Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS


 Sherman Dalton
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Module 7 (Lecture 24 to 28) RETAINING WALLS Topics 24.1 INTRODUCTION 24.2 GRAVITY AND CANTILEVER WALLS 24.3 PROPORTIONING RETAINING WALLS 24.4 APPLICATION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES TO DESIGN 24.5 STABILITY CHECKS Check for Overturning Check for Sliding Along the Base Check for Bearing Capacity Failure Example Factor of Safety Against Overturning Factor of Safety Against Sliding Factor of Safety Against Bearing Capacity Failure 25.1 OTHER TYPES OF POSSIBLE RETAINING WALL FAILURE 26.1 COMMENTS RELATING TO STABILITY 26.2 DRAINAGE FROM THE BACKFILL OF THE RETAINING WALL 26.3 PROVISION OF JOINTS IN RETAININGWALL CONSTRUCTION
2 26.4 GRAVITY RETAININGWALL DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE CONDITIONS 26.5 MECHANICALLY STABILIZED RETAINING WALLS 26.6 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 27.1 RETAINING WALLS WITH METALLIC STRIP REINFORCEMENT Calculation of Active Horizontal and vertical Pressure Tie Force Factor of Safety Against Tie Failure Total Length of Tie 27.2 STEPBYSTEP DESIGN PROCEDURE (METALLIC STRIP REINFORCEMENT Internal Stability External Stability Internal Stability Check Tie thickness Tie length External Stability Check Check for overturning Check for sliding Check for bearing capacity 28.1 RETAINING WALLS WITH METALLIC STRIP REINFORCEMENT 28.2 Calculation of Active Horizontal and vertical Pressure Tie Force
3 Factor of Safety Against Tie Failure Total Length of Tie 28.3 STEPBYSTEP DESIGN PROCEDURE (METALLIC STRIP REINFORCEMENT General: Internal Stability: Internal Stability Check Check for overturning: Check for sliding Check for bearing capacity PROBLEMS REFERENCE
4 Module 7 (Lecture 24) RETAINING WALLS Topics 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 GRAVITY AND CANTILEVER WALLS PROPORTIONING RETAINING WALLS 1.3 APPLICATION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES TO DESIGN 1.4 STABILITY CHECKS Check for Overturning Check for Sliding Along the Base INTRODUCTION In chapter 6 you were introduced to various types of lateral earth pressure. Those theories will be used in this chapter to design various types of retaining walls. In general, retaining walls can be divided into two major categories: (a) conventional retaining walls, and (b) mechanically stabilized earth walls. Conventional retaining walls can generally be classified as 1. Gravity retaining walls 2. Semigravity retaining walls 3. Cantilever retaining walls 4. Counterfort retaining walls
5 Gravity retaining walls (figure 7.1a) are constructed with plain concrete or stone masonry. They depend on their own weight and any soil resting on the masonry for stability. This type of construction is not economical for high walls. Figure 7.1 Types of retaining wall In many cases, a small amount of steel may be used for the construction of gravity walls, thereby minimizing the size of wall sections. Such walls are generally referred to as semigravity walls (figure 7.1b). Cantilever retaining walls (figure 7.1c) are made of reinforced concrete that consists of a thin stem and a base slab. This type of wall is economical to a height of about 25 ft (8 m). Counterfort retaining walls (figure 7.1d) are similar to cantilever walls. At regular intervals, however, they have thin vertical concrete slabs known as counterforts that tie the wall and the base slab together. The purpose of the counterforts is to reduce the shear and the bending moments. To design retaining walls properly, an engineer must know the basic soil parametersthat is, the unit weight, angle of friction, and cohesionfor the soil retained behind the wall and the soil below the base slab. Knowing the properties of the soil behind the wall enables the engineer to determine the lateral pressure distribution that has to be designed for. There are two phases in the design of conventional retaining walls. First, with the lateral earth pressure known, the structure as a whole is checked for stability. That includes checking for possible overturning, sliding, and bearing capacity failures.
