2 Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability to form different types of bonds with other elements. It bonds easily with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorous the elements found in essential macromolecules! It easily forms long chains when bonded to itself these structures are called hydrocarbons.
3 Macromolecules The prefix macro- means large Macromolecules are extremely large molecules found within cells that may consist of thousands of atoms. There are 4 types: Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Proteins Nucleic Acids
4 Where does your body get the elements to make macromolecules? From the food you eat! you are what you eat Your body breaks the food you eat down to get energy and rearranges those molecules to form the essential macromolecules that make up cells!
5 Macromolecules Monomer means one part Many monomers join together to form polymers Polymer means many parts Macromolecules are large polymers formed by a process called polymerization.
6 Example of Polymerization What monomer did make in the Lego lab? What polymer did you make in the Lego lab? What molecule did you remove to connect your glucose molecules? What do you think you d have to do to unattach your molecules?
8 Carbohydrates Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 1:2:1 ratio Carbon : hydrogen : oxygen Types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
9 Carbohydrates Monomer: Monosaccharides Means single sugar Examples of monosaccharides: Glucose sugar made by plants Galactose sugar found in milk Fructose sugar found in fruits
10 Carbohydrates Two monosaccharides bonded together make a disaccharide or double sugar Examples: Sucrose Lactose Maltose
11 Carbohydrates Polymer: Polysaccharides (Carbohydrates) Examples: Starch plants store excess sugar as starch Cellulose found in plants; provides strength and rigidity. Glycogen Animals like us store excess sugar in the form of glycogen to use for short-term energy
12 Functions 1) Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. 2) Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes cellulose (plants) and chitin (makes up exoskeletons of some animals)
13 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Carbs Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Short term Energy Structure in plants (cellulose) Glucose Fructose Galactose Cellulose (plants) Starch (plants) Glycogen (animals)
14 Carbohydrates What is our bodies fuel source? How do we use carbs? Fats? What happens when we run out? What does it mean when runners hit a wall? Carbs and Fats Fueling the Body video clip Ironwomen video clip
15 Glucose, Glucose - song If you chew a plain saltine cracker for 5 minutes, can you taste the sugar? Starch is broken down by the enzyme salivary amylase in saliva in your mouth. Starch is a polysaccharide that breaks down into a monosaccharide.
16 Glucose -- ah, sugar sugar You are my favorite fuel From the blood-borne substrate pool. Glucose -- monosaccharide sugar You're sweeter than a woman's kiss 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles take you in. (For you, they'll open the door.) All it takes is a little bit of insulin (To upregulate GLUT4). Ah, glucose -- ah, sugar sugar You help me make ATP When my predators are chasing me. Ah, glucose -- you're an aldehyde sugar, And you're sweeter than a woman's kiss 'Cause I need you for glycolysis. I just can't believe the way my muscles break you down. (My glycogen is almost gone.) A few more seconds and I'll be rigor mortis-bound. (Acidosis done me wrong.) Your sweet is turning sour, baby. I'm losing all my power, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. No, no, no! I'm swimming in lactate, baby. Yes, I'm swimming in lactate, baby. Now I'm drowning in lactate, baby. I'm gonna make your muscles ache. No, no, no! I'm drowning in lactate, baby. Ah, glucose -- ah, sugar sugar I used you up and you left me flat; Now I'll have to get my kicks from fat. Oh, glucose, glucose, sugar, sugar, The honeymoon is over now.
18 Proteins Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Monomer: amino acids Two amino acids bonded together is a dipeptide
19 Proteins Polymer: Polypeptide Long, continuous chain of amino acids bonded together
20 Amino Acids The building blocks of proteins Made of an amino group (NH 3 ) on one end and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) on the other. There are 20 different amino acids They differ only in the R group
22 Functions of protein 1) Enzymes are a type of protein that control the speed of chemical reactions and regulate cell processes 2) Form transport molecules and aide in movement (hemoglobin) 3) Structure - Make up parts of organisms like hair, horns, nails, muscles 4) Help fight infection - antibodies
23 Lipid bilayer (phospholipid bilayer)
24 Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts or substances that speed up the rate of a reaction, but do not change as a result of the reaction. Found in meats, nuts, gelatin Amylase (saliva) Lactase Hemoglobin
25 Enzymes 1. Why do organisms need enzymes? Reactions occur very slow on their own Enzymes speed up reactions 2. How are enzymes specific? They have a specific shape that only allows them to work on specific substrates. Ex. Lactose (substrate) can only be broken down by lactase (enzyme)
26 Enzymes 3. Why can enzymes be reused? They are not changed in the chemical reaction 4. What is denaturing and how does it happen? Denaturing happens when the shape of the enzyme changes. This occurs because of excess heat or changes in ph. The enzyme can t work if this happens.
