Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

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1 The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type of element. Atoms are held together in molecules or compounds by chemical bonds. 2. Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. Covalent bond strength depends on the number of electron pairs shared by the atoms. single bond double < < bond triple bond 3 4 Chemical Bonds Electronegativity is an atom s affinity for electrons. Differences in electronegativity dictate how electrons are distributed in covalent bonds. nonpolar covalent bonds = equal sharing of electrons => same electronegativity polar covalent bonds = unequal sharing of electrons => unequal electronegativity 5 6 1

2 Flow of Energy Energy: the capacity to do work -kinetic energy: the energy of motion -potential energy: stored energy Energy can take many forms: mechanical heat electric current light Flow of Energy Most forms of energy can be converted to heat energy. Heat energy is measured in kilocalories. One calorie = the amount of heat required to raise the temp of water by 1 o C 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000 calories 7 8 Flow of Energy Potential energy stored in chemical bonds can be transferred from one molecule to another by way of electrons. oxidation: loss of electrons reduction: gain of electrons redox reactions are coupled to each other Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed -energy can only be converted from one form to another For example: sunlight energy chemical energy photosynthesis Laws of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics: disorder is more likely than order entropy: disorder in the universe The 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy is always increasing

3 Laws of Thermodynamics Free energy: the energy available to do work -denoted by the symbol G (Gibb s free energy) Chemical reactions can create changes in free energy When products contain more free energy than reactants then ΔG is positive. When reactants contain more free energy than products then ΔG is negative. Reactions & Energy Every chemical reaction results in a change in Free Energy Exergonic reactions release energy (-ΔG) Endergonic reactions store energy (+ΔG) Most reactions require some energy to get started. Needed to break existing bonds between the atoms of the existing molecules Endergonic Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written with the reactants first, followed by the products 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 reactants products Exergonic Chemical reactions are often reversible. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 reactants products Chemical reactions involve the formation or breaking of chemical bonds. Existing bonds must be broken before new bonds can form. Activation energy: energy needed to get a reaction started -destabilizes existing chemical bonds -required even for exergonic reactions 17 What would the reverse reaction look like? 18 3

4 Whether a chemical reaction occurs is influenced by: temperature concentration of reactants and products availability of a catalyst: substances that lower the activation energy of a reaction Is this endergonic or exergonic? All living organisms are dependent on water. Within a water molecule, the bonds between oxygen and hydrogen are highly polar. The structure of water is the basis for its unique properties. The most important property of water is the ability to form hydrogen bonds. Partial electrical charges develop: - oxygen is partially negative - hydrogen is partially positive Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule and the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule. Hydrogen bonds can form between water molecules or between water and another charged molecule

5 The charged regions on water molecules are attracted to the oppositely charged regions on nearby molecules by hydrogen bonds The polarity of water causes it to be cohesive and adhesive. Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that: 1. are important in the chemistry of life 2. give water its special characteristics Hydrogen bond H O H 25 cohesion: water molecules stick to other water molecules by hydrogen bonding adhesion: water molecules stick to other polar molecules by hydrogen bonding 26 Which interaction? 1. Water has a high specific heat. - A large amount of energy is required to change the temperature of water. 2. Water has a high heat of vaporization. - The evaporation of water from a surface causes cooling of that surface Water s many hydrogen bonds moderate temperature It takes a lot of energy to disrupt the huge number of hydrogen bonds in water Solids, Liquids, & Gasses What is water called when it is in the liquid state? What is water called when it is in the solid state? What is water called when it is in the gaseous state? 1. water is able to absorb a great deal of heat energy without a large increase in temperature 2. as water evaporates, A. H-bonds are broken energy B. Energy is absorbed from the surroundings leading to evaporative cooling

6 Do dense objects float or sink in less dense objects? Which is more dense (has its molecules closer together)? A. Solid B. Liquid C. Gas Ice is less dense than liquid water because the hydrogen bonds hold molecules in ice farther apart than in liquid water Hydrogen bond What does an ice cube do in a glass of water? Ice Hydrogen bonds are stable Liquid water Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form Figure Which is ice, which is water? 3. Solid water is less dense than liquid water. - Bodies of water freeze from the top down. 4. Water is a good solvent. - Water dissolves polar molecules and ions Water organizes nonpolar molecules. - hydrophilic: water-loving -hydrophobic: water-fearing - Water causes hydrophobic molecules to aggregate or assume specific shapes Water can form ions. H 2 O OH -1 + H +1 hydroxide ion hydrogen ion 36 6

7 Hydrogen ion (H +1 ) is the basis of the ph scale. Greater H +1 concentration --- lower ph (acidic) Lower H +1 concentration --- higher ph (basic) Acid: a chemical that releases H +1 ions. Base: a chemical that accepts H +1 ions. Most biological buffers consist of a pair of molecules, one an acid and one a base. Buffer: a chemical that accepts/releases H +1 as necessary to keep ph constant

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