What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

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1 Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body?

2 What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

3 What happens to the food we eat? Many substances have lactose in it. Why can we not accept lactose the way it is? It is too big! Our body cannot process it. So we have enzymes to break it down.

4 What are Enzymes? Enzymes are proteins which act as biological catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that starts or speeds up a chemical reaction. It lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to take place. Enzymes are used by cells to trigger and control chemical reactions. Without enzymes, several reactions in cells would never occur or happen too slowly to be useful.

5 What are Enzymes? What enzyme breaks down lactose? Lactase What is the function of Lactase? Lactase breaks lactose into the smaller sugars glucose and galactose

6 Proteins! What are Enzymes? What is the monomer of an enzyme (or any protein)? What does the function of an enzyme depend on? What do nucleic acids (DNA) have to do with enzymes?

7 Wait, What is a Chemical Reaction? The process of changing one set of chemicals (reactants) into another set of chemicals (products) by rearranging the atoms. The bonds joining the reactants are broken and new bonds are formed in the products. All life processes are driven by chemical reactions 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O

8 Wait, What is activation energy? Activation energy is the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.

9 How do Enzymes Work? Enzymes catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions between reactants (substrates) that form new products. After the reaction, enzymes are unchanged and ready to catalyze the next reaction.

10 The Enzyme Catalyzed Reaction E + S ESC E + P Enzyme + Substrate yields Enzyme Substrate Complex yields Enzyme + Product

11 How do enzymes speed up reactions? Enzymes lower activation energy

12 What is a substrate? Enzymes bind to molecules called substrate(s). The(se) substrate(s) are the reactants in the chemical reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme. Example: Typically something we ingest that needs to be broken down further for use by the body like Lactose from Cow s milk. (Done by Lactase)

13 Enzyme Activity: Locks & Keys Enzymes provide an area where reactants can be brought together to react. The site on the enzyme where the substrates bind is called the active site. The substrate(s) enters the active site which becomes the enzymesubstrate complex. The shape of an enzyme is so specific that generally only one enzyme will work for one substrate(s). The fit is so exact that the active site and substrates are compared to a lock and key.

14 Enzyme Activity: Catch & Release After undergoing a reaction in the enzymesubstrate complex, the changed substrate is released as a product to be used by the body. Since only the substrate changes during the reaction, the enzyme can be reused again and again. The fit is so exact that the active site and substrates are compared to a lock and key.

15 So many enzymes! Recall: Based on what you know about proteins, what is it about enzymes that allows each one to be specific to a single substrate? (ie: how are there so many different enzymes to fit all of the different substrates in our bodies?) Because of the different combination of the 20 essential amino acids! Recall: What is it each amino acids that makes each one different? The R-group!

16 Induce Fit Hypothesis Enzymes can change shape slightly to fit the substrate a little better (like a hand in a glove).

17 What factors affect enzyme function? 1. Enzymes work best at specific temperatures and ph. Extreme temperature and ph can change the shape of the enzyme, affecting the binding active site. Recall: What is the term for destroying an enzymes (or any protein)? Enzymes in our body work best at 37 C (98.6 F) and at a ph between 6.5 to Cells contain proteins that turn enzymes on or off during critical stages of development.

18 Enzyme Characteristics: Review Enzymes are catalytic proteins. Enzymes 1. speed up reaction rate. They do not change the reaction. 2. are very specific. 3. work like locks & keys. 4. are unchanged by the reaction. 5. function depends on structure (shape) 6. are sensitive to changes in temperature and ph. The suffix ase means it is an enzyme. Example: lactase, phenolase, sucrase

pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done

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