The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (2) SITE INVESTIGATION. Instructor : Dr.

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1 The Islamic university - Gaza Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Department CHAPTER (2) SITE INVESTIGATION Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad

2 Definition The process of determining the layers of natural soil deposits that will underlie a proposed structure and their physical propertiesisgenerallyreferredtoas siteinvestigation. 2

3 The purpose of a soil investigation program: 1. Selection of the type and the depth of foundation suitable for agiven structure. 2. Evaluationofthe load-bearingcapacityofthe foundation. 3. Estimationoftheprobablesettlement ofastructure. 4. Determination ofpotential foundationproblems (for example, expansive soil,collapsiblesoil,sanitarylandfill,andsoon). 5. Establishmentofgroundwatertable. 6. Prediction of lateral earth pressure for structures likeretaining walls,sheet pilebulkheads,andbracedcuts. 7. Establishment of construction methods for changing subsoil conditions. 3

4 EXPLORATION PROGRAM The purpose of the exploration program is to determine, within practical limits, the stratification and engineering properties of the soils underlying the site. The principal properties of interest will be the strength, deformation, and hydraulic characteristics. The program should be planned so that the maximum amount of information canbeobtainedatminimumcost. 4

5 Steps of subsurface exploration program [Stage 1] 1. Assembly of all available information on dimensions, column spacing, type and use of the structure, basement requirements, and any special architectural considerations of the proposed building. Foundation regulations in the local building code should be consulted for any special requirements. For bridges the soil engineer should have access to type and span lengths as well as pier loadings. This information will indicate any settlement limitations, and can be used to estimate foundation loads. 5

6 Steps of subsurface exploration program [Stage 2] 2.Reconnaissance ofthe area: This may be in the form of afield trip to the site which can reveal information on the type and behavior of adjacent structures such as cracks, noticeable sags, and possibly sticking doors and windows. The type of local existing structure may influence, to a considerable extent, the exploration program and the best foundationtype fortheproposedadjacentstructure. 6

7 Steps of subsurface exploration program [Stage 3] 3.Apreliminarysiteinvestigation: In this phase afew borings are made or atest pit is opened to establish in ageneral manner the stratification, types of soil to be expected, and possiblythe locationof the groundwater table. One or more borings should be taken to rock, or competent strata, if the initial borings indicate the upper soil is loose or highly compressible. This amount of exploration is usually the extentofthesiteinvestigationforsmall structures. 7

8 Steps of subsurface exploration program [Stage 4] 4.A detailed site investigation: Where the preliminary site investigation has established the feasibility of the project, amore detailed exploration program is undertaken. The preliminary borings and data are used as abasis for locating additional borings, which should be confirmatory in nature,anddeterminingtheadditionalsamples required. 8

9 Depth of Boring The approximate required minimum depth of the borings should be predetermined. The estimated depths can be changed during the drilling operation, depending on the subsoil encoun tered. Todetermine the approximate minimum depth of boring, engineers mayusethefollowingrule: 9

10 Depth of Boring 1. Determine the net increase of stress,ds under a foundation withdepthas showninthe Figure. 2. Estimate the variation of the vertical effective stress, s'u, with depth. 3. Determine the depth, D=D1,at which the stress increase Ds is equalto(1/10)q(q=estimatednet stress onthe foundation). 4. Determinethedepth,D=D2,at which Ds/s'u = Unless bedrock is encountered, the smaller of the two depths, D1 and D2,just determined is the approximate minimum depth of boring required. Table shows the minimum depths of borings forbuildingsbasedonthe precedingrule. 10

11 Depth of Boring Determination of the minimum depth of boring 11

12 Depth of Boring Depth of Boring 12

13 Depth of Boring For hospitals and office buildings, the following rule could be use to determine boring depth 13

14 Depth of Boring When deep excavations are anticipated, the depth of boring should beat, least 1.5 times the depth of excavation. Sometimes subsoil conditions are such that the foundation load may have to be transmitted to the bedrock. The minimum depth of core boring into the bedrock is about 3m. If the bedrock is irregular or weathered, the core borings may have to be extended to greater depths. 14