6 Second, each component of the structure is checked for adequate strength, and the steel reinforcement of each component is determined. This chapter presents the procedures for determining retaining wall stability. Checks for adequate strength of each component of the structures can be found in any textbook on reinforced concrete. Mechanically stabilized retaining walls have their backfills stabilized by inclusion of reinforcing elements such as metal strips, bars, welded wire mats, geotextiles, and geogrids. These walls are relatively flexible and can sustain large horizontal and vertical displacement without much damage. In this chapter the gravity and cantilever retaining walls will be described first, followed by mechanically stabilized walls with metal strips, geotextiles, and geogrids reinforced backfills. GRAVITY AND CANTILEVER WALLS PROPORTIONING RETAINING WALLS When designing retaining walls, an engineer must assume some of the dimensions, called proportioning, which allows the engineer to check trial sections for stability. If the stability checks yield undesirable results, the sections can be changed and rechecked. Figure 7. 2 shows the general proportions of various retaining walls components that can be used for initial checks. Figure 7.2 Approximate dimensions for various components of retaining wall for initial stability checks: (a) gravity wall; (b) cantilever wall [note: minimum dimension of DD is 2 ft ( 0.6 m)]
7 Note that the top of the stem of any retaining wall should not be less than about 12 in. ( 0.3 m) for proper placement of concrete. The depth, D, to the bottom of the base slab should be a minimum of 2 ft ( 0.6 m). However, the bottom of the base slab should be positioned below the seasonal frost line. For counterfort retaining walls, the general proportion of the stem and the base slab is the same as for cantilever walls. However, the counterfort slabs may be about 12 in. ( 0.3 m) thick and spaced at centertocenter distances of 0.3HH to 0.7 HH. APPLICATION OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES TO DESIGN The fundamental theories for calculating lateral earth pressure have been presented in chapter 6. To use these theories in design, an engineer must make several simple assumptions. In the case of cantilever walls, use of the Rankine earth pressure theory for stability checks involves drawing a vertical line AAAA through point A, as shown in figure 7. 3a, (which is located at the edge of the heel of the base slab. The Rankine active condition is assumed to exist along the vertical plane AAAA. Rankine active earth pressure equations may then be used to calculate the lateral pressure on the face AAAA. In the analysis of stability for the wall, the force PP aa(rankine ), the weight of soil above the heel, WW ss, and the weight of the concrete, WW cc, all should be taken into consideration. The assumption for the development of Rankine active pressure along the soil face AAAA is theoretically concrete if the shear zone bounded by the line AAAA is not obstructed by the stem of the wall. The angle, ηη, that the line AAAA makes with the vertical is ηη = 45 + αα φφ 2 2 sin 1 sin αα [7.1] sin φφ Figure 7.3 Assumption for the determination of lateral earth pressure: (a) cantilever wall; (b) and (c) gravity wall
8 Figure 7. 3 Continued A similar type of analysis may be used for gravity walls, as shown in figure 7. 3b. However, Coulomb s theory also may be used, as shown in figure 7. 3c. If Coulomb s active pressure theory is used, the only forces to be considered are PP aa(coulomb ) and the weight of the wall, WW cc. If Coulomb s earth pressure theory is used, it will be necessary to know the range of the wall friction angle δδ with various types of backfill material. Following are some ranges of wall friction angle for masonry or mass concrete walls: Backfill material Range of δδ(deg) Gravel Coarse sand Fine sand Stiff clay 1520
9 Silty clay In the case of ordinary retaining walls, water table problems and hence hydrostatic pressure are not encountered. Facilities for drainage from the soils retained are always provided. In several instances, for small retaining walls, emiempirical charts are used to evaluate lateral earth pressure. Figure 7.4 and 5 show two semiempirical charts given by Terzaghi and Peck (1967). Figure 7.4 is for backfills with plane surfaces, and figure 7.5 is for backfills that slope upward from the crest of the wall for a limited distance and then become horizontal. Note that 1 2 KK vvhh 2 is the vertical component of the active force on plane AAAA; similarly, 1 2 KK hhh 2 is the horizontal force. The numerals on the curves indicate the types of soil described in table 1. Figure 7.4 Continued
10 Figure 7.5 Chart for estimating pressure of backfill against retaining walls supporting backfills with surface that slopes upward from crest of wall for limited distance and then becomes horizontal (after Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Second Edition, by K. Terzaghi and R. B. Peck. Copyright 1967 by John Wiley and Sons. Reprinted with permission) (note: 1 kn/m 3 = lb/ft 3 ) Chart for estimating pressure of backfill against retaining walls supporting backfills with surface that slopes upward from crest of wall for limited distance and then becomes horizontal (after Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Second Edition, by K. Terzaghi and R. B. Peck. Copyright 1967 by John Wiley and Sons. Reprinted with permission) (note: 1 kn/m 3 = lb/ft 3 ) STABILITY CHECKS To check the stability of a retaining wall, the following steps are necessary: 1. Check for overturning about its toe 2. Check for sliding along its base 3. Check for bearing capacity failure of the base 4. Check for settlement 5. Check for overall stability This section describes the procedure for checking for overturning and sliding and bearing capacity failure. The principles of investigation for settlement were covered in chapter 4 and will not be repeated here. Some problems regarding the overall stability of retaining walls are discussed in section 5.
