Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Report on. Wind Resistance of Signs supported by. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars"

Transcription

1 Report on Wind Resistance of Signs supported by Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) Pillars Prepared for US Sign and Fabrication Corporation January, 2006

2 SUMMARY This study found the attachment of the signs to the GFRC pillars and the anchorage of the pillars to the concrete footings to be adequate for gust wind speeds of 150 mph. This value is the highest listed speed for all 50 states and territories in the US, with the exception of Guam. However, locations within special wind zones which are identified on the wind speed maps can be subjected to higher wind speeds; these locations must be investigated with local knowledge. The critical element in the stability of the signs is the concrete footing. Analysis of the footings for failure in the soil found the following: The 2.0 feet deep footing should be used only in areas with peak 3-second wind gust speeds less than 100 mph, as shown in the map given in either AASHTO or ANSI The 3.0 feet deep footing can be used in most locations with gust wind speeds listed as being less than 135 mph on the map. The 3.5 feet deep footing can be used anywhere, and with care in special wind zones. The 4.0 feet deep footing can be used anywhere. Page 2

3 INTRODUCTION US Sign and Fabrication Corporation (USSFC) manufactures monument sign columns that are used to mount billboard type signs. The USSFC columns are replicas of custom-designed, hand-made pillars that would normally be constructed of stone or masonry. They are installed in locations where an upscale and elegant touch is required. The USSFC pillars are constructed of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) that is cast over a galvanized steel frame. The bottom of the frame is attached to anchor bolts projecting from the top of a concrete footing that is buried in the earth, so that the pillars appear to be standing on the ground. The concrete footing is unreinforced; it measures 12 inches in diameter and 2 feet deep. Four 8-inch long J bolts are embedded 7 inches deep in the upper part of the footing. The remaining 1 inch projects above the top of the footing, and are used to attach the frame inside the pillar to the footing. The bolts are 3/8 inch diameter threaded rods, and have a 90 degree bend at their bottom end so that they look like the letter J in profile. This study examines the capacity of the pillars-sign combination to safely resist loads applied to them by high winds. The signs are primarily rectangular panels made of either wood or sheet metal, and can be as large as 8 feet wide and 5 feet tall. They are fastened to the pillars at four points, two each on a vertical edge. A ¼ inch diameter stainless steel stud (threaded rod) connects the mounting hardware to the pillar. A 2 inch wide and 1/8 inch thick galvanized steel plate is provided inside the pillar wall to distribute the applied loads and to prevent localized failures in the pillar walls. This study assumes that the sign panel is properly designed for applicable winds by the sign maker. The integrity of the panel is of interest only insofar that the wind load applied to its surface is transferred to the two supporting pillars. Section 1: DESIGN WIND PRESSURES AND FORCES The study examines the stresses experienced by the various parts of the pillars and the anchorage when loaded by high winds, under real world conditions. The last phrase refers to the peak wind conditions that may be obtained anywhere in the United States. The values for the maximum expected wind speeds are given in several references that are used to design all structures, including buildings, highway signs and luminaires. The two most common references are Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires and Traffic Signals (4 th edition, 2001) published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and the Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-02 published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Of the two, the AASHTO publication is considered more applicable to this study and is therefore used exclusively as the reference. Page 3

4 The basic wind speeds are based upon the peak 3-second gust speed measured at 485 weather stations across the US and predictions of hurricane speeds on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The 3-second gust wind speeds are associated with a 50-year mean recurrence interval which is equivalent to an annual probability of 0.02 (2%) that the listed values will be equaled or exceeded. The wind speeds are given as contours on a map of the US in both references (AASHTO Fig. 3-2). The following table shows the basic wind speeds for selected locations. Location Basic Wind Speed (miles per hour) Cape Cod, Massachusetts 130 New York City & Connecticut coastline 120 Outer Banks, North Carolina 140 Florida Keys, Miami 150 Alabama & Louisiana Coastline 150 Texas Coastline 140 Pacific Coastline 85 The only location with a higher wind speed is Guam with a value of 170 mph, however such speed is not obtained in the continental US anywhere. The Basic Wind Speed for the analysis of the anchorage of GFRC pillars is therefore selected as 150 mph. The pressure applied by the wind on any structure is obtained using the following equation: P = K z GV 2 I r C d (AASHTO Eq. 3-1) The various terms in the equation above are explained below. Term Value Explanation P To be This is the wind pressure to be used for design of structures. computed K z 0.87 Height and Exposure factor (Art , Table 3-5). Value applies to structures less than 16.4 feet high. G 1.14 Gust effect factor to account for dynamic interaction of the structure with gusting (varying speeds with time) winds. V 150 mph Basic Wind Speed I r 0.54 Wind Importance Factor (Art , Table 3-3). This recognizes the (importance) need for a structure to withstand high winds a hospital is given higher importance than a roadside sign for example. There are two values given here, and value leading to the higher overall wind pressure is to be used. For roadside sign structures, which is what the GFRC pillars support, the value is a function of the Recommended Minimum Design Life of 10 years (Table 3-3). The Page 4

