More information

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II MODULE I CHAPTER 2 Site investigation and soil exploration SYLLABUS - Module I 2. Site investigation and soil exploration: objectives - planning - reconnaissance - depth and

More information

foundations Dr Trevor Orr Trinity College Dublin Convenor TC250/SC7/EG3 Eurocodes: Background & Applications June 2013, Dublin

foundations Dr Trevor Orr Trinity College Dublin Convenor TC250/SC7/EG3 Eurocodes: Background & Applications June 2013, Dublin 13-14 June 2013, Dublin Dr Trevor Orr Deep foundations design of pile foundations Trinity College Dublin Convenor TC250/SC7/EG3 Outline of the talk Scope and contents Design situations, ti limit it states,

More information

Helical Pile Application and Design

Helical Pile Application and Design PDHonline Course C513 (1 PDH) Helical Pile Application and Design Instructor: Andrew P. Adams, PE 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.pdhonline.org

More information

Foundation Design. p A. P D P L P u. q a. q g q net. q u. V c V u. w u

Foundation Design. p A. P D P L P u. q a. q g q net. q u. V c V u. w u Foundation Design Notation: a = name for width dimension A = name for area b = width of retaining wall stem at base = width resisting shear stress b o = perimeter length for two-way shear in concrete footing

More information

PDCA Driven-Pile Terms and Definitions

PDCA Driven-Pile Terms and Definitions PDCA Driven-Pile Terms and Definitions This document is available for free download at piledrivers.org. Preferred terms are descriptively defined. Potentially synonymous (but not preferred) terms are identified

More information

DESIGNING STRUCTURES IN EXPANSIVE CLAY

DESIGNING STRUCTURES IN EXPANSIVE CLAY DESIGNING STRUCTURES IN EXPANSIVE CLAY A GUIDE FOR A RCHITECTS AND E NGINEERS Table of Contents 1. Introduction Page 1 2. Common Foundation Systems Page 2 3. Drilled Piers Page 3 a. Skin Friction Piers

More information

14 Geotechnical Hazards

14 Geotechnical Hazards Volume 2: Assessment of Environmental Effects 296 14 Geotechnical Hazards Overview This Chapter provides an assessment of the underlying geotechnical conditions to identify: any potential liquefaction

More information

DRILLED DEEP FOUNDATIONS

DRILLED DEEP FOUNDATIONS GROUPS: ADVANTAGES Figure 14-2. Group vs. Single Shaft (FHWA NHI-10-016). Large overturning moments are most effectively resisted using groups of shafts. Higher axial capacities. May be cost effective

More information

The Leading Edge In Helical Foundations. Engineering Roadmap. MacLean Dixie HFS. Building Solid Foundations

The Leading Edge In Helical Foundations. Engineering Roadmap. MacLean Dixie HFS. Building Solid Foundations Engineering Roadmap For New Construction Helical Pile Design The Leading Edge In Helical Foundations MacLean Dixie HFS Building Solid Foundations Before You Begin For the preliminary design of a new helical

More information

Lesson 5 Test Pile Program Transcript. Welcome to the Pile Driving Inspector Course. This is Lesson 5, Test Pile Program. To begin, select the start

Lesson 5 Test Pile Program Transcript. Welcome to the Pile Driving Inspector Course. This is Lesson 5, Test Pile Program. To begin, select the start Lesson 5 Test Pile Program Transcript Welcome to the Pile Driving Inspector Course. This is Lesson 5, Test Pile Program. To begin, select the start button or press Shift+N on your keyboard. The learning

More information

PORT OF OAKLAND PROJECTS

PORT OF OAKLAND PROJECTS Raito provides the geometric and material design for all DSM (Deep Soil Mixing) projects. The geometric design includes the layout design of soil-cement elements or panels to meet the intent of the geotechnical

More information

Foundation Analysis and

Foundation Analysis and CE-632 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations 1 SUMMARY of Terminology Gross Loading Intensity Total pressure at the level of foundation including the weight of superstructure, foundation,

More information

Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS

Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 17.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 17.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS

More information

Foundation Solutions for New Tanks

Foundation Solutions for New Tanks Foundation Solutions for New Tanks NISTM 6 th Annual International Aboveground Storage Tank Conference and Trade Show September 19, 2013 www.haywardbaker.com Presentation Outline Some Definitions to set