11 Check for Overturning Figure 7. 6 shows the forces acting on a cantilever and a gravity retaining wall, based on the assumption that the Rankine active pressure is acting along a vertical plane AAAA drawn through the heel. PP pp is the Rankine passive pressure; recall that its magnitude is PP pp = 1 2 KK ppγγ 2 DD 2 + 2cc 2 KK pp DD (Chapter 6 equation 58) Figure 7.6 Check for overturning: assume that Rankine pressure is valid: Table 1 types of Backfill for Retaining Walls
12 1. Coarsegrained soil without admixture of fine soil particles, very permeable (clean sand or gravel). 2. Coarsegrained soil of low permeability due to admixture of particles of silt size. 3. Residual soil with stones, fine silty sand, and granular materials with conspicuous clay content. 4. Very soft or soft clay, organic silts, or silty clay. 5. Medium or stiff clay, deposited in chunks and protected in such a way that a negligible amount of water enters the spaces between the chunks during floods or heavy rains. If this condition of protection cannot be satisfied, the clay should not be used as backfill material. With increasing stiffness of the clay, danger to the wall due to infiltration of water increases rapidly. From Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Second Edition, by K. Terzaghi and R. B. Peck. Copyright 1967 by John Wiley and Sons. Reprinted with permission. Where γγ 2 = unit weight of soil in front of the heel and under the base slab KK pp = Rankine passive earth pressure coefficient = tan 2 (45 + φφ 2 /2) cc 2, φφ 2 = cohesion and soil friction angle, respectively The factor of safety against overturning about the toethat is, about point C in figure may be expressed as FFFF (overturning ) = Σ MM RR Σ MM OO [7.2] Where Σ MM OO = sum of the moments of forces tending to overturn about point CC Σ MM RR = sum of the moments of forces tending to resist overturning about point CC The overturning moment is Σ MM OO = PP h HH 3 [7.3] Where PP h = PP aa cos αα For calculation of the resisting moment, Σ MM RR (neglectingpp PP ), a table (such as table 2) can he prepared. The weight of the soil above the heel and the weight of the concrete (or masonry) are both forces that contribute to the resisting moment. Note that the force PP vv
13 also contributes to the resisting moment. PP vv is the vertical component of the active force PP aa, or PP vv = PP aa sin αα [7.4] The moment of the force PP vv about C is MM vv = PP vv BB = PP aa sin αα BB [7.5] Where BB = width of the base slab Table 2 Procedure for Calculation of Σ MM RR Section (1) Area (2) Weight/unit length of wall (3) Moment arm measured from C (4) Moment about C (5) 1 AA 1 WW 1 = γγ 1 AA 1 XX 1 MM 1 2 AA 2 WW 2 = γγ 2 AA 2 XX 2 MM 2 3 AA 3 WW 3 = γγ cc AA 3 XX 3 MM 3 4 AA 4 WW 4 = γγ cc AA 4 XX 4 MM 4 5 AA 5 WW 5 = γγ cc AA 5 XX 5 MM 5 6 AA 6 WW 6 = γγ cc AA 6 XX 6 MM 6 PP vv BB MM vv Σ VV Σ MM RR Note: γγ 1 = unit weight of backfill γγ 2 = unit weight of concrete Once Σ MM RR is known, the factor of safety can be calculated as FFFF (overturning ) = MM 1+MM 2 +MM 3 +MM 4 +MM 5 +MM 6 PP aa cos αα(hh /3) MM vv [7.6]
14 Check for Sliding Along the Base The factor of safety against sliding may be expressed by the equation FFFF (sliding ) = Σ FF RR Σ FF dd [7.7] Where Σ FF RR = sum of the horizontal resisting forces Σ FF dd = sum of the horizontal driving forces Figure 7. 7 indicates that the shear strength of the soil immediately below the base slab may be represented as ss = σσ tan δδ + cc aa Where δδ = angle of friction between the soil and the base slab cc aa = adhesion between the soil and the base slab Figure 7.7 Check for sliding along the base
15 Thus the maximum resisting force that can be derived from the soil per unit length of the wall along the bottom of the base slab is RR = ss(area of cross section) = ss(bb 1) = BBBB tan δδ + BBBB aa However, BBBB = sum of the vertical force = Σ VV (see table 2) So RR = (Σ VV) tan δδ + BBBB aa + PP pp [7.8] The only horizontal force that will tend to cause the wall to slide (driving force) is the horizontal component of the active force PP aa, so Σ FF dd = PP aa cos αα [7.9] Combings equations (7, 8, and 9) yields FFFF (sliding ) = (Σ VV) tan δδ+bbbb aa +PP pp PP aa cos αα [7.10] A minimum factor of safety of 1.5 against sliding is generally required. In many cases, the passive force PP pp is ignored for calculation of the factor of safety with respect to sliding. In general, we can write δδ = kk 1 φφ 2 and cc aa = kk 2 cc 2. In most cases, kk 1 and kk 2 are in the range of 1 2 to 2 3. Thus FFFF (sliding ) = (Σ VV) tan (kk 1φφ 2 )+BBBB 2 cc 2 +PP pp PP aa cos αα [7.11] In some instances, certain walls may not yield a desired factor of safety of 1.5. To increase their resistance to sliding, a base key may be used. Base keys are illustrated by broken lines in figure It indicates that the passive force at the toe without the key is PP pp = 1 2 γγ 2DD 2 KK pp + 2cc 2 DD KK pp However, it a key is included, the passive force per unit length of the wall becomes PP pp = 1 2 γγ 2DD 1 2 KK pp + 2cc 2 DD 1 KK pp Where KK pp = tan 2 (45 + φφ 2 /2)
