Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

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1 AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter 1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry This chapter is an overview of the science of Biology we will be going through this chapter very quickly. If you have any problems please see me before school for additional help. 1. Briefly describe the properties of life listed below (Figure 1.2): a. Order - b. Evolutionary adaptation c. Regulation d. Energy processing e. Growth and development f. Response to the environment g. Reproduction - Concept 1.1 The study of life reveals common themes. 2. List ALL ten levels of biological organization from largest to smallest (Figure 1.3) Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Page 1 of 15

2 4. What is the relationship between DNA, genes, and cells as the basic units of structure and function in living organisms? 5. Define the following terms and give an example of each that is not mentioned in the text. a. negative feedback - b. positive feedback Concept 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life. 6. Based on molecular evidence, all life is organized into three domains rather than the five kingdoms you may have learned about in your previous Biology class. Write the kingdoms mentioned in the text in the space above the proper domain names shown in the evolutionary tree diagram below. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 7. Explain Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection in your own words, and give an example that supports your statements. Page 2 of 15

3 Concept 1.3 In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypotheses. 8. Explain what is meant by a scientific theory by listing the three ways that your text separates a theory from a hypothesis or mere speculation Concept 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints. 9. How does science differ from technology? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback regulation? A. The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar levels. B. When cells have sufficient energy available, the pathways that break down sugars are turned off. C. A rise in temperature when you exercise stimulates sweating and increased blood flow to the skin. D. In the birth of a baby, uterine contractions stimulate the release of chemicals that stimulate more uterine contractions. Chapter 2 - The Chemical Context of Life This chapter is a review of basic chemistry we will be going through this chapter very quickly. If you have any problems please see me before school for additional help. Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds. 1. What is the difference between an essential element and a trace element? 2. Label the diagram below (Figure 2.4) and define the terms. Definitions: Page 3 of 15

4 Concept 2.2 An element s properties depend on the structure of its atoms. 3. What is an isotope and what is special about radioactive isotopes? 4. Explain how radioactive tracers are used in scientific research. 5. Explain how the movement of electrons relates to the concept of potential energy study Figure 2.6 to help you answer the question. 6. What determines interactions between atoms? Why are valence electrons important? Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms. 7. How do covalent bonds compare to ionic bonds? 8. Compare and contrast hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. Give an example of an observable biological phenomenon that is due to each type of bond. Page 4 of 15

5 Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds. 9. Define a dynamic chemical equilibrium in terms of quantities of reactants and products. AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. The chemical characteristics or reactivity of an element depend mostly on the. A. mean energy level of its electrons B. number of electrons in its outermost shell C. number of electron shells present in the atoms D. number of protons plus the number of neutrons Chapter 3 Water and Life This chapter is a review and extension of information you should have learned in Biology we will be going through this chapter very quickly. If you have any problems please see me before school for additional help. Concept 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding. 1. Why is water considered a polar molecule? Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth s suitability for life. 2. For each of the properties of water listed below, briefly define the property. Then, include an example found in nature of each property. a. cohesion b. adhesion c. surface tension d. high specific heat e. heat of vaporization f. evaporative cooling - Page 5 of 15

6 3. Explain the special relationship between temperature and density of water. Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms. 4. Label the diagram below to demonstrate the dissociation of the water molecule and then answer the question to relate this diagram to ph. Question: How does the above diagram relate to ph? 5. What properties define an acid and a base? 6. Why are apparently small changes in ph so important in Biology? 7. What is a buffer? Explain the carbonic acid buffer system in human blood. 8. What is ocean acidification and why is it a threat to marine organisms? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. Which of the following is NOT considered to be an emergent property of water? A. cohesion B. transpiration C. moderation of temperature D. insulation of bodies of water by floating ice Page 6 of 15

7 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Again, this chapter is a review of (mostly) previously-covered material. We will be moving through this chapter very quickly, so please see me for extra assistance if needed. Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. 1. Why was the Urey-Miller experiment so important? (Figure 4.2) Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms. 2. Use the diagram below and the space to the right to label and contrast the three types of isomers. (Figure 4.7) (a) (b) (c) Page 7 of 15