15 Spacing Boring There are no hard and fast rules for the spacing of the boreholes. The following table gives some general guidelines for borehole spacing. These spacing can be increased or decreased, depending on the subsoil condition. If various soil strata are more or less uniformand predictable, thenumber of boreholescanbereduced. 15

16 Spacing Boring Approximate Spacing of Boreholes 16

17 SOIL BORING The earliest method of obtaining atest hole was to excavate atest pit using apick and shovel. Because of economics, the current procedure is to use power-excavation equipment such as a backhoe to excavate the pit and then to use hand tools to remove ablock sample or shape the site for in situ testing. This is the best method at present for obtaining quality undisturbed samples or samplesfortestingat otherthanverticalorientation. 17

18 Boring tools 18

19 19

20 Preparation of Boring Logs 1.Name andaddressofthedrillingcompany 2.Driller sname 3.Job descriptionandnumber 4.Number,type, andlocationofboring 5.Date ofboring 6. Subsurface stratification, which can he obtained by visual observation of the soil brought out by auger, split-spoon sampler,andthin-walledshelbytubesampler 7. Elevation of water table and date observed, use of casing and mudlosses,and so.. 20

21 8.StandardpenetrationresistanceandthedepthofSPT 9.Number,type, anddepthofsoilsample collected 10. In case of rock coring, type of core barrel used and, for each run, the actual length of coring, length of core recovery,and ROD

22

23 SOIL SAMPLING Two types of soil samples can be obtained during sampling disturbed and undisturbed. The most important engineering properties required for foundation design are strength, compressibility, and permeability. Reasonably good estimates of these properties for cohesive soils can be made by laboratory tests on undisturbed samples which can be obtained with moderate difficulty.it is nearlyimpossible to obtain atrulyundisturbed sample of soil; so in general usage the term "undisturbed" means asample where some precautions have been taken to minimize disturbance or remolding effects. In this context, the quality of an "undisturbed" sample varies widely between soil laboratories.

24 Disturbed vs Undisturbed Good quality samples necessary. A R <10% soil A R = 2 O. D. I. D. 2 I. D (%) area ratio sampling tube Thicker the wall, greater the disturbance. 24

25 Disturbed vs Undisturbed 25

26 FIELD STRENGTH TESTS The following are the major field tests for determining the soil strength: 1. Vaneshear test (VST). 2. StandardPenetration Test (SPT). 3. Cone Penetration Test (CPT). 4. The Borehole Shear Test (BST). 5. The FlatDilatometer Test (DMT). 6. The Pressure-meter Test (PMT). 7. The Plate Load Test (PLT). 26

27 FIELD STRENGTH TESTS 27

28 1. Driveasectionof casingpipe. SPT Procedure 2. Completewashboringandcleanthehole 3. Replace driving bit by split spoon sampler at the bottom end of the drivingrod 4. Drive the sampler by dropping a hammer of 63.5kg weight through a heightof 75 cm 5. The number of blows required to penetrate three successive lengths of 15 cmarenoted. 6. The first 15 cm drive is considered as seating load and is ignored. The total number of blows required to penetrate the remaining 30 cmiscalledtheblowcount or penetrationnumber N. 7. Raisethesamplerto thesurface,open itandextractthesample. 8. Drive the next length of casing and repeat the process until required depthisreached. 9. At the end of the borehole, note the Gwt after it stabilizes and then backfilltheborehole. 28

29 29

30 Standard Penetration Test(SPT) 30

31 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 31

32 Corrections to N value Overburden Correction applied to N value based on chart by Peck, et. al. (varies from 0.45 to 2) N =C n * N where C n is correction factor Correction due to dilatancyfor fine sand and silt below Gwthaving N > 15 N = *(N -15) 32