5 two values of I r are (1) 0.71 to be used with 100-mph winds, and (2) 0.54 to be used with the design wind speed. The lower value actually leads to a higher wind pressure. C d 1.17 (sign) Drag coefficient (Art , Table 3-6). The value is obtained by interpolation for a sign panel with aspect ratio of 1.6 (for the largest sign panel that is 8 feet wide and 5 feet high). C d 2.0 (pillars) Drag coefficient (Art , Table 3-6). The value applies to square shaped members (as seen in plan), that have sharp corners as is the case with the GFRC pillars. The wind pressure for the panel and the pillar is computed using the equation given above, as follows: Pressure on the sign panel P = (0.87) (1.14) (0.54x150 2 ) (1.17) = 36 pounds per square foot (psf) Pressure on the pillar P = (0.87) (1.14) (0.54x150 2 ) (1.20) = 62 pounds per square foot (psf) The total pressure on the assembly is computed as the sum of the pressures on one sign panel and two pillars. The wind is taken as flowing directly at the face of the sign (direction 1) for maximum wind area. To account for winds incident at an angle to the panel, 20% of the force generated by wind perpendicular to the panel is applied in a direction parallel to the plane of the sign panel (direction 2). Wind force on the sign panel W s = 8 x 5 x 36 = 1440 lbs Wind force on the pillars (average width is taken as 21 inches over the full height of 6 feet) W p = 2 x 21x 6 x 62/12 = 1302 lbs The total wind force is therefore, W = W s + W p = = 2742 lbs The wind load on each pillar is 1440/ /2 = = 1371 lbs The wind forces computed above are applied 3.0 feet above the base for the pillars and 3.5 feet above the base for the sign panel. The forces experienced at the base are as follows: Base Shear = 1371 lbs in direction 1 Bending moment = 720 x x 3.0 = 4473 ft-lbs in direction 1 Base Shear = 0.2 x 1371 = 274 lbs in direction 2 in direction 2 Page 5

6 Bending moment = 0.2 x 4473 = 895 ft-lbs in direction 2 In the next section, the components of base anchorage are checked for the forces computed above. Page 6

7 Section 2: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF GFRC PILLAR FOUNDATION This study examines the adequacy of the following components of the assembly: inch diameter stainless steel studs that connect the panel to the pillar. 2. 3/8 inch diameter J-shaped anchor bolts in the footing inch diameter concrete footing in the ground. 1) 0.25 inch diameter stainless steel studs The tensile (T) and shear (V) forces on each bolt, located at each corner of the panel, are computed as: T = 1440/4 = 360 lbs V = 0.2 x 360 = 72 lbs The corresponding stresses (the cross-sectional area of a ¼ inch bolt is 0.05 sq. inch) are: σ t = 360 / 0.05 = 7,200 pounds per square inch σ v = 72 / 0.05 = 1,440 pounds per square inch Both values are well within allowable limits, compared to the yield strength of stainless steel, which is at least 35,000 pounds per square inch. 2) 3/8 inch diameter J-shaped anchor bolts in the footing There are two frames that can be used for the GFRC pillars, a large frame measuring 15 by 17.5 and a small frame measuring by 6.5. However, both provide a similar level of resistance to overturning. This is due to the fact that the arrangement of the anchor bolts is very similar in both frames, and it is these four bolts that provide the necessary resistance. The bolts are laid out on a 6 x 7.5 rectangle on the large frame, and on a 5.5 x 6.5 rectangle on the small frame. Since it is not always possible to predict how the frame inside a pillar will be aligned, as a conservative measure the worst position is assumed to exist for this study. The tensile (T) and shear (V) forces on one bolt, located at the critical corner of the panel, are computed as: T = 4473/(2 x 5.5) + 895/(2 x 6.5) = 475 lbs V = ( )/4 = 411 lbs Page 7

8 The corresponding stresses (the cross-sectional area of a 3/8 inch bolt is 0.11 sq. inch) are: σ t = 475 / 0.11 = 4,318 pounds per square inch σ v = 411 / 0.11 = 3,736 pounds per square inch Both values are well within allowable limits, compared to the yield strength of ASTM A615 (used for rebars) steel which is at least 60,000 pounds per square inch, or ASTM A307 (used for threaded rods) steel which has a yield strength of least 33,000 pounds per square inch. The J-shape ends ensure that the bolts will not be pulled out of the concrete. Note that both the forces and stresses will be slightly lower for the larger frame. 3) 12 inch diameter concrete footing in the ground The concrete footing can fail in one of the following manners. a) Pulling out of the J-bolts from the top of the footing: This is not likely to happen due to two reasons one, usually only two bolts have any significant tension, and two, the J-bolts have more than adequate strength to be pulled out under the forces computed above. b) Failure of the concrete footing at due to shearing or fracture: The shearing resistance of the concrete footing is computed as: Vc = 2( f c)(a) where f c = 3,000 psi for commonly used concrete A = cross-sectional area of footing = 113 sq.in Vc = 2(54.8)113 = 12, 348 lbs This is more than adequate to resist the applied force of 1371 lbs, hence this mechanism is unlikely to happen. Similarly, fracture of the footing is unlikely due to the small magnitude of the force compared to the strength of the 12 inch diameter concrete section. c) Sliding of the footing in the horizontal direction due to wind flowing towards the face of the sign or its front face: This requires the shearing failure of a wedge of soil in the back of the footing, and is not likely to happen due to the large forces (soil generates considerable passive pressures) required to push the soil. Incidentally, the force applied to the sign is the same regardless of which direction the wind is flowing in, towards the face of the sign or towards its back. d) Overturning of the footing about a point located at the top of the footing on its back side: This requires the slip failure, along a curved surface, of a soil wedge in front of the footing. The slip failure is resisted by the shearing strength of the soil along the surface of the wedge, and by the weight of the Page 8