16 Because DD 1 > DD, a key obviously will help increase the passive resistance at the toe and hence the factor of safety against sliding. Usually the base key is constructed below the stem and some main steel is run into the key. Another possible way to increase the value of FFFF (sliding ) is to consider reducing the value of PP aa [see equation (11)]. One possible way to do so is to use the method, developed by Elman and Terry (1988). The discussion here is limited to the case in which the retaining wall has to horizontal granular backfill (figure 7. 8). In figure 7. 8, the active force, PP aa, is horizontal (αα = 0) so that Figure 7.8 Retaining wall with sloped heel PP aa cos αα = PP h = PP aa And PP aa sin αα = PP vv = 0 However, PP aa = PP aa(1) + PP aa(2) [7.12] The magnitudes of PP aa(2) can be reduced if the heel of the retaining wall is sloped as shown in figure 7. 8b. For this case, PP aa = PP aa(1) + AAAA aa(2) [7.13] The magnitude of A, as shown in figure 7. 9, is valid for αα = 45. However, note that in figure 7. 8a
17 Figure 7.9 Variation of A with friction angle of backfill [equation (14)] PP aa(1) = 1 γγ 2 1KK aa (HH DD ) 2 And PP aa = 1 γγ 2 1KK aa HH 2 Hence PP aa(2) = 1 γγ 2 1KK aa [HH 2 (HH DD ) 2 ] So, for the active pressure diagram shown in figure 7. 8b, PP aa = 1 γγ 2 1KK aa (HH DD ) 2 + AA γγ 2 1KK aa [HH 2 (HH DD ) 2 ] [7.14] Sloping the heel of a retaining wall can thus be extremely helpful in some cases.
REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach  Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for:
HANDOUT REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach  Fifth Edition RETAINING WALLS Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
More informationModule 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS
Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 17.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 17.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS
More informationvulcanhammer.net This document downloaded from
This document downloaded from vulcanhammer.net since 1997, your source for engineering information for the deep foundation and marine construction industries, and the historical site for Vulcan Iron Works
More informationEarth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for NonGeotechnical Engineers
PDHonline Course C155 (2 PDH) Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for NonGeotechnical Engineers Instructor: Richard P. Weber, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA
More informationCH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS
CH. 6 SOILS & FOUNDATIONS SOIL PROPERTIES Classified into four groups  Sands & gravels  Clays  Silts  Organics Subsurface Exploration Core borings: undisturbed samples of soil  Recovered bore samples
More informationReinforced Soil Retaining WallsDesign and Construction
Lecture 31 Reinforced Soil Retaining WallsDesign and Construction Prof. G L Sivakumar Babu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012 Evolution of RSRW Classical gravity
More informationModule 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ]
Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Introduction Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction
More informationGEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS. A handy reference for use in geotechnical analysis and design
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS A handy reference for use in geotechnical analysis and design TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. SOIL CLASSIFICATION...3 1.1 USCS: Unified Soil Classification System...3 1.1.1
More informationPART TWO GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT. Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone
GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone DESIGN MANUAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Keystone retaining walls
More information11. THE STABILITY OF SLOPES
111 11. THE STABILITY OF SLOPES 11.1 INTRODUCTION The quantitative determination of the stability of slopes is necessary in a number of engineering activities, such as: (a) (b) (c) (d) the design of earth
More informationFOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 141 Load Path and Transfer to
More informationWorked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites
Worked Example 2 (Version 1) Design of concrete cantilever retaining walls to resist earthquake loading for residential sites Worked example to accompany MBIE Guidance on the seismic design of retaining
More informationK x ' Retaining. Walls ENCE 461. Foundation Analysis and Design. Mohr s Circle. and Lateral Earth. Pressures. Lateral Earth Pressure.
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient K x ' z ' K = lateral earth pressure coefficient x = horizontal effective stress Mohr s Circle and Lateral Earth Pressures x ' = = z ' ENCE 461 Foundation Analysis and
More informationSIENA STONE GRAVITY RETAINING WALL INSTALLATION SPECIFICATIONS. Prepared by Risi Stone Systems Used by permission.
SIENA STONE GRAVITY RETAINING WALL INSTALLATION SPECIFICATIONS Prepared by Risi Stone Systems Used by permission. 1800UNILOCK www.unilock.com FOREWORD This outline specification has been prepared for
More informationSPECIFICATIONS FOR PRECAST MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM (revised 11/5/13)
Page 1 of 7 STONE STRONG SYSTEMS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRECAST MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM (revised ) PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 Description A. Work includes furnishing and installing precast modular blocks
More informationPDHonline Course S151A (1 PDH) Steel Sheet Piling. Instructor: Matthew Stuart, PE, SE. PDH Online PDH Center
PDHonline Course S151A (1 PDH) Steel Sheet Piling Instructor: Matthew Stuart, PE, SE 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 220306658 Phone & Fax: 7039880088 www.pdhonline.org
More informationPipeline bridge crossing for mining trucks A geotechnical engineering design.