27 Let s Draw a Protein! There are 20 amino acids! You will draw and color one on an index card and then we will connect your amino acid monomers to make a long polypeptide chain!
28 Amino Acid Amino Group Carboxyl Group
29 NOW choose a R side chain to add to the center CARBON of your amino acid On the other side of your index card write your name in the bottom right corner and then the name of the amino acid you drew very large across the middle
30 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Proteins (Peptide) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen NITROGEN Amino Acid Polypeptide (Proteins) 1. Controls speed of rxn 2. Transports molecules in and out of cell 3. Fights infection (antibodies) 4. Makes up nails, muscles, hair, horns Enzymes Lactase Hemoglobin Get them from meat. 20 amino acids!
31 Now Out summary Pg 76 what you learned from You Are What You Eat lab Out summary Pg 78 summary of notes on carbs and proteins Finish the lab from yesterday. DUE THURSDAY See google drive for pink handout
33 Lipids Made up of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon *Only macromolecules that don t dissolve in water. Monomer: glycerol and 3 fatty acids Polymer: Triglyceride
34 Functions of Lipids 1) Long-term energy storage in (C-H) bonds. 2) Phospholipids make up biological (cell) membranes 3) Act as protective coverings on plants waxy cuticle 4) Chemical messengers steriods Examples: Fats Waxes Steroids Phospholipid
35 Waxes Wax is a type of structural lipid that consists of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain It is waterproof Forms a protective coat on plant leaves
36 Biological (cell) Membranes Phospholipids- made of hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts
37 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids - carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible with only single bonds Lipids that contain saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats Examples: butter, animal fat *Solid at room temp
38 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated Fatty Acids - some of the carbon atoms double bond to other carbon atoms Does NOT contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Examples: Oils *Liquid at room temp
39 Saturated fats have a chemical makeup in which the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms. Fatty meats, cheese and butter are examples. Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. Another name for trans fats is partially hydrogenated oils." Look for them on the ingredient list on food packages. They are cheap, taste good & easy to use. From a chemical standpoint, monounsaturated fats are simply fats that have one double-bonded (unsaturated) carbon in the molecule. Olive oil is an example. From a chemical standpoint, polyunsaturated fats are simply fats that have more than one double-bonded (unsaturated) carbon in the molecule. Nuts, vegetable oil and salmon are examples.
40 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Lipids Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Glycerol & (3)fatty acids Triglyceride -long term energy -makes up cell membrane -waxy covering on plants Fats Waxes Steroids Phospholipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
41 Nucleic Acids
42 Nucleic Acids Made up of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Monomer: Nucleotides 5-Carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group Polymer: Nucleic Acids
43 2 Types of Nucleic Acids Ribonucleic acid (RNA) 1. Single stranded 2. Involved in protein synthesis Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 1. Double Stranded 2. Encoded information about how genetic material is passed on from one gene to another. Function: to store and transmit genetic information.
44 RNA vs DNA RNA DNA
45 Elements Monomer Polymer Function Examples Nucleic Acids Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphous Nucleotide SUGAR PHOSPHATE BASE Nucleic Acid Store and transmit genetic information DNA RNA
46 Protein Review What do enzymes do? Do they ever get used up? What causes their shape to change? How many amino acids are there?
47 Friday 10/4/13 Fill regular petri dish half way with water. Carry back to seat and let it settle for a few seconds. Place the gobstoppers in each corner of the dish. Observe and answer questions after 1-2 mins. Gobstoppers and Potato go in TRASH CAN NOT THE SINK. Thank you. Wash and DRY both petri dishes. Return everything to the bucket the way you found it Answer all questions on the green packet and lab. If you finish your Enzyme lab, turn it in to the basket.
48 Conclusion Match the monomers on the left with their polymers on the right monosaccharide amino acid nucleotide fatty acids a. triglycerides b. proteins c. polysaccharide d. nucleic acids
50 Review! What makes saturated fats different from unsaturated fats? Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Will lipids dissolve in water? Where are phospholipids found?
51 Protein Prompt: Write at least a paragraph explaining how our class model resembles the synthesis(building) and structure of actual proteins. Underline the following words in your writing as you use them: Polypeptide Amino acid Monomer Polymer Side chain (R group) Amino group Carboxyl group
Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds
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