More information

CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS

CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS SOIL PROPERTIES Classified into four groups - Sands & gravels - Clays - Silts - Organics Subsurface Exploration Core borings: undisturbed samples of soil - Recovered bore samples

More information

ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations: Overview Terzaghi s Method of Bearing Capacity Estimation

ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations: Overview Terzaghi s Method of Bearing Capacity Estimation ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations: Overview Terzaghi s Method of Bearing Capacity Estimation Types of Shallow Foundations Shallow foundations are usually placed within a depth

More information

Manitoba Hydro Bipole III, Keewatinohk Converter Station Draft - Helical Pile Installation Criteria and Production Testing Recommendations

Manitoba Hydro Bipole III, Keewatinohk Converter Station Draft - Helical Pile Installation Criteria and Production Testing Recommendations TECHN I CAL MEMORANDUM Manitoba Hydro Bipole III, Keewatinohk Converter Station Draft - Helical Pile Installation Criteria and Production Testing Recommendations PREPARED FOR: COPY TO: PREPARED BY: Kent

More information

HIGH CAPACITY HELICAL PILES A NEW DIMENSION FOR BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS

HIGH CAPACITY HELICAL PILES A NEW DIMENSION FOR BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS Proceedings of 8 th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges Niagara Falls, Canada 2010 HIGH CAPACITY HELICAL PILES A NEW DIMENSION FOR BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS Mohammed Sakr Almita Manufacturing

More information

The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (2) SITE INVESTIGATION. Instructor : Dr.

The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (2) SITE INVESTIGATION. Instructor : Dr. The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (2) SITE INVESTIGATION Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad Definition The process of determining the layers of natural

More information

SECTION XXIII EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING

SECTION XXIII EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING SECTION XXIII EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING This section includes guidelines for excavation and backfilling of utilities and structures. A. DEFINITIONS 1. Open areas: Those areas that do not include building

More information

Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations - Volume I

Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations - Volume I Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations - Volume I Table of Contents... Page 1....NEED FOR A PILE MANUAL... 1-1 1.1...Scope of Manual... 1-3 1.2...Information Sources... 1-4 2....OVERVIEW OF

More information

A SEISMIC RETROFITTING APPLICATION BY MEANS OF MULTI-HELIX MICROPILES. Shigeo Kanai 1

A SEISMIC RETROFITTING APPLICATION BY MEANS OF MULTI-HELIX MICROPILES. Shigeo Kanai 1 A SEISMIC RETROFITTING APPLICATION BY MEANS OF MULTI-HELIX MICROPILES Shigeo Kanai 1 Abstract The Multi-helix Micropile method utilizes a unique method of directly screwing a small steel pipe pile with

More information

DYNAMIC PILE MONITORING FOR OFFSHORE PILE ACCEPTANCE

DYNAMIC PILE MONITORING FOR OFFSHORE PILE ACCEPTANCE DYNAMIC PILE MONITORING FOR OFFSHORE PILE ACCEPTANCE Scott Webster and Robin Givet, GRL Engineers, Inc., Charlotte, NC, USA Dynamic pile Monitoring Services (DMS) have been used for testing of offshore

More information

LRFD FOUNDATION DESIGN

LRFD FOUNDATION DESIGN LRFD FOUNDATION DESIGN Ching-Nien Tsai, P.E. LADOTD Pavement and Geotechnical Services Why Change? WHAT IS LRFD? Load and Resistance Factor Design 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Load FS Reliability based design Not a

More information

Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Implementation Testing : In-situ tests Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Definition called also "Dutch cone test or Static Penetration test. The test method consists of pushing an instrumented cone, with the

More information

TIMBER, PRESTRESSED, AND STEEL PILES DESCRIPTION

TIMBER, PRESTRESSED, AND STEEL PILES DESCRIPTION 510.1 DESCRIPTION This work consists of furnishing, driving and cutting off timber, prestressed and steel piling, and furnishing, driving, cutting off and fastening of sheet piling and steel sheeting designated

More information

Geotechnical Measurements and Explorations Prof. Nihar Ranjan Patra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Geotechnical Measurements and Explorations Prof. Nihar Ranjan Patra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Geotechnical Measurements and Explorations Prof. Nihar Ranjan Patra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture No. # 13 (Refer Slide Time: 00:18) So last class, it was