33 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 33

34 Correlations between N values and soil properties N Compactness Relative Density (%) 0 to 4 Very Loose 0-15 < 28 4 to 10 Loose to 30 Medium Dense > 50 Very Dense > 85 > 41 f o 34

35 Correlations between N values and soil properties Consistency N qu (kpa) Very Soft 0 to 2 < 25 Soft 2 to 4 25 to 50 Medium Stiff 4 to 8 50 to 100 Stiff 8 to to 200 Very Stiff 15 to to 400 Hard > 30 >

36 Other test methods DCPT Dynamic cone penetration test IS: (Method for subsurface soundingfor soils: Parts IandII) CPT Static Cone Penetration Test (Method for subsurface sounding for soils: Part 3 Static cone penetration test) PlateLoadTest (Method of LoadTest onsoils) 36

37 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Corrections are normally applied to the SPT blow count to accountfordifferencesin: energyimpartedduringthetest (60% hammer efficiency) thestresslevel at thetestdepth The following equation is used to compensate for the testing factors(skempton, 1986): 37

38 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 38

39 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 39

40 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 40

41 41

42 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 42

43 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 43

44 44

45 45

46 The Plate Load Test (PLT) 46

47 The Plate Load Test (PLT) 47

48 The Plate Load Test (PLT) Scale Effect in Foundation Design 48

49 Geotechnical Design Reports At the end of all subsoil exploration programs, the soil and/or rock specimens collected from the field are subjected to visual observation and appropriate laboratory testing. After the compilation of all of the required information, asoil exploration report is prepared for the use of the design office and for reference during future construction work. Although the details and sequence of information in the report may vary to some degree is depending on the structure under consideration and thepersoncompilingthe report. 49

50 Subsoil Exploration Report 1.Adescriptionof thescopeof the investigation 2. Adescription of the proposed structure for which the subsoil exploration has beenconducted 3. Adescription of the location of the site, including any structures nearby,drainage conditions, the nature of vegetation on the site and surrounding it, and any otherfeatures uniqueto thesite 4.Adescriptionof thegeological setting of the site 5. Details of the field exploration that is, number of borings, depths of borings, typesof borings involved, and so on 6. A general description of the subsoil conditions, as determined from soil specimens and from related laboratory tests, standard penetration resistance andconepenetration resistance, andsoon 50

51 7.Adescriptionofthe water-tableconditions 8. Recommendations regarding the foundation, including the type of foundation recommended, the allowable bearing pressure, and any special construction procedure that may he needed; alternative foundation design procedures shouldalso be discussed inthisportionofthereport 9.Conclusionsandlimitationsofthe investigations 51

52 Subsoil Exploration Report The following graphical presentations should he attached tothereport: 1.Asitelocationmap 2. Aplan view of the location of the borings with respect totheproposedstructuresandthosenearby 3.Boringlogs 4.Laboratorytestresults 5.Otherspecialgraphicalpresentations 52

53 Correlations between N values and soil properties Consistency N qu (kpa) Very Soft 0 to 2 < 25 Soft 2 to 4 25 to 50 Medium Stiff 4 to 8 50 to 100 Stiff 8 to to 200 Very Stiff 15 to to 400 Hard > 30 >

54 Methods of Sampling Requirements to minimize disturbancetosamples Arearatio=(D 2 w-d 2 e) x 100% D 2 e Area ratio should be as low as possible.(<10%). It represents the amount of soil displaced. Insideclearance=(D s -D e ) x 100% ratio D e 54

55 Methods of Sampling The inside clearance allows elastic expansion of the sample andminimizesfrictionaldragonthesample. Theinsideclearanceshouldbe between 0.5%to 3%. Theoutsideclearance=(D w -D t ) x 100% ratio D t Outside clearance is necessary to reduce the driving force andresistancetowithdrawal. Theoutsideclearanceshouldbe between 0%and 2%. Diameter of samples should not be less than 38mm. (Generallybetween mm). Piston sampler (Osterberg sampler) not covered. Please refer toanybook. 55

56 56

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