# Design of pile foundations following Eurocode 7-Section 7

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1 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 Workshop Eurocodes: background and applications Brussels, Februray 2008 Design of pile foundations following Eurocode 7-Section 7 Roger FRANK, Professor Ecole nationale des ponts et chaussées, Paris

2 Contents of Part 1 (EN ) Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 2 Section 1 General Section 2 Basis of geotechnical design Section 3 Geotechnical data Section 4 Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance Section 5 Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement Section 6 Spread foundations Section 7 Pile foundations Section 8 Anchorages Section 9 Retaining structures Section 10 Hydraulic failure Section 11 Site stability Section 12 Embankments

3 Informative annexes Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 3 EN : E A sample semi-empirical method for bearing resistance estimation H Limiting foundation movements and structural deformation EN : D.7 Example of a method to determine the compressive resistance of a single pile (CPT) D.6 Example of a correlation between compressive resistance of a single pile and cone penetration resistance E.3 Example of a method to calculate the compressive resistance of a single pile (PMT)

4 Section 7 of EN Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 4 Pile load tests Axially loaded piles - ULS compressive or tensile resistance ( bearing capacity ) - Vertical displacements of pile foundations: serviceability of the supported structure Transversely loaded piles Structural design of piles

5 Specificity of pile foundations Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 5 Need to take into account the actions due to ground displacement : - downdrag (negative skin friction) - heave - transverse loading ******************** * the design values of the strength and stiffness of the moving ground should usually be upper values * the ground displacement is treated as an action and an interaction analysis is carried out, * an upper bound of the force transmited by the ground is introduced as the design action. or

6 General Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 6

7 Pile load tests Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 7

8 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 8

9 Axially loaded piles Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 9

10 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 10 ULS Compressive or tensile resistance of piles (bearing capacity)

11 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 11 ULS - From static load test results Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests (8)P For structures, which do not exhibit capacity to transfer loads from "weak" piles to "strong" piles, as a minimum, the following equation shall be satisfied: ( R ) ( R ) c;m mean c;m min R c; k = Min ; (7.2) ξ1 ξ2 where ξ 1 and ξ 2 are correlation factors related to the number of piles tested and are applied to the mean (R c;m ) mean and the lowest (R c;m ) min of R c;m respectively. NOTE The values of the correlation factors may be set by the National annex. The recommended values are given in Table A.9.

12 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 12 Characteristic resistance from measured resistances Table A.9 - Correlation factors ξ to derive characteristic values from static pile load tests (n - number of tested piles) ξ for n = ξ 1 1,40 1,30 1,20 1,10 1,00 ξ 2 1,40 1,20 1,05 1,00 1,00

13 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 13 ULS From ground test results : Model pile method Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results (5)P The characteristic values R b;k and R s;k shall either be determined by: = ( R + R ) = R + R = R = Min ( R ) ( R ) b;cal s;cal c;cal c;cal mean c;cal min R c; k b;k s;k ; (7.8) ξ ξ ξ3 ξ4 where ξ 3 and ξ 4 are correlation factors that depend on the number of profiles of tests, n, and are applied respectively: to the mean values (R c;cal ) mean = (R b;cal + R s;cal ) mean = (R b;cal ) mean + (R s;cal ) mean and to the lowest values (R c;cal ) min = (R b;cal + R s;cal ) min, NOTE The values of the correlation factors may be set by the National annex. The recommended values are given in Table A.10.

14 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 14 Characteristic resistance from calculated resistances Table A.10 - Correlation factors ξ to derive characteristic values from ground test results (n - the number of profiles of tests) ξ for n = ξ 3 1,40 1,35 1,33 1,31 1,29 1,27 1,25 ξ 4 1,40 1,27 1,23 1,20 1,15 1,12 1,08

15 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 15 ULS From ground test results : Alternative method Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results (8) The characteristic values may be obtained by calculating: R b;k = A b q b;k and R = A q s ;k (7.9) i s; i where q b;k and q s;i;k are characteristic values of base resistance and shaft friction in the various strata, obtained from values of ground parameters. s; i ; k NOTE If this alternative procedure is applied, the values of the partial factors γ b and γ s recommended in Annex A may need to be corrected by a model factor larger than 1,0. The value of the model factor may be set by the National annex.

16 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 16 ULS - Permanent and transient design situations - Load factors

17 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 17 ULS - Permanent and transient design situations - Resistance factors

18 Design resistance Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 18 Characteristic value : R k = R / ξ where R = γ Rd Rd R cal cal or R = R m (1) Design value : R d = R k /γ t or R d = R bk /γ b + R sk /γ s (2) Applied compression/tension load : F d = γ F F k (3) General condition for ULS being : F d R d (4) equations (1) to (4) lead to : F k R / γ F.γ t.ξ = R / FS (5)

19 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 19 Piles in compression : Piles in group Piles in tension :

20 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 20

21 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 21 Vertical displacements of pile foundations (serviceability of supported structure) Vertical displacements under SLS conditions must be assessed and checked against limiting value : * Piles in compression - downdrag must be taken into account - settlement due to group action must be taken into account * Piles in tension - check upward displacements in the same manner

22 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 22 Example from pile load test results (Orr, 2005) Settlement (mm) Pile Load (MN) Load Test 2 Load Test 1 Pile Load Test Results Load Settlement Settlement (MN) Pile 1(mm) Pile 2 (mm) driven piles B = 0.40 m D = 15.0 m allowable settlement is 10 mm loads : G k = 20,000 kn and Q k = 5,000 kn

23 Results Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 23 From Table, for n = 2 pile load tests : for n = 2 pile load tests : ξ 1 = 1.30 and ξ 2 = 1.20 R k = Min{5.3/1.30; 5.0/1.20} = Min{4.08; 4.17} = 4.08 DA : F d = 26.5 MN and R d = 3.14 MN. 9 piles are needed (neglecting group effects) & DA1-1 1 : F d = 34.5 MN and R d = piles are also needed (neglecting group effects) DA 2 : F d = 34.5 MN and R d = 3.71 MN 10 piles are needed (neglecting group effects).

24 SLS Serviceability check Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 24 * G k + Q k = 25 MN * load per pile : through analysis of the 2 load curves for s < 10 mm * Same analysis as for ULS (ξ 1 = 1.30 and ξ 2 = 1.20) leads to R k = Min{3.25/1.30; 3.0/1.20} = 2.5 MN * thus, 10 piles are needed (neglecting group effects)

25 Transversely loaded piles Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 25 Adequate safety against failure (ULS) F tr R tr One of the following failure mechanisms should be considered : - short piles : rotation or translation as a rigid body - for long slender piles : bending failure of the pile with local yielding and displacement of the soil near the top of the pile

26 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 26 Transverse resistance R tr : * from head transverse displacement pile load test * from ground tests results and pile strength parameters The theory of beams with subgrade reaction moduli can be used

27 Transverse displacement Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 27 The following must be taken into account: - non linear soil : E(ε) - flexural stiffness of the piles : EI - fixity conditions (connections) - group effect - load reversals and cyclic loading

28 Conclusions Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 28 Designing pile foundations with Eurocode 7 : * importance of static pile load tests * an innovative approach to pile capacity taking account of number of load tests or number of soil profiles * need of assessing serviceability of structures through displacement calculations

29 Brussels, February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 29 Thank you for your attention!

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