Pipeline bridge crossing for mining trucks A geotechnical engineering design. Bernard Shen Pells Sullivan Meynink, Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT The Donaldson open pit coal mine is located in Blackhill, New
More informationRETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 2006 ESTIMATING AND INSTALLATION MANUAL. Featuring Highland Stone. anchorwall.com
RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 2006 ESTIMATING AND INSTALLATION MANUAL 11 Featuring Highland Stone anchorwall.com TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS BEFORE YOU BEGIN............................
More informationFoundation Engineering Prof. Mahendra Singh Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
Foundation Engineering Prof. Mahendra Singh Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module  03 Lecture  09 Stability of Slopes Welcome back to the classes of on this Stability
More informationPrinting Letters Correctly
Printing Letters Correctly The ball and stick method of teaching beginners to print has been proven to be the best. Letters formed this way are easier for small children to print, and this print is similar
More informationDESIGN GUIDELINES FOR EARTH RETENTION
DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR EARTH RETENTION Strata Systems, Inc. 380 Dahlonega Rd., Suite 200 Cumming, GA 30040 USA www.geogrid.com TABLE OF CONTENTS MECHANICS OF RETAINING WALLS... 3 THE STRATAWEB SOLUTION...4
More informationReport on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars
Report on Wind Resistance of Signs supported by Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Prepared for US Sign and Fabrication Corporation January, 2006 SUMMARY This study found the attachment of
More informationModule 2 Lecture 7 Permeability and Seepage 3 Topics
Module 2 Lecture 7 Permeability and Seepage 3 Topics 1.1.6 Determination of Coefficient of Permeability in the Field Pumping from wells Packer test 1.1.7 Theoretical Solution for Coefficient of Permeability
More informationA N Beal EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES  worked examples 1
A N Beal EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES  worked examples 1 Worked examples of retaining wall design to BS8002 The following worked examples have been prepared to illustrate the application of BS8002 to retaining
More informationModule 1 (Lecture 3) GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND OF REINFORCED SOIL
Module 1 (Lecture 3) GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND OF REINFORCED SOIL Topics 1.1 CAPILLARY RISE IN SOIL 1.2 CONSOLIDATIONSGENERAL 1.3 CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT CALCULATION 1.4 TIME RATE OF CONSOLIDATION
More informationEFFECT OF GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF A COARSE SAND BED
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 01 06, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3
More informationWhite Paper: Establishing and Investigating Foundation Zones of Influence
White Paper: Establishing and Investigating Foundation Zones of Influence Prepared by: Bracken Engineering, Inc. 2701 W. Busch Blvd, Ste 200 Tampa, Florida 33618 December 1, 2012 (Revised: December 2014)
More informationSeismic Design of Shallow Foundations
Shallow Foundations Page 1 Seismic Design of Shallow Foundations Reading Assignment Lecture Notes Other Materials Ch. 9 FHWA manual Foundations_vibrations.pdf Homework Assignment 10 1. The factored forces
More informationTechnical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993
Technical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 40292) and Specifications
More informationp= H FBD OF AD IN PLAN BASE FBD OF AB IN PLAN 0.5b 0.5b Bending moment diagram
6.6.2 Rectangular tank with fixed base resting on ground : Rectangular tanks are used when the storage capacity is small and circular tanks prove uneconomical for small capacity. Rectangular tanks should
More informationMECHANICS OF SOLIDS  BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS  BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS This is the second tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.
More informationOptimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge
Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 114 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering
More informationOhio Department of Transportation Division of Production Management Office of Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnical Bulletin
Ohio Department of Transportation Division of Production Management Office of Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical Bulletin GB 2 SPECIAL BENCHING AND SIDEHILL EMBANKMENT FILLS Geotechnical Bulletin GB2
More informationReinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5
Lesson 5: Deflection in reinforced concrete beams Content 4.1 Introduction 4. Definitions 4..1 Tension 4.. Compression 4.3 Initial sizing 4.3.1 Worked example 4.4 Reinforcement details 4.5 Anchorage at
More informationSEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:
SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the
More informationAnnouncements. Dry Friction
Announcements Dry Friction Today s Objectives Understand the characteristics of dry friction Draw a FBD including friction Solve problems involving friction Class Activities Applications Characteristics
More informationFigure A1. Figure A2. continued on next page... HPM1. Grout Reservoir. Neat Cement Grout (Very Flowable) Extension Displacement Plate
Addendum HELICAL PULLDOWN Micropile (HPM) Introduction The HPM is a system for constructing a grout column around the shaft of a standard Helical Screw Foundation (see Figure A1). To begin the process,
More informationTasman and Norfolk Retaining Wall. Evaluation and Installation Guide
BAINES MASONRY www.bainesmasonry.com.au Tasman and Norfolk Retaining Wall Evaluation and Installation Guide This installation guide demonstrates the basics on how to construct A. Segmental Concrete Gravity
More informationTHE OBJECTIVES OF ROUTINE ROAD CUTS AND FILLS
Chapter 11 Slope Stabiliza bilization and Stability of Cuts and Fills THE OBJECTIVES OF ROUTINE ROAD CUTS AND FILLS are 1) to create space for the road template and driving surface; 2) to balance material
More informationSettlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains
Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced
More informationSteel Sheet Piling. Design Manual
Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual United States Steel Updated and reprinted by U. S. Department of Transportation /FHWA with permission. July 1984 Sections PS32 and PSA28 ate infrequently rolled and we
More informationTechnical handbook Panel Anchoring System
1 Basic principles of sandwich panels 3 Design conditions 4 Basic placement of anchors and pins 9 Large elements (muliple rows) 10 Small elements (two rows) 10 Turned elements 10 Slender elements 10 Cantilevering
More informationGeometry of the deformation zone
Geometry of the deformation zone R. Chandramouli Associate DeanResearch SASTRA University, Thanjavur613 401 Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents 1.Geometry of
More informationEstimation of the Active Earth Pressure with Inclined Cohesive Backfills: the Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress is Considered
The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 011, 5, 916 9 Open Access Estimation of the Active Earth Pressure with Inclined Cohesive Backfills: the Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress is Considered W. L.
More informationDIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA
DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST OBJEVTIVES To determine the shear strength parameters for a
More informationEXAMPLE 1 DESIGN OF CANTILEVERED WALL, GRANULAR SOIL
EXAMPLE DESIGN OF CANTILEVERED WALL, GRANULAR SOIL A sheet pile wall is required to support a 2 excavation. The soil is uniform as shown in the figure. To take into account the friction between the wall
More informationSPECIFICATION FOR SEGMENTAL RETAINING WALL SYSTEMS
SPECIFICATION FOR SEGMENTAL RETAINING WALL SYSTEMS PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 Description A. Work includes furnishing and installing segmental retaining wall (SRW) units to the lines and grades designated on
More informationCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO FOUNDATIONS The soil beneath structures responsible for carrying the loads is the FOUNDATION. The general misconception is that the structural element which transmits the load
More informationGiven informations about construction on foundation plan:
FOUNDATIONS Foundations are structure members having different types of design that carry and transmit the dead, live and earthquake loads of structure. Foundation plans are drawn with 1/50 or 1/100 scale
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. The design of any foundation consists of following two parts.
8.7. Design procedure for foundation The design of any foundation consists of following two parts. 8.7.1 Stability analysis Stability analysis aims at removing the possibility of failure of foundation
More information6.2 Garden Walls. Introduction. Design Charts. Structural Design. Use of this Document. Selection of Environmental Design Actions.
6.2 Garden Walls Introduction Concrete masonry garden walls can provide many useful functions privacy, separation, protection, ornamentation, shade and shelter from wind. With a wide variety of concrete
More informationStructural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments
Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments Positive Internal Forces Acting Recall from mechanics of materials that the internal forces P (generic axial), V (shear) and M (moment) represent resultants
More informationWang, L., Gong, C. "Abutments and Retaining Structures." Bridge Engineering Handbook. Ed. WaiFah Chen and Lian Duan Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000
Wang, L., Gong, C. "Abutments and Retaining Structures." Bridge Engineering Handbook. Ed. WaiFah Chen and Lian Duan Boca Raton: CRC Press, 000 9 Abutments and Retaining Structures Linan Wang California
More informationFlow of Water in Soil Permeability and Seepage. Water flows through the voids in a soil which are. seepage, since the velocities are very small.
Flow of Water in Soil Permeability and Seepage Water flows through the voids in a soil which are interconnected. t This flow may be called seepage, since the velocities are very small. Water flows from
More information10.1 Powder mechanics
Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 POWDER MECHANICS & POWDER FLOW TESTING 10 Ron Zevenhoven ÅA Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 10.1 Powder mechanics RoNz 2/38 Types of flow of
More informationAppendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file
Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file Notation B1 = lowest level of basement slab c = cohesion E = drained Young s Modulus Eu = undrained Young s Modulus
More informationSoil Strength. Performance Evaluation of Constructed Facilities Fall 2004. Prof. Mesut Pervizpour Office: KH #203 Ph: x4046
ENGR627 Performance Evaluation of Constructed Facilities, Lecture # 4 Performance Evaluation of Constructed Facilities Fall 2004 Prof. Mesut Pervizpour Office: KH #203 Ph: x4046 1 Soil Strength 2 Soil
More informationNational Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination
Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)
More informationSpecification Guidelines: Allan Block Modular Retaining Wall Systems
Specification Guidelines: Allan Block Modular Retaining Wall Systems The following specifications provide Allan Block Corporation's typical requirements and recommendations. At the engineer of record's
More informationCopyright 2011 Casa Software Ltd. www.casaxps.com. Centre of Mass
Centre of Mass A central theme in mathematical modelling is that of reducing complex problems to simpler, and hopefully, equivalent problems for which mathematical analysis is possible. The concept of
More informationVERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING
14.53 THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples: Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples:
More informationNUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SEEPAGE THROUGH EMBANKMENT DAMS (CASE STUDY: KOCHARY DAM, GOLPAYEGAN)
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SEEPAGE THROUGH EMBANKMENT DAMS (CASE STUDY: KOCHARY DAM, GOLPAYEGAN) *Reza Naghmehkhan Dahande 1 and Ahmad Taheri 2 1 Department of Civil EngineeringWater Management, Islamic Azad
More informationVERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL TYPES OF LOADING. Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Examples:  Posts. Examples:  Railroad track
VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL Point Loads (P) TYPES OF LOADING Line Loads (q/unit length) Revised 0/015 Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples:  Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples:  Railroad
More informationThis section includes materials, installation and testing of earthwork for excavations, fills and embankments for structures and sites.