9 wedge itself which must be lifted up in order for the failure to occur. This mechanism is investigated in detail below. The following assumptions are made regarding the nature and engineering characteristics of the soil that the footing is built in: 1. Unit weight of saturated soil = 120 lbs per cubic foot 2. Angle of shear in soil = 30 degrees 3. Cohesion of soil = 0. This is the value commonly used for sandy soils. This is based upon the supposition that the sign assemblies are likely to be installed in improved locations, where the native organic soil usually comprising a mix of sand and clay has been replaced with sandy backfill during grading and leveling operations. This is a conservative assumption, since the presence of clayey material in the soil will lead to an increase in the shearing resistance obtained in the soil. 4. Multiplier for obtaining total surface area = 3.0. This accounts for the increase in resistance due to the mobilization of soil adjacent to the wedge being considered for analysis. The overturning moment at the pivot point (top of footing) is the vector sum of 100% moment in the main direction and 20% moment in the perpendicular direction, as given below: M applied = ( ) = 4562 ft-lbs In order to simplify calculations, a plane sided wedge was used in the computations instead of a curved surface; this represents a slight measure of over-conservatism that is introduced in the analysis. The restoring moment, or MR, is generated by three different forces: Weight of the concrete footing acting 6 away from the point Weight of the soil wedge acting at the centroid of the triangle Shearing resistance along the bottom face of the soil wedge The factor of safety (FS) against overturning was selected as Normally, a minimum factor of safety of 2.0 is required for all structures such as footings and retaining walls used in buildings and highways. Since the sign structures in this study do not qualify as critical or essential structures, it was judged prudent to lower the factor. In addition, all design codes allow a 1/3rd increase in allowable stresses under wind loads, hence the actual factor of safety is (1.25)(1.33) = 1.66, as compared to the normal factor of 2.0 Analyses were conducted for three different depths of the concrete footings by computing the MR provided by each for the design wind speed of 150 mph. The 2-0 and 3-0 deep footing did not provide a FS greater than Page 9

10 1.25, hence the allowable wind speeds were reduced to acceptable values by back-calculation. The results are as follows: Depth of Concrete FS against Remarks Footing overturning Not acceptable for 150 mph wind speeds. Can be used safely in areas with maximum wind speeds of 98 mph Not acceptable for 150 mph wind speeds. Can be used safely in areas with maximum wind speeds of 135 mph Acceptable in all areas Acceptable in all areas SUMMARY It will be useful and necessary to refer to the map showing contours for wind speed given in either of the references listed earlier, in order to determine the applicable wind speed for any location in the US. Attention must be paid if the signs are to be located within the areas designated as Special Wind Zones which are identified on the map; these zones can experience very high peak gust speeds, an example being Mt. Washington in New Hampshire. Local knowledge of the wind speed history is required in order to ascertain applicable speeds. The 2.0 feet deep footing should not be used in areas with peak 3-second wind gust speeds greater than 100 mph. This excludes all coastal areas for the Gulf and the Atlantic states in the US. They can be used in most inland locations, with the exception of special wind zones. The 3.0 feet deep footing can be used in most locations with gust wind speeds listed as being less than 135 mph on the map. Care must be taken if the location is in the special wind zones which are identified on the map. The 3.5 feet deep footing can be used everywhere, and with care in special wind zones. The 4.0 feet deep footing can be used anywhere. Page 10

1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona

1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures SECTION 70 - GENERAL "APPENDIX CHAPTER 7 - EARTHEN MATERIAL STRUCTURES 70. Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to establish minimum standards of safety

More information

POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns)

POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns) POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns) Post and frame structures. The following requirements serve as minimum standards for post and frame structures within all of the following structural limitations:

More information

System. Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor

System. Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor Model 150 HELICAL ANCHOR System PN #MBHAT Stability. Security. Integrity. 150 Helical Anchor System About Foundation Supportworks is a network of the most experienced and knowledgeable foundation repair

More information

6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES

6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 71 6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES by James E. Russell, P.E. 72 Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 73 RETROFITTING POST AND PIER HOUSES This

More information

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications

More information

4.3.5 - Breakaway Walls

4.3.5 - Breakaway Walls 4.3.5 - Breakaway Walls Elevation of a structure on a properly designed foundation reduces the potential for water damage from flooding. When the space below the lowest elevated floor is maintained free

More information

CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS

CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS CH. 2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS GRAVITY LOADS Dead loads Vertical loads due to weight of building and any permanent equipment Dead loads of structural elements cannot be readily determined b/c weight depends

More information

Sign Posts and Supports

Sign Posts and Supports Sign Posts and Supports To address various signing needs and agency preferences, several types of supports are available. Small signs (less than 50 square feet) are commonly supported with either wood

More information

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers 3-1 Pre-Installation Establishes the minimum requirements for the siting, design, materials, access, and installation of manufactured dwellings, accessory

More information

Diameter. Swift Lift Round Recess Plug. Note: The diameter of the narrow recess plug is the same as the diameter of the round recess plug.

