Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins"

Transcription

1 Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM

2 What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found in things that are or were living. What is an Inorganic Molecule? An Inorganic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon or hydrogen and oxygen Water (H 2 O) is the most abundant and important inorganic compound. Most Inorganics contain H. A few Inorganics contain Carbon - ie. CO 2, CO Oct 15 8:07 PM

3 Three Important Types of Organic Molecules are - Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Why are Carbohydrates Important? Carbohydrates provide energy to the cells. Why are Proteins Important? Proteins provide the material needed for growth and healing. Why are Lipids Important? Lipids store energy for later use by the body. Lipids also provide protection and padding for the body. Oct 15 8:28 PM

4 What do Carbohydrates and Proteins have in Common? Both are made up of smaller units called monomers. Sugar Monomers are also called Monosaccharides. Sugar Monomers generally contain 6 C, 12 H and 6 O. (2 hydrogen atoms for every one C atom) Sugar Monomers frequently form 5-6 sided rings. 3 types of sugar monomers - glucose, galactose and fructose Oct 15 8:32 PM

5 When 2 sugar Monomers bind together, they form disaccharides. Oct 15 9:05 PM

6 When many sugar monomers join together they form a polysaccharide. Oct 15 9:13 PM

7 A protein monomer is called an amino acid. All Amino acids have an amine group (NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl/acid group (COOH) on the other end. The part in between called the radical group (R) will differ for each amino acid. Amino Acids contain Nitrogen, Carbs and Lipids do not!!! Peptide bonds can link amino acids together to form a polypeptide. Oct 15 8:34 PM

8 2 types of polypeptides - 1. Polypeptides strands can bond side-to-side to form long fibrous proteins like keratin, found in connective tissue. 2. Polypeptide strands can also fold into special shapes that will only interact with chemicals having a complementary shape or electrical charge. These globular proteins can form enzymes which can help speed up chemical reactions in the body. Fibrous Protein Globular Protein Oct 16 12:38 AM

9 We can use Indicators to identify Carbohydrates and Proteins Sugar Indicator - Benedicts Solution In the presence of simple sugars ( monosaccharides) and heat, Benedict's turns from blue to yellow Starch Indicator - Lugol's Iodine Solution In the presence of starch (polysaccharides), Iodine turns from amber to blue-black Oct 16 12:48 AM

10 Protein Indicator - Biuret Reagent In the presence of protein, Biuret Reagent turns from blue to purple. Oct 16 12:59 AM

11 Lipids Lipids are a group of molecules that include oils, fats and waxes. Lipids have 2 parts - 1. A glycerol backbone that contains hydroxyl (OH) groups 2. One to three fatty acid chains (Long chains of C and H) Oct 16 1:02 AM

12 Lipids are named - 1. According to the number of fatty acids 2. According to whether the fatty acids are completely covered/saturated with hydrogen. Lipids look like the letter E. Oct 16 1:11 AM

13 See if you can identify the - 1. Amino Acid 2. Monosaccharide 3. Lipid 4. Starch (Polysaccharide) 5. Protein (Polypeptide) Oct 16 1:21 AM

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Macromolecules in my food!!

Macromolecules in my food!! Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Biological Molecules I won t lie. This is probably the most boring topic you have ever done in any science. It s pretty much as simple as this: learn the material deal with it. Enjoy don t say I didn t

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Biology Leaving Cert Experiments Materials/Equipment Starch solution (1%) Iodine Solution Glucose Solution (1%) 100 C) Benedict s

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules Biology McMush Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP aprons beaker, 250 ml 2 clamps, test tube goggles graduated cylinder, 50 ml paper towels test tube brush test

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview 18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview Protein: A large biological molecule made of many amino acids linked together through peptide bonds. Alpha-amino acid: Compound with an amino group bonded

More information

Structure of proteins

Structure of proteins Structure of proteins Primary structure: is amino acids sequence or the covalent structure (50-2500) amino acids M.Wt. of amino acid=110 Dalton (56 110=5610 Dalton). Single chain or more than one polypeptide

More information

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri Definition: Proteins are macromolecules with a backbone formed by polymerization of amino acids. Proteins carry out a number of functions in living organisms: - They