STANDARD SPECIFICATION SECTION 02200 EARTHWORK PART 1  GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION This section includes materials, installation and testing of earthwork for excavations, fills and embankments for structures
More informationEmbedded Retaining Wall Design Engineering or Paradox?
Embedded Retaining Wall Design Engineering or Paradox? A personal viewpoint by A.Y. Chmoulian, associate at Royal Haskoning Introduction Retaining wall design theory is a complicated subject with a long
More informationDrained and Undrained Conditions. Undrained and Drained Shear Strength
Drained and Undrained Conditions Undrained and Drained Shear Strength Lecture No. October, 00 Drained condition occurs when there is no change in pore water pressure due to external loading. In a drained
More information19 DYNAmax Free Standing Server C A B I N E T s
9 DYNAmax Free Standing Server C A B I N E T s 9 DYNAmax Free Standing Server Cabinets FAMILY W=600mm and W=800mm DYNAmax Series Free Standing Server Cabinets DYNAmax series Servering Enclosures, provide
More informationDESIGN OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS CONSIDERING CAPACITY, SETTLEMENT, AND NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION
DESIGN OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS CONSIDERING CAPACITY, SETTLEMENT, AND NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION Introduction Bengt H. Fellenius, Dr.Tech., P.Eng. Background Notes for Demo Example for UniPile at www.unisoftltd.com
More informationENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1  TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P
ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1  TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P This material is duplicated in the Mechanical Principles module H2 and those
More informationCHAPTER 9 FEM MODELING OF SOILSHEET PILE WALL INTERACTION
391 CHAPTER 9 FEM MODELING OF SOILSHEET PILE WALL INTERACTION 9.1 OVERVIEW OF FE SOILSTRUCTURE INTERACTION Clough and Denby (1969) introduced Finite Element analysis into the soilstructure interaction
More informationGENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN Chapter 3 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN 3.1 INTRODUCTION Experience in past earthquakes has demonstrated that many common buildings and
More informationInvestigation of strip footings under column loads
Investigation of strip footings under column loads Group: Greg Deacon, John Brogan, David McDonnell and Richard Delaney Course: Structural Engineering (Dt024/4) Lecturers: Dr. Colin Caprani, Lacour Ayompe
More informationTHE ENGINEER S TOOLBOX
Materials Densities 1 t/m 3 = 10 kn/m 3 Strength and stress limits Water 1 t/m 3 Concrete Steel 7.8 t/m 3 Timber 0.8 t/m 3 Carbon fibre 1.5 t/m 3 Aluminium 2.7 t/m 3 2.4 t/m 3 normal weight 1.9 t/m 3 light
More informationDimensional and Structural Data for Elliptical Pipes. PD 26 rev D 21/09/05
Dimensional and Structural Data for Elliptical Pipes 21/09/05 Page 1 of 15 1. Foreword This document details a method for the structural design of Stanton Bonna Elliptical pipes for the common conditions
More informationModule 3. Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 3 Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Lesson 4 Computation of Parameters of Governing Equations Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able
More informationA perforated conduit such as pipe, tubing or tile installed beneath the ground to intercept and convey ground water. or structures.