More information

STUDY GUIDE WACEL FOUNDATION INSPECTOR LEVEL I

STUDY GUIDE WACEL FOUNDATION INSPECTOR LEVEL I STUDY GUIDE WACEL FOUNDATION INSPECTOR LEVEL I February 2016 Foundation Inspector Study Guide Scope: WACEL Foundation Inspector is an intermediate certification that builds on both WACEL Soils I and WACEL

More information

ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design. Combined Footings and Mat Foundations

ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design. Combined Footings and Mat Foundations ENCE 4610 Foundation Analysis and Design Combined Footings and Mat Foundations Mat Foundations A mat is continuous in two directions capable of supporting multiple columns, wall or floor loads. It has

More information

Site Investigation Report

Site Investigation Report Site Investigation Report PROPOSED BAIT DAJAN SCHOOL BUILDING Basin No.??? Plot No.??? Bait Dajan Nablus District Palestine Requested by:????? Engineering Company Ramallah - Palestine November 2009 1 Contents

More information

Vertical Capacity The program evaluates the uplift and compression capacity of the pile.

Vertical Capacity The program evaluates the uplift and compression capacity of the pile. AllPile Software is a Windows-based analysis program that handles virtually all types of piles, including steel pipes, H-piles, pre-cast concrete piles, auger-cast piles, drilled shafts, timber piles,

More information

GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND TREATMENT USING GROUTING

GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND TREATMENT USING GROUTING Lecture 20 NPTEL Course GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND TREATMENT USING GROUTING Prof. G L Sivakumar Babu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012 Email: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in

More information

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES REPORT

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES REPORT GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES REPORT For the PROPOSED PUMP STATION NORTHEAST CORNER (NEC) OF MELROSE AVENUE AND OCCIDENT STREET TAMPA, FLORIDA Prepared for City of Tampa - Wastewater Department 306

More information

SECTION 702 BEARING PILE

SECTION 702 BEARING PILE SECTION 702 BEARING PILE 702.1 Description. This work shall consist of furnishing and driving concrete and steel piles to the bearing and penetration required, at the location shown on the plans. 702.2

More information

FOUNDATIONS FOR WIND TURBINES ENGR 340 Fall 2011

FOUNDATIONS FOR WIND TURBINES ENGR 340 Fall 2011 FOUNDATIONS FOR WIND TURBINES ENGR 340 Fall 2011 Jeramy C. Ashlock Assistant Professor, CCEE Vern Schaefer Professor, CCEE OUTLINE Topics Lecture # Design requirements, Foundation types 1 Overview of geotechnical

More information

CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES

CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES To engineer an adequate earth retaining system for a trench or excavation it is first necessary to identify

More information

CW EXCAVATION BEDDING AND BACKFILL TABLE OF CONTENTS

CW EXCAVATION BEDDING AND BACKFILL TABLE OF CONTENTS February 2005 DIVISION 3 - CW 2030 R7 CW 2030 - EXCAVATION BEDDING AND BACKFILL TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. DESCRIPTION...1 1.1 General...1 1.2 Definitions...1 1.3 Referenced Standard Construction Specifications...1

More information

Dynamic testing in sensitive & difficult soil conditions

Dynamic testing in sensitive & difficult soil conditions Dynamic testing in sensitive & difficult soil conditions Morgano, C.M., White B.A. & Allin, R.C. GRL Engineers, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, USA Keywords: dynamic testing, radiation damping, set-up, relaxation,

More information

SECTION TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING. 1. Section , Temporary Environmental Controls. 2. Section , Excavation and Fill.

SECTION TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING. 1. Section , Temporary Environmental Controls. 2. Section , Excavation and Fill. SECTION 31 23 33 TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. This WORK shall consist of all labor, equipment, and materials necessary for excavation, trenching, and backfilling for

More information

Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology

Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Abutment A retaining wall supporting the ends of a bridge, and, in general, retaining or supporting the approach embankment. Approach The part of the bridge that carries

More information

Soil and Rock Parameters for Estimating Deflections of Soldier Pile and Lagging Walls

Soil and Rock Parameters for Estimating Deflections of Soldier Pile and Lagging Walls Soil and Rock Parameters for Estimating Deflections of Soldier Pile and Lagging Walls Todd W. Swackhamer, P.E. 1, Michael J. Mann, P.E. 2, and Donald R. McMahon, P.E. 2 Abstract This paper presents four

