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1 This document downloaded from vulcanhammer.net since 1997, your source for engineering information for the deep foundation and marine construction industries, and the historical site for Vulcan Iron Works Inc. Use subject to the fine print to the right. All of the information, data and computer software ("information") presented on this web site is for general information only. While every effort will be made to insure its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied on for any specific application without independent, competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a licensed professional. Anyone making use of this information does so at his or her own risk and assumes any and all liability resulting from such use. The entire risk as to quality or usability of the information contained within is with the reader. In no event will this web page or webmaster be held liable, nor does this web page or its webmaster provide insurance against liability, for any damages including lost profits, lost savings or any other incidental or consequential damages arising from the use or inability to use the information contained within. This site is not an official site of Prentice-Hall, the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Vulcan Foundation Equipment or Vulcan Iron Works Inc. (Tennessee Corporation). All references to sources of equipment, parts, service or repairs do not constitute an endorsement. Don t forget to visit our companion site

2 ENCE 461 Foundation Analysis and Design Cantilever Retaining Walls Geotechnical Design

3 Rigid Walls

4 External vs. Internal Stability

5 External Stability Problems Sliding Failure Overturning Failure Deep Seated Shear Failure Normal Force on Footing Bearing Capacity Excessive Settlement

6 Design Parameters for Rigid Walls

7 Design Parameters for Rigid Walls

8

9

10 Cantilever Wall Design Example Include this soil with wall weight Wall as shown Soil Behind the Wall: Fine to Medium Sand, ' = 35º, = 122 pcf Below the Wall: Fine to Medium Sand, ' = 38º, = 125 pcf Allowable bearing pressure under foot: 5 ksf Find External Stability Criteria

11 Cantilever Wall Design Example Assumptions Coulomb model of lateral earth pressure Backfill slope = arctan (¼) = 14º Coefficient of sliding friction = 0.5 (Table 8.3) Angle of wall friction w or = arctan = 26.6º K a = K p = Factors of Safety Against sliding: 1.5 Against overturning: 1.5 Compare bearing pressure directly

12 Cantilever Example Objectives Compute resistance against sliding Compute resistance against overturning Compute bearing pressure First requirement: compute the forces shown

13 Cantilever Example Active Earth Pressures G h K a cos w G h cos 26.6º 31.8 pcf G v K a sin w G v sin 26.6º 16 pcf P a b G h H lb/ft 2 2 V a b G v H lb/ft 2 2

14 Cantilever Example Weight of wall and included soil Per calculation in book (p. 794), W/b = 12,761 lb/ft Reaction of base of wall P f /b = W/b + V a /b = 12, = 14,622 lb/ft

15 Cantilever Example Friction of base V f /b = P f /b = (0.5)(14622) = 7311 lb/ft Compute actual sliding factor of safety F s V f b P a b F s Neglect

16 Overturning Moments

17 Cantilever Example Resisting Moment 5' 8' Driving Moment Compute factor of safety against overturning Determine moment arms about the toe 15.25/3 = 5.08' Driving Moment M Pa/b = (3698)(5.08) = 18,786 lb/ft Take moments about the toe

18 Cantilever Example Resisting Moment 5' 8' Driving Moment 15.25/3 = 5.08' Determine moment arms about the toe Resisting Moment M Va/b = (1861)(8) = 14,894 ft-lb/ft M W/b = (12761)(5) = ft-lb/ft Take moments about the toe

19 Cantilever Example Resisting Moment 5' 8' Driving Moment 15.25/3 = 5.08' Compute Factor of Safety Resisting Moments F M Driving Moments 14,894 63,805 F M F M Take moments about the toe

20 Cantilever Example Compute Bearing Pressure Compute maximum and minimum bearing pressures Insure that base reaction P f /b is within the kern

21 Bearing Pressure

22 Cantilever Example 5' 8' Compute Bearing Pressure Compute maximum and minimum bearing pressures Insure that base reaction P f /b is within the kern

23 Cantilever Example 5' 8' Insure that base reaction P f /b is within the kern Compute location of P f /b x M Va/b = (1861)(8) = 14,894 ft-lb/ft M W/b = (12761)(5) = ft-lb/ft x = ( )/( ) = 5.33'

24 Cantilever Example 5' 8' Insure that base reaction P f /b is within the kern 5.33' x = ( )/( ) = 5.33' Middle third extends from 8/3 to 2*8/3, or 2.67' to 5.33, so design is barely in the kern This means that q min = 0 q max = 2*( )/8 = 3656 psi < 5 ksi

25 RETWALL Stability of Cantilever Retaining Walls Date April 10, 2002 Identification Example 24.1 Input Data Results Units of Measurement EE or SI Sliding F = 2.15 Wall Overturning F = 4.05 Stem height 12 ft Resultant in mid third? Yes Footing thickness 1.25 ft Max q = 2176 lb/ft2 Footing embedment 1.75 ft Min q = 924 lb/ft2 Stem thickness - top 0.67 ft Equiv q = 1910 lb/ft2 Stem thickness - bottom 1 ft Bearing pressure OK? Yes Toe extension 1 ft Heel extension Backfill angle 6 ft 14 deg Backfill Soil Gh Gv Unit weight 31.8 lb/ft^3 16 lb/ft^3 122 lb/ft^3 Foundation soil Allowable bearing pressure 5000 lb/ft^2 Allowable passive pressure 250 lb/ft^3 Allowable coefficient of friction 0.5 Copyright 2000 by Donald P. Coduto

26 Equivalent Fluid Density Vertical Horizontal Terzaghi & Peck Methods for Low Walls Useful for walls under 12' 20' in height Charts shown are for a straight slope backfill

27 Example with Terzaghi & Peck Charts G V = 5 pcf (16) Use Previous Example Soil Type (1) (clean sand) H = 15.25' = 14º Once these values are known, wall is analysed in the usual way G H = 32 pcf (31.8)

28 Broken Slope Backfills

29 Failure Causes for Retaining Walls

30 Methods of Improving Stability

31 Cantilever Flood Walls

32 Drainage of Cantilever Walls

33 Drainage of Cantilever Walls

34 Questions

35 Quiz 4

36 Quiz 4 Find the total active lateral earth force along the surface AB. Use Rankine theory. Also compute the location of the resultant of this force.

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