More information

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51 8-3 The of Photosynthesis 1 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012

Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 Exam 4 Outline CH 105 Spring 2012 You need to bring a pencil and your ACT card. Chapter 24: Lipids 1. Describe the properties and types of lipids a. All are hydrophobic b. Fatty acid-based typically contain

More information

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Lab #13 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 102 Introduction...... 103 Food Chemistry & Nutrition.... 104 Activity 1: Testing for the Presence

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down! Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body? What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

More information

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

More information

Helices From Readily in Biological Structures

Helices From Readily in Biological Structures The α Helix and the β Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns Although the overall conformation each protein is unique, there are only two different folding patterns are present in all proteins, which are α

More information

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E.

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry 13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13-7. Benzene 13-8. Hydrocarbon Groups 13-9.

More information

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it?

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Where does Energy come from? Ultimately, from the sun. It is transferred between organisms in the earth s lithosphere,

More information

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Questions- Proteins & Enzymes A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Reaction of the intact peptide

More information

Chemical Processes of Digestion

Chemical Processes of Digestion Chemical Processes of Digestion Objective: To explain in short essays or diagrams how carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested into end products that can be absorbed into the blood, at the level

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

3) How many monosaccharides are connected to each other in a disaccharide? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

3) How many monosaccharides are connected to each other in a disaccharide? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 2e (Frost) HOMEWORK Chapter 6 Carbohydrates Life s Sweet Molecules 6.1 Multiple-Choice 1) Which of the following is a polysaccharide? Glucose Sucrose C) Starch D) Maltose

More information

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY 2 PROCESSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is actually 2 processes: light reactions - convert solar energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (ATP &

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-1 Chiral centers: Asymmetric carbons, i.e carbon atom with four different substituents Enantiomers : Mirror images Stereoisomers MONOSACCHARIDE

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

Is ATP worth the investment?

Is ATP worth the investment? Is ATP worth the investment? ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) can be thought of as the currency of the cell. Most cellular metabolic processes cost a certain amount of ATP in order to happen. Furthermore,

More information

Water. Definition: A mole (or mol ) Water can IONIZE transiently. NONpolar covalent molecules do not dissolve in water + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Water. Definition: A mole (or mol ) Water can IONIZE transiently. NONpolar covalent molecules do not dissolve in water + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Today s Topics Polar Covalent Bonds ydrogen bonding Properties of water p Water C bonds are Nonpolar Will these molecules dissolve in water? Start Macromolecules Carbohydrates & Lipids Sept 4, 05 Why are

More information

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction.

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Catalysis by Enzymes Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Enzymatic Reaction Specificity Enzyme Cofactors Many enzymes are conjugated proteins that require nonprotein portions

More information

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51 Inside

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants.

Photo Cell Resp Practice. A. ATP B. oxygen C. DNA D. water. The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. Name: ate: 1. Which molecule supplies the energy for cellular functions?. TP. oxygen. N. water 2. Photosynthesis The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. What happens

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon A. Acid/Base properties 1. carboxyl group is proton donor! weak acid 2. amino group is proton acceptor! weak base 3. At physiological ph: H

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted from cells using

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch23_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except A) The major physical

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information

Digestive System Functions

Digestive System Functions Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and

More information

Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates

Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates Sugars, Starches, and Fibers Are All Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates? Today's food advertisements call them carbs, but they are not all the same. They are a group of compounds that have some similarities

More information

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule The chemical

More information

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.

More information

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary Proteins that function as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions. Low contamination, low temperature and fast metabolism are only possible with enzymes.

More information

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d)

Proteins. Proteins. Amino Acids. Most diverse and most important molecule in. Functions: Functions (cont d) Proteins Proteins Most diverse and most important molecule in living i organisms Functions: 1. Structural (keratin in hair, collagen in ligaments) 2. Storage (casein in mother s milk) 3. Transport (HAEMOGLOBIN!)

More information

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

More information

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Outline Fats and Oils Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Biodiesel Homework We hear quite a lot about the place of fats and oils in human nutrition. Foods high in fat are at the

More information

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic

More information