Diameter. Swift Lift Round Recess Plug. Note: The diameter of the narrow recess plug is the same as the diameter of the round recess plug. P-5 The P-5 is hot forged from carbon steel. The formed head provis spherical seating that the Lifting Eye engages, while a disc-shaped foot is embedd in the concrete. Due to its being a forged part, the

More information

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SUMMARY REPORT:

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SUMMARY REPORT: Texas Transportation Institute The Texas A&M University System 3135 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-3135 979-845-6375 Fax: 979-845-6107 http://tti.tamu.edu TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Contract No.: T4541-AO Test

More information

[TECHNICAL REPORT I:]

[TECHNICAL REPORT I:] [Helios Plaza] Houston, Texas Structural Option Adviser: Dr. Linda Hanagan [TECHNICAL REPORT I:] Structural Concepts & Existing Conditions Table of Contents Executive Summary... 2 Introduction... 3 Structural

More information

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For

More information

Chapter 36 - STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION SECTION 3601 - PURPOSE. SECTION 3602 - SCOPE. SECTION 3603 - DEFINITIONS.

Chapter 36 - STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION SECTION 3601 - PURPOSE. SECTION 3602 - SCOPE. SECTION 3603 - DEFINITIONS. Austin City Code - Volume II TITLE 25 LAND DEVELOPMENT\CHAPTER 25-12 TECHNICAL CODES\ARTICLE 1: UNIFORM BUILDING CODE\25-12-3 LOCAL AMENDMENTS TO THE BUILDING CODE Chapter 36 - STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION

More information

Foundation Installation

Foundation Installation Appendix B Foundation Installation Guidelines SOUTHWEST WINDPOWER, INC. - 1801 WEST ROUTE 66 - FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA 86001 - PH: 928.779.9463 - FAX: 928.779.1485 www.skystreamenergy.com October 2006 Southwest

More information

Hardy Frame. at top plates. 1/4 x 3" screws. on nuts and washers (Requires 5,000 psi non-shrink grout) Brace Frame HARDY FRAME BRACE FRAME 4X FILLER

Hardy Frame. at top plates. 1/4 x 3 screws. on nuts and washers (Requires 5,000 psi non-shrink grout) Brace Frame HARDY FRAME BRACE FRAME 4X FILLER FRAME On Foundations Hardy Frame Panel Hardy Frame Panel Hardy Frame Panel Hardy Frame Panel with 2x filler at top plates with 4x filler at Portal FRAME 1/4 x 4 PANEL 1/2" screws WITH 2X FILLER FRAME 1/4

More information

Southwest Windpower Inc. Doc. # 0186. Southwest Windpower Inc. 45 Air Tower Analysis 7/7/03

Southwest Windpower Inc. Doc. # 0186. Southwest Windpower Inc. 45 Air Tower Analysis 7/7/03 Southwest Windpower Inc. Doc. # 0186 Southwest Windpower Inc. 45 Air Tower Analysis 7/7/03 1. Introduction: The following analysis covers tower stress and anchor loads for the Southwest Wndpower 45' Air

More information

HURRICANE MITIGATION RETROFITS FOR EXISTING SITE-BUILT SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES

HURRICANE MITIGATION RETROFITS FOR EXISTING SITE-BUILT SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES HURRICANE MITIGATION RETROFITS FOR EXISTING SITE-BUILT SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES 101 Retrofits Required. Pursuant to Section 553.844 553.884, Florida Statutes, strengthening of existing site-built,

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges 7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience

More information

Residential Deck Safety, Construction, and Repair

Residential Deck Safety, Construction, and Repair Juneau Permit Center, 4 th Floor Marine View Center, (907)586-0770 This handout is designed to help you build your deck to comply with the 2006 International Residential Building code as modified by the

More information

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams

More information

determining wind and snow loads for solar panels America s Authority on Solar

determining wind and snow loads for solar panels America s Authority on Solar determining wind and snow loads for solar panels America s Authority on Solar Determining wind and snow loads for solar panels 1 introduction As one of the largest and most established vertically integrated

More information

Activity 2.3b Engineering Problem Solving Answer Key

Activity 2.3b Engineering Problem Solving Answer Key Activity.3b Engineering roblem Solving Answer Key 1. A force of 00 lbs pushes against a rectangular plate that is 1 ft. by ft. Determine the lb lb pressure in and that the plate exerts on the ground due

More information

Designed and Engineered to Perform

Designed and Engineered to Perform History EARTH CONTACT PRODUCTS, L.L.C., is a family owned company, based in Olathe, Kansas. This company was built upon Don May s U.S. Patented fourth-generation Steel Piering System that has led to the

More information

Design of an Industrial Truss

Design of an Industrial Truss Design of an Industrial Truss Roofing U 2 U 3 Ridge U 4 Sagrod 24 U 1 U 5 L 0 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L 6 6@20 = 120 Elevation of the Truss Top Cord Bracing Sagrod Purlin at top, Bottom Cord Bracing at bottom

More information

Stability. Security. Integrity.