BMP: SUBSURFACE DRAIN Definition A perforated conduit such as pipe, tubing or tile installed beneath the ground to intercept and convey ground water. PurRoses 1. To prevent sloping soils from becoming
More informationEN 19971 Eurocode 7. Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section 12 Embankments. Trevor L.L. Orr Trinity College Dublin Ireland
EN 1997 1: Sections 10, 11 and 12 Your logo Brussels, 1820 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 EN 19971 Eurocode 7 Section 10 Hydraulic Failure Section 11 Overall Stability Section
More informationWelded Mesh Gabions Retaining Wall Design Guide
Welded Mesh Gabions Retaining Wall Design Guide Anping County Zhuoda Hardware Mesh Co.,Ltd. Wire Mesh Industrial Zone, Anping County, Hebei, P. R. China. Tel : 00863187752001 7531068 Fax : 00863187802001
More informationCH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS
CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS GRAVITY LOADS Dead loads Vertical loads due to weight of building and any permanent equipment Dead loads of structural elements cannot be readily determined b/c weight depends
More informationSTRUCTURAL DESIGN BRIEF  SURREY WORKS YARD REDEVELOPMENT
1. GENERAL The following brief outlines the design considerations being used to inform the structural design of the project. It will describe, in general terms, the structural systems of each building
More informationConcrete Pipe Design Manual INDEX OF CONTENTS. FOREWORD... iii. Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION... 1
Concrete Pipe Design Manual INDEX OF CONTENTS FOREWORD...... iii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 Chapter 2. HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS Sanitary Sewers... 3 Determination of Sewer System Type... 3 Determination
More informationp atmospheric Statics : Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure: linear change in pressure with depth Measure depth, h, from free surface Pressure Head p gh
IVE1400: n Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Statics : Pressure : Statics r P Sleigh: P..Sleigh@leeds.ac.uk r J Noakes:.J.Noakes@leeds.ac.uk January 008 Module web site: www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/ive/fluidslevel1
More information5/1/2013. Topics. The challenge is to better maintain native characteristics of soils during and after construction
PIN Foundations Topics Applications Design and Construction Flow Control Credits www.pinfoundations.com Copyright 2008, Pin Foundations, Inc. Curtis Hinman WSU Extension Faculty, Watershed Ecologist chinman@wsu.edu
More informationStrength of Materials Prof: S.K.Bhattacharya Dept of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur Lecture no 23 Bending of Beams II
Strength of Materials Prof: S.K.Bhattacharya Dept of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur Lecture no 23 Bending of Beams II Welcome to the second lesson of the fifth module which is on Bending of Beams part
More information19 DYNAmax Free Standing Server C A B I N E T s
9 DYNAmax Free Standing Server C A B I N E T s 9 DYNAmax Free Standing Server Cabinets FAMILY W=mm and W=800mm DYNAmax Series Free Standing Server Cabinets DYNAmax series Servering Enclosures, provide
More informationALLOWABLE LOADS ON A SINGLE PILE
C H A P T E R 5 ALLOWABLE LOADS ON A SINGLE PILE Section I. BASICS 51. Considerations. For safe, economical pile foundations in military construction, it is necessary to determine the allowable load capacity
More information1 of 7 4/13/2010 8:05 PM
Chapter 33 Homework Due: 8:00am on Wednesday, April 7, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy [Return to Standard Assignment View] Canceling a Magnetic Field
More informationProf. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
37 Module 6: Lecture 2: Buried Structures Content in this module: Load on Pipes, Marston s load theory for rigid and flexible pipes, Trench and Projection conditions, minimum cover, Pipe floatation and
More informationGEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II MODULE I CHAPTER 2 Site investigation and soil exploration SYLLABUS  Module I 2. Site investigation and soil exploration: objectives  planning  reconnaissance  depth and
More informationTYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 1 Foundation Systems Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation Pile Foundation Pier (Caisson) Foundation Isolated spread footings Wall footings Combined footings Cantilever or strap footings
More informationFoundations over Piles. Constructing Load Transfer Platforms over weak ground with piled foundations
Foundations over Piles Constructing Load Transfer Platforms over weak ground with piled foundations 2 Tensar Technology  proven practical solutions and the knowhow to get them built Based on the characteristic
More informationPILE FOUNDATIONS FM 5134
C H A P T E R 6 PILE FOUNDATIONS Section I. GROUP BEHAVIOR 61. Group action. Piles are most effective when combined in groups or clusters. Combining piles in a group complicates analysis since the characteristics
More informationEMPLOYER : POWER GRID COMPANY OF BANGLADESH LIMITED (PGCB )
EMPLOYER : POWER GRID COMPANY OF BANGLADESH LIMITED (PGCB ) CONTRACT NO. : PGCB/DANIDA/1 DESIGNBUILD AND TURNKEY CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF 132kV JOYDEVPUR  KABIRPUR  TANGAIL TRANSMISSION LINE PROJECT
More informationPage 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SBProduksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250
Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..
More informationFric3. force F k and the equation (4.2) may be used. The sense of F k is opposite
4. FRICTION 4.1 Laws of friction. We know from experience that when two bodies tend to slide on each other a resisting force appears at their surface of contact which opposes their relative motion. The
More informationMECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMCOLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 16, 2004 Paper No. 4 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMCOLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY Tomohiko KAMIMURA
More informationCE632 Foundation Analysis and Design
CE63 Foundation Analysis and Design Shallow Foundations 1 SUMMARY of Terminology Gross Loading Intensity Total pressure at the level of foundation including the weight of superstructure, foundation, and
More informationGuideline for Installation of Standpipe Well (SW) and Standpipe Piezometer (SP)
Guideline for Installation of Standpipe Well (SW) and Standpipe Piezometer (SP) 1. GENERAL Both standpipe well and standpipe piezometer are used to measure ground water levels. The common characteristic
More informationDesign of diaphragm and sheet pile walls. DSheet Piling. User Manual
Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls DSheet Piling User Manual DSHEET PILING Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls User Manual Version: 14.1.34974 31 July 2014 DSHEET PILING, User Manual Published
More informationINDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS. Dr. K. M. Kouzer, Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, GEC Kozhikode
INDIRECT METHODS SOUNDING OR PENETRATION TESTS STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) Reference can be made to IS 2131 1981 for details on SPT. It is a field edtest to estimate e the penetration e resistance
More information