More information

Chapter 17 FOUNDATIONS NDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL

Chapter 17 FOUNDATIONS NDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL Chapter 17 FOUNDATIONS NDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL September 2008 Table of Contents Section Page 17.1 GENERAL... 17-1 17.1.1 Chapter Scope... 17-1 17.1.2 Design Methodology... 17-1 17.1.3 Bridge Foundation

More information

Some things Eurocode 7 doesn t say

Some things Eurocode 7 doesn t say BP188.1 Some things Eurocode 7 doesn t say Brian Simpson Arup Geotechnics 1 UCL, 18 March 2013 Some things Eurocode 7 doesn t say Things it doesn t say, but is sometimes accused of Characteristic values

More information

PILE FOUNDATION. Prepared by : SWREA MEER HASSAN Civil ENG. RPQS

PILE FOUNDATION. Prepared by : SWREA MEER HASSAN Civil ENG. RPQS @ @ @ @ PILE FOUNDATION Prepared by : SWREA MEER HASSAN Civil ENG. RPQS @ @ ١ @bm@æîa Žïq@ôn äaœì@çóàóm@óø@šb ŠòìŠóq@õaí @Žíi@ôîó ïàóè@ô bqí N@N@N@óïn äaœ@óýq@ãó @óåïn ó @ @òíï ói@çbïäbîží @ôäóàóm@óø@æîóøó

More information

Deep Foundation Axial Load Capacity Static Load Tests Analytic Methods Dynamic methods

Deep Foundation Axial Load Capacity Static Load Tests Analytic Methods Dynamic methods Deep Foundation Axial Load Capacity Static Load Tests Analytic Methods Dynamic methods Pile Foundation vs. Shallow Foundation Soil property unknown after driving Excessive pore water pressure during driving

More information

INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS. Dr. K. M. Kouzer, Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, GEC Kozhikode

INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS. Dr. K. M. Kouzer, Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, GEC Kozhikode INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) Reference can be made to IS 2131 1981 for details on SPT. It is a field edtest to estimate e the penetration e resistance

More information

Geotechnical Modeling and Capacity Assessment

Geotechnical Modeling and Capacity Assessment Geotechnical Modeling and Capacity Assessment by Geoffrey R. Martin Chapter 6 : Geotechnical Modeling and Capacity Assessment Foundation Modeling (Evaluation Methods D and E) Equivalent linear stiffness

More information

CE6502 Foundation Engineering Question Bank

CE6502 Foundation Engineering Question Bank DEPARTMENT: CIVIL SUBJECT CODE: CE6502 QUESTION BANK SEMESTER: V SUBJECT NAME: FOUNDATION ENGINEERING UNIT 1- SITE INVESTIGATION AND SELECTION OF FOUNDATION PART A (2 Marks) 1. List the various methods

More information

The Foundation System of Berjaya Times Square

The Foundation System of Berjaya Times Square The Foundation System of Berjaya Times Square (Formerly known as Berjaya Star City) By : Ir. Dr. Gue See Sew & Ir. Tan Yean Chin Gue & Partners Sdn. Bhd. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Berjaya Times Square (formerly

More information

DEEP COMPACTION USING VIBRATORY PILE HAMMERS

DEEP COMPACTION USING VIBRATORY PILE HAMMERS DEEP COMPACTION USING VIBRATORY PILE HAMMERS Dennis Nottingham, P.E., President, PND Incorporated, Anchorage, AK, USA The need for deep compaction of submerged granular soils has led to improvements in

More information

Introduction to Spread Footings and Mat Foundations

Introduction to Spread Footings and Mat Foundations Introduction to Spread Footings and Mat Foundations Course No: G02-008 Credit: 2 PDH J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court

More information

ODOT LRFD Foundations

ODOT LRFD Foundations Ohio Department of Transportation John R. Kasich, Governor Jerry Wray, Director ODOT LRFD Foundations Alexander Dettloff, P.E. Foundation Engineer Office of Geotechnical Engineering May 07, 2013 AASHTO

More information

FOOTING SYSTEMS Reference - As Residential slabs and footings - construction and BCA.

FOOTING SYSTEMS Reference - As Residential slabs and footings - construction and BCA. FOOTING SYSTEMS Reference - As 2870 - Residential slabs and footings - construction and BCA. Footings transfer building loads onto foundations. House design and shape must be designed before footing design

More information