Stability. Security. Integrity. Stability. Security. Integrity. PN #MBHPT Foundation Supportworks provides quality helical pile systems for both new construction and retrofit applications. 288 Helical Pile System About Foundation Supportworks

More information

Foundation Experts, LLC Specializes in Foundation Repair and Waterproofing

Foundation Experts, LLC Specializes in Foundation Repair and Waterproofing 1 Most basements show some signs of leaking and cracking. Through the years, problems with water, poor soils, grading, drainage and possible settling affect the integrity of a basement. Being able to recognize

More information

City of Tucson and Pima County Arizona Building Code Appendix Chapter 72 Straw-Bale Structures

City of Tucson and Pima County Arizona Building Code Appendix Chapter 72 Straw-Bale Structures City of Tucson and Pima County Arizona Building Code Appendix Chapter 72 Straw-Bale Structures SECTION 7201 - PURPOSE The purpose of this appendix chapter is to establish minimum prescriptive standards

More information

Module 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ]

Module 6 : Design of Retaining Structures. Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ] Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction ] Objectives In this section you will learn the following Introduction Lecture 28 : Anchored sheet pile walls [ Section 28.1 : Introduction

More information

Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS

Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS For a surface blast, the most directly affected building elements are the façade and structural members on the lower four stories. Although the walls can be designed

More information

LEGACY REPORT ER-5110. www.icc-es.org. ICC Evaluation Service, Inc. Reissued November 1, 2003. Legacy report on the 1997 Uniform Building Code

LEGACY REPORT ER-5110. www.icc-es.org. ICC Evaluation Service, Inc. Reissued November 1, 2003. Legacy report on the 1997 Uniform Building Code LEGACY REPORT Reissued November 1, 2003 ICC Evaluation Service, Inc. www.icc-es.org Business/Regional Office # 5360 Workman Mill Road, Whittier, California 90601 # (562) 699-0543 Regional Office # 900

More information

load on the soil. For this article s examples, load bearing values given by the following table will be assumed.

load on the soil. For this article s examples, load bearing values given by the following table will be assumed. How Many Piers? By Gary Collins, P.E. A clear-cut guide to helical pier spacing Introduction Helical pier spacing is not an exact science. How many does it take to support a structure adequately or repair

More information

STUDENT MANUAL HEAVY EQUIPMENT & RIGGING SPECIALIST TRAINING MODULE 2 UNIT 2: CALCULATING WEIGHTS & CENTER OF GRAVITY

STUDENT MANUAL HEAVY EQUIPMENT & RIGGING SPECIALIST TRAINING MODULE 2 UNIT 2: CALCULATING WEIGHTS & CENTER OF GRAVITY STUDENT MANUAL HEAVY EQUIPMENT & RIGGING SPECIALIST TRAINING MODULE 2 UNIT 2: CALCULATING WEIGHTS & CENTER OF GRAVITY Unit Objective Enabling Objectives Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to

More information

Section 2100-Trenching and Tunneling

Section 2100-Trenching and Tunneling SECTION 5200 - STORM SEWER PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 SCOPE: This Section covers installation of storm sewer mains and culverts. Topics include permits and fees, trench widths, pipe laying, bedding, initial

More information

CHAPTER IV DECKS. (b) Attached Deck: Any deck which is physically connected to the principal building or accessory structure.

CHAPTER IV DECKS. (b) Attached Deck: Any deck which is physically connected to the principal building or accessory structure. CHAPTER IV DECKS SECTION 30.30 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1. DEFINITIONS: (a) Deck: Any structure which serves as a raised horizontal platform on floor constructed of wood or other materials, without enclosing

More information

Wind Load Provisions in the 2001 Supports Specifications

Wind Load Provisions in the 2001 Supports Specifications Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 1 Wind Load Provisions in the 001 Supports Specifications Submission date: November 15, 00 Word count: 7349 words (5599+50*7) By Fouad H. Fouad, Ph.D., P.E., Professor,

More information

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE POLES The Solid Alternative to Wood

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE POLES The Solid Alternative to Wood Prestressed Concrete Utility Poles U-1 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE S The Solid Alternative to Wood Lonestar Prestress concrete poles were developed to meet the expanding need of a supporting structure for; street,

More information

Anchorage of Wood Shear Walls to Concrete for Tension and Shear 2009 IBC brings about several changes from 2006 IBC

Anchorage of Wood Shear Walls to Concrete for Tension and Shear 2009 IBC brings about several changes from 2006 IBC Anchorage of Wood Shear Walls to Concrete for Tension and Shear 2009 IBC brings about several changes from 2006 IBC By Shane Vilasineekul, P.E. Since the publication of the 2006 International Building

More information

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for:

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for: HANDOUT REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition RETAINING WALLS Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

More information

SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES

SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Fabrication, furnishing and installation of chain link fence, chain link gates, and extension brackets with barbed wire.

More information

Statement of Special Inspections, 2013 CBC

Statement of Special Inspections, 2013 CBC BUILDING AND SAFETY DEPARTMENT Statement of Special Inspections, 2013 CBC PROJECT ADDRESS PERMIT NUMBER # Description of Work: This Statement of Special Inspections is submitted in fulfillment of the requirements

More information

SECTION 32 31 00 EXPANDED METAL FENCING Meets Buy American Procurement

SECTION 32 31 00 EXPANDED METAL FENCING Meets Buy American Procurement PART 1 GENERAL SECTION 32 31 00 EXPANDED METAL FENCING Meets Buy American Procurement 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes 1. Supply and install all materials and accoutrements required for the installation

More information

Hilti, Inc. 5400 South 122 nd East Avenue Tulsa, OK 74146. 1-800-879-8000 www.hilti.com

Hilti, Inc. 5400 South 122 nd East Avenue Tulsa, OK 74146. 1-800-879-8000 www.hilti.com Attached are page(s) from the 2014 Hilti North American Product Tech Guide. For complete details on this product, including data development, product specifications, general suitability, installation,

More information

glass entrance systems

glass entrance systems All Glass Entrance Systems: Entrance Configurations/Fitting Designations og-43410 og-47210 og-43410 og-43410 og-43410 og-44610 og-43410 og-44010 og-46700 og-46700 og-47210 og-47210 og-44010 og-43410 og-44610

More information

Chapter 3 FOUNDATIONS AND FOUNDATION WALLS

Chapter 3 FOUNDATIONS AND FOUNDATION WALLS Chapter 3 FOUNDATIONS AND FOUNDATION WALLS This chapter discusses foundations and foundation walls constructed using the two most common foundation materials concrete and masonry. Although the IRC permits

More information

LLOYD INDUSTRIES INC. DAMPER INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

LLOYD INDUSTRIES INC.  DAMPER INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS DAMPER Installation and Maintenance Instructions 1-1/2 Hour Rated, UL Classified model 75 fire dampers For use in fire barriers with ratings of less than 3 hours INSPECTION 1. Inspect for shipping damage.