8 Concept 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function Use your textbook to complete the table below (you do not need to memorize these functional groups): Functional Group Drawing Properties Compound Name Examples 3. Hydroxyl group 4. Carbonyl group 5. Carboxyl group 6. Amino group 7. Sulfhydryl group 8. Phosphate group 9. Methyl group AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 10. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by organisms because A. carbon can combine with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons. B. carbon is the sixth-most abundant element in the universe. C. carbon is the central atom of carbon dioxide, a necessary molecule for photosynthesis. D. each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions. Page 8 of 15

9 Chapter 5 - The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers. 1. Label the diagram below identify a monomer, polymer, dehydration reaction, and hydrolysis. Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material. 2. List and describe the two storage polysaccharides and the two structural polysaccharides. Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules. 3. Why are lipids like fats and steroids grouped together? 4. What are the building blocks of fats? Page 9 of 15

10 5. Contrast saturated and unsaturated fats how does this relate to the notion that structure and function are linked? 6. Label the diagram of a phospholipid below to show the phosphate group, the glycerol, and the fatty acid chains. Also indicate the region that is hydrophobic and the region that is hydrophilic. 7. How would you recognize a basic steroid molecule? Concept 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions. 8. List the eight types of proteins and their basic functions. (Figure 5.13) Page 10 of 15

11 9. Study Figures 5.14 & Select and draw two amino acids note the amino group, the carboxyl group and the alpha carbon, circle the water molecule to be removed and then note the peptide bond formed when the two are joined. 10. Describe the four levels of protein structure. (Figure 5.18) a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary 11. How do the characteristics of an amino acid nonpolar, polar, acidic or basic relate to the issue of tertiary and quaternary structure? 12. What does denaturation mean and why is it important? Page 11 of 15

12 Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information. 13. The flow of genetic information is from DNA RNA protein. Use this figure to explain the process. Label the nucleus, DNA, mrna, ribosome, and amino acids. Concept 5.6 Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications. 14. List and briefly describe five different fields that have been impacted by genomics and proteomics AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. Which statement about temperature effects is FALSE? A. All enzymes have the same optimal temperature. B. Raising the temperature may denature an enzyme. C. Raising the temperature may reduce the activity of an enzyme. D. Raising the temperature may increase the activity of an enzyme. Page 12 of 15

13 Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism (Concepts 8.4 & 8.5) Concept 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers. 1. What is activation energy? Label the diagram to describe the effect of an enzyme on activation energy. Definition: 2. Label this figure while you define each of the following: a. enzyme - b. substrates - c. active site - d. products e. enzyme substrate complex f. induced fit - 3. Recall that enzymes are globular proteins. Why can extremes of ph or very high temperatures affect enzyme activity? Page 13 of 15

14 4. Distinguish between cofactors and coenzymes. Give examples of each. 5. Compare and contrast competitive inhibitors and noncompetitive inhibitors. Label each type of inhibitor in the diagram. Concept 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism. 6. What is allosteric regulation? 7. How is allosteric regulation somewhat like noncompetitive inhibition? How might it be different? 8. Explain the difference between an allosteric activator and an allosteric inhibitor. 9. Although it is not an enzyme, hemoglobin shows cooperativity in binding O 2. Explain how hemoglobin works at the gills of a fish. Page 14 of 15

15 10. How does feedback inhibition work? Study this figure from your book illustrating the process of feedback inhibition (Figure 8.21). 11. What is the name of the substrate molecule that initiates this metabolic pathway? 12. What is the name of the inhibitor molecule? 13. What type of inhibition is illustrated here? 14. When does the inhibitor molecule have the most significant regulatory effect? AP Biology Exam Checkpoint: 15. In the diagram below, reactants and products are designated by capital letters; enzymes are designated by numbers. If end product E allosterically inhibits enzyme 1, what will be the result of a buildup of E in the cell? A. Reduced production of A B. Reduced production of G C. Increased production of E D. Increased production of G Page 15 of 15

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