More information

ATTENTION ANYONE INSTALLING A MANUFACTURED HOME AFTER MAY 1, 2009

ATTENTION ANYONE INSTALLING A MANUFACTURED HOME AFTER MAY 1, 2009 Chester J. Culver Governor Patty Judge Lt. Governor Eugene T. Meyer Commissioner James Kenkel State Fire Marshal April 29, 2009 ATTENTION ANYONE INSTALLING A MANUFACTURED HOME AFTER MAY 1, 2009 The Iowa

More information

PART TWO GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT. Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone

PART TWO GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT. Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Martin Street Improvements, Fredonia, Wisconsin; Keystone Compac Hewnstone DESIGN MANUAL & KEYWALL OPERATING GUIDE GEOSYNTHETIC SOIL REINFORCEMENT Keystone retaining walls

More information

INFORMATION BULLETIN NO.

INFORMATION BULLETIN NO. One- and Two-Family Standard Garage Slab and Foundation Wall Details for use with the 2012 International Residential Code (IRC) INFORMATION BULLETIN NO. 114-2012 October 1, 2012 City Planning & Development

More information

SECTION 02845 GUARDRAILS

SECTION 02845 GUARDRAILS SECTION 02845 GUARDRAILS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 SCOPE OF WORK A. Furnish all labor, materials, equipment and incidentals necessary and repair, replace or install all types of guardrails as specified herein

More information

Project Specifications For Prefabricated Steel Truss Bridge

Project Specifications For Prefabricated Steel Truss Bridge Project Specifications For Prefabricated Steel Truss Bridge General: These specifications are for a fully engineered clear span bridge of welded steel construction and shall be regarded as minimum standards

More information

Design of Bolts in Shear-Bearing Connections per AISC LRFD 3rd Edition (2001)

Design of Bolts in Shear-Bearing Connections per AISC LRFD 3rd Edition (2001) PDHonline Course S134 (3 PDH) Design of Bolts in Shear-Bearing Connections per AISC LRFD 3rd Edition (2001) Instructor: Jose-Miguel Albaine, M.S., P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive

More information

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL S5-06/07 1604.11 (New), 1605 (New) Proposed Change as Submitted: Proponent: William M. Connolly, State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division of

More information

PC-Concrete Injectable Concrete Anchoring and Repair System

PC-Concrete Injectable Concrete Anchoring and Repair System PC-Concrete Injectable Concrete Anchoring and Repair System DESCRIPTION: PC-Concrete is a two component (1:1 ratio), 100% solids, high modulus, structural epoxy paste. PC-Concrete is a solvent free, no

More information

SECTION 32 31 13 CHAIN LINK FENCES AND GATES

SECTION 32 31 13 CHAIN LINK FENCES AND GATES SECTION 32 31 13 CHAIN LINK FENCES AND GATES PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: 1. Fence framework, fabric, and accessories. 2. Excavation for post bases. 3. Concrete foundation for posts

More information

For the purposes of this Part, the following words shall have the following meanings:

For the purposes of this Part, the following words shall have the following meanings: LOUISIANA REVISED STATUTES TITLE 51. TRADE AND COMMERCE CHAPTER 2. PARTICULAR GOODS PART XIV-B. MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR INSTALLATION OF MANUFACTURED HOMES Current through all 2010 Regular Session Acts 912.21.

More information

ASCE 7-10 Wind Provisions and Effects on Wood Design and Construction

ASCE 7-10 Wind Provisions and Effects on Wood Design and Construction ASCE 7-10 Provisions and Effects on Wood and Construction Philip Line, P.E. 1 William L. Coulbourne, P.E. M.ASCE 2 ABSTRACT It is well known that the major change for wind design in ASCE 7-10 Minimum Loads

More information

The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 027110 Standard Construction Specifications September 2013 Page 1 of 12

The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 027110 Standard Construction Specifications September 2013 Page 1 of 12 September 2013 Page 1 of 12 Part 1 General 1.1 DESCRIPTION OF WORK.1 The work shall consist of the supply and construction of a chain link fence, barb wire fences or mesh fences as shown on the Plans or

More information

SECTION 02630 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM

SECTION 02630 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM SECTION 02630 PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION A. Section includes specifications for storm drainage systems including modifications and connections to existing storm drainage systems. 1.02 REFERENCE

More information

Foundations 65 5 FOUNDATIONS. by Richard Chylinski, FAIA and Timothy P. McCormick, P.E. Seismic Retrofit Training

Foundations 65 5 FOUNDATIONS. by Richard Chylinski, FAIA and Timothy P. McCormick, P.E. Seismic Retrofit Training Foundations 65 5 FOUNDATIONS by Richard Chylinski, FAIA and Timothy P. McCormick, P.E. 66 Foundations Foundations 67 FOUNDATIONS Let's assume that the retrofit has been done correctly from the roofline

More information

RB163 06/07 R , Chapter 6

RB163 06/07 R , Chapter 6 R163 06/07 R301.2.1.1, hapter 6 Proponent: Robert oyer, Palm each ounty, Longwood, FL, representing The uilding Officials Association of Florida 1. Revise as follows: R301.2.1.1 Design criteria. onstruction

More information

TS 813 GROUNDING AND BONDING TTD 813.001 TRAFFIC SIGNAL INSTALLATION AND CONTROLLER CABINET GROUNDING SYSTEM TTD 813.005 CONTROLLER CABINET GROUNDING

TS 813 GROUNDING AND BONDING TTD 813.001 TRAFFIC SIGNAL INSTALLATION AND CONTROLLER CABINET GROUNDING SYSTEM TTD 813.005 CONTROLLER CABINET GROUNDING TORONTO TRANSPORTATION January 2012 TS 813 GROUNDING AND BONDING TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. DRAWINGS TTD 813.001 TRAFFIC SIGNAL INSTALLATION AND CONTROLLER CABINET GROUNDING SYSTEM TTD 813.005 CONTROLLER CABINET

More information

EVALUATION OF DUAL CABLE SIGNAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS

EVALUATION OF DUAL CABLE SIGNAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS EVALUATION OF DUAL CABLE SIGNAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS By JESSICA L. RIGDON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER

More information

SECTION 7 FOUNDATIONS

SECTION 7 FOUNDATIONS SECTION 7 FOUNDATIONS TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION METHOD Before any new building is erected, remove all stumps and roots from the soil to a depth of at least 12" below the surface of the ground in the area to

More information

Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation

Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation Safety & Buildings Division 201 West Washington Avenue P.O. Box 2658 Madison, WI 53701-2658 Evaluation # 200813-O Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation Material Best Management Standards for Foundation

More information

SECTION VALVE BOXES AND METER VAULTS

SECTION VALVE BOXES AND METER VAULTS SECTION 03 48 20 VALVE BOXES AND METER VAULTS PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Valve boxes for water and cleanout boxes for wastewater service. B. Meter boxes for water service. C. Meter vaults

More information

FORMAL TECHNICAL OPINION

FORMAL TECHNICAL OPINION Jon S. Corzine Governor Issued: March 1985 Revised: June 2001 Code Ref. Update: January 2011 State of New Jersey Department of Community Affairs Division of Codes and Standards PO Box 802 Trenton, New

More information

MONDOATHENS BASKETBALL SET (Reference PK110)

MONDOATHENS BASKETBALL SET (Reference PK110) MONDOATHENS BASKETBALL SET (Reference PK110) DESCRIPTION The MONDOATHENS backstop unit is mainly designed for multi-sports pavilions and installations where the highest-level basketball competitions are

More information

The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs EGN-5439 The Design of Tall Buildings Lecture #14 The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Via the Direct Method as per ACI 318-05 L. A. Prieto-Portar - 2008 Reinforced concrete floor systems provide an

More information

DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS

DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS 8601 North Black Canyon Highway Suite 103 Phoenix, AZ 8501 For Professionals Engaged in Post-Tensioning Design Issue 14 December 004 DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS by James D. Rogers 1 1.0

More information

Fall Protection System: A system put in place to protect workers from falling. (i.e. installation of guardrails, fall arrest, fall restraint, etc.

Fall Protection System: A system put in place to protect workers from falling. (i.e. installation of guardrails, fall arrest, fall restraint, etc. SWP (6) FALL PROTECTION PROGRAM The following information on Fall Protection has been based around the BC OHS Regulations, standards, policies and guidelines. Prior to starting work outside of BC, the

More information

SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN

SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN SECTION 5: SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM DESIGN 5.01 GENERAL Sanitary sewer improvements shall be designed to serve the ultimate level of City development as defined in the General Plan and the Wastewater Facilities

More information

1. Division-5 Section Metal Fabrications for material and welding requirements related to wrought iron fencing.

1. Division-5 Section Metal Fabrications for material and welding requirements related to wrought iron fencing. SECTION 02835 SITE FENCES AND GATES PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections,

More information

Structures and Stiffness

Structures and Stiffness Structures and Stiffness ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering Ken Youssefi/Thalia Anagnos Engineering 10, SJSU 1 Wind Turbine Structure The Goal The support structure should be optimized for weight and

More information

York County Building Plan Format Requirements

York County Building Plan Format Requirements York County Building Plan Format Requirements MINIMUM RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR BUILDING PLANS: The type and number of drawings will depend greatly upon the size, nature and complexity of the project.

More information

FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 14-1 Load Path and Transfer to

More information

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural

More information

13.1 SCOPE...13-1 13.2 DEFINITIONS...13-1 13.3 NOTATION...13-1 13.4 DETERMINATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES...13-2

13.1 SCOPE...13-1 13.2 DEFINITIONS...13-1 13.3 NOTATION...13-1 13.4 DETERMINATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES...13-2 SECTION 13: FOUNDATION DESIGN TABLE OF CONTENTS 13 13.1 SCOPE...13-1 13.2 DEFINITIONS...13-1 13.3 NOTATION...13-1 13.4 DETERMINATION OF SOIL PROPERTIES...13-2 13.5 FOUNDATION BEARING CAPACITY...13-2 13.5.1

More information

These specifications shall apply to all high strength bolts and anchor bolts.

These specifications shall apply to all high strength bolts and anchor bolts. BOLTS (New Section) 972 972.1 REQUIREMENTS These specifications shall apply to all high strength bolts and anchor bolts. 972.2 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS A. General: All bolts, nuts, and washers shall have

More information

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab, DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

More information

T-14 Tilt-Up Wall Braces

T-14 Tilt-Up Wall Braces T-14 Tilt-Up Wall s The Dayton Superior T-14 Tilt-Up Wall s are all steel, heavy duty wall braces designed to quickly and easily align and brace tilt-up wall panels. Rough adjustment of the T-14 braces

More information

SECTION CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES

SECTION CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES SECTION 02830 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SCOPE OF WORK The work covered in this section shall include all materials, labor, and equipment necessary for a complete installation of the

More information

Ground-Mount Solar Array Foundations

Ground-Mount Solar Array Foundations Ground-Mount Solar Array Foundations Thomas E. Billups, PE Principal, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. Providence, RI Foundation Support Ground Mount Solar Systems Types of Foundations Used: Precast Concrete

More information

PS High Wind Speed Forces (2/25/2007)

PS High Wind Speed Forces (2/25/2007) This report is intended to give a familiarity with the forces of wind. It is intended to aid in the building of polar shift survival quarters by giving engineering design considerations. The force of wind

More information

Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for Non-Geotechnical Engineers

Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for Non-Geotechnical Engineers PDHonline Course C155 (2 PDH) Earth Pressure and Retaining Wall Basics for Non-Geotechnical Engineers Instructor: Richard P. Weber, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA

More information

National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination

National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8-hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)

More information

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTOIAL 1 STESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING This is the first tutorial on bending of beams designed for anyone wishing to study it at a fairly advanced level. You should judge

More information

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Woodframe floor systems and concrete slab-on-grade floors are discussed in this chapter. Although cold-formed steel framing for floor systems also is permitted by the IRC,

More information

The information listed below is a minimum standard. Tie Down Requirements for manufactured homes

The information listed below is a minimum standard. Tie Down Requirements for manufactured homes HUD s manufactured home tie-down requirement only stipulates that tie-downs are required it does not indicate as to the type, number of or location of the tie-downs. The information listed below is a minimum

More information

SLABS, COLUMNS & FOOTINGS

SLABS, COLUMNS & FOOTINGS SLABS, COLUMNS & FOOTINGS Multiply the height of your column by the number that corresponds to the diameter to determine the cubic yards needed. Column CY = 0.78 x A x B 7 B A Diameter CY Diameter CY Diameter

More information

Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement

Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement No. 8 July 2002 A formwork collapse occurred during the construction of a new manufacturing building which was being built in suburban Boston for a

More information

Introduction...COMB-2 Design Considerations and Examples...COMB-3

Introduction...COMB-2 Design Considerations and Examples...COMB-3 SECTION DIRECTORY General Information Introduction...COMB-2 Design Considerations and Examples...COMB-3 Combination Assembly Recommendations and Limitations Composite Configurations...COMB-4 Typical Sealant

More information

Since the Steel Joist Institute

Since the Steel Joist Institute SELECTING and SPECIFYING Wesley B. Myers, P.E. An insider s guide to selecting and specifying K-series, LH, DLH-series joists and joist girders Since the Steel Joist Institute adopted the first standard

More information

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRECAST MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM (revised 11/5/13)

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRECAST MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM (revised 11/5/13) Page 1 of 7 STONE STRONG SYSTEMS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRECAST MODULAR BLOCK RETAINING WALL SYSTEM (revised ) PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 Description A. Work includes furnishing and installing precast modular blocks

More information

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS FENCING - 1 2-11-1 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATE(S) A. SCOPE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS This section covers the work necessary for the chain link fence gate(s), complete. General Like items of materials provided

More information

Pipeline bridge crossing for mining trucks A geotechnical engineering design.

Pipeline bridge crossing for mining trucks A geotechnical engineering design. Pipeline bridge crossing for mining trucks A geotechnical engineering design. Bernard Shen Pells Sullivan Meynink, Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT The Donaldson open pit coal mine is located in Blackhill, New

More information

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Page 1 of 6 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1. SCOPE OF WORK: The work to be performed under the provisions of these documents and the contract based thereon includes furnishing all labor, equipment, materials,

More information

COMMONLY USED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CODES

COMMONLY USED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CODES COMMONLY USED RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CODES INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE (2009) form revised 5/10 FOUNDATION 1. DESIGN OF FORMWORK. Section 1906.1 IBC 2009, Section R404.1.2.3.6 IRC 2009, ACI 318 Section

More information

Traffic Sign Research Study for Miami-Dade County

Traffic Sign Research Study for Miami-Dade County 1 Traffic Sign Research Study for Miami-Dade County Traffic Signs Research Study for Miami-Dade County Final Report Prepared for Miami-Dade County Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Prepared by Pei-Sung

More information

Residential Decks. Planning and Development Services Department

Residential Decks. Planning and Development Services Department Building Safety Division 8500 Santa Fe Drive Overland Park, KS 66212 (913) 895-6225 Fax (913) 895-5016 Email: permitservices@opkansas.org Planning and Development Services Department Residential Decks

More information