10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

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1 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5 L). Dissolved within this fluid, there are many different ions and molecules require by the body to function properly. (Phosphorous, sodium, calcium, chlorine and hydrogen ions, and molecules of glucose) Figure 10.1 Distribution of body fluids in the adult human. These fluids are mostly eater, and they move freely in and out of the cell in both directions. Molecule is two or more joined-together atoms of the same or different elements. Inorganic molecules are molecules made of element other than a combination of atoms of carbon bonded to hydrogen. (H 2 O, CO 2, and NaCl) Organic molecules are molecules made up of long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Other elements may also be attached. (C 6 H 12 O 6, glucose)

2 Macromolecules are very large molecules made up of smaller molecules that are linked together. Metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism. (Anabolic and Catabolic) Essential Nutrients are nutrients that cannot be made by the body, and must therefore be obtained from food. Macromolecules are very important nutrients; raw materials that our bodies need to provide energy for regular cellular activities, build and repair cells and tissues. All living organisms require nutrients to survive. There are four specific macromolecules, essential nutrients, that our bodies require are; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. When your body and cells uses these nutrients during chemical reactions, it is called cellular metabolism.

3 Carbohydrates The primary role of carbohydrates is to supply energy to the cells. In animals; carbohydrates are a stored energy source, in the form of glycogen, and a structural form called chitin; (shells and exoskeleton). In plants, carbohydrates are a stored energy source in the form called starch, and a structural form called cellulose; (cell wall of plant cells). Polysaccharides are large molecules made up of many linked monosaccharide molecules. (Starch, cellulose, glycogen and chitin are examples of polysaccharides.) Disaccharides are sugar molecules made up of two monosaccharide molecules. (Sucrose, fructose and lactose are examples of disaccharides) Monosaccharides are simple sugars, with three to seven carbon atoms. (Glucose, galactose and maltose are monosaccharides)

4 Lipids Lipids are an important group of macromolecules. There are three types of lipids found in living organisms; triglycerides, phospholipids and waxes, fats and oils. The basic components of a lipid are a glycerol group and a number of fatty acid chains. These components are made up carbon and hydrogen atoms and contain 2.25 times more energy then carbohydrates per gram. Triglycerides function as a secondary cellular energy source when the carbohydrate stores are depleted. Phospholipids form the cell membranes of all cells, separating the internal and external environments.

5 Proteins Proteins are made up of many smaller sub-units called amino acids. Proteins act as a tertiary energy source for cells when the other sources are depleted and are responsible for building, repairing and maintaining cells. Proteins are also enzymes, hormones, and antibodies used by our bodies. Proteins are thousands of amino acids in length. The amino acids were bonded together forming peptide bonds creating a polypeptide chain. Amino acid is a building block of protein. There are 20 different types of amino acids. Peptide bond is a bond that holds together each amino acid in a protein. Polypeptide - is a linear chain of several amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

6 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids make up the genetic code in cells, which are responsible for the growth and function of the cell. They are found in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). These nucleic acids are made up of sub-units known as nucleotides. There are four nucleotides found in DNA; adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. In RNA there are also four nucleotides; adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil. Breaking down Macromolecules: Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts, which are responsible for lowering the activation energy use to break chemical bonds of macromolecules, causing an increase in the rate of the chemical reaction. Enzymes are highly specialized, and only participate in specific reactions. Before the body can use a macromolecule, such as; carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, these molecules need to be broken down into smaller sub-units so they can be absorbed across a cell membrane

7 into the cell. The type of reaction that occurs when bonds are broken is called a hydrolysis reaction and water is used. The bonds of the macromolecules are broken and replaced by parts water molecules. These reactions are supported by enzymes, but these enzymes are not consumed during the reaction. Characteristics of enzymes - They will not make anything happen that would not happen on its own. - Enzymes are not altered permanently during the chemical reaction. - The same enzyme will work forward and backward in a chemical reaction. - Each enzyme is highly specific to the substrate it will interact with. Digestive enzymes are secreted in the digestive tract to breakdown macromolecules during chemical digestion. Table 10.2 Types of Digestive Enzymes

8 Figure 10.2 Large food molecules are split into smaller molecules by hydrolysis. Specific enzymes speed up these reactions. After hydrolysis, the smaller molecules can pass through cell membranes.

9 The Vital Roles of Minerals and Vitamins Mineral and vitamins are vital inorganic and organic substances that enable chemical reactions to occur, and aid in tissue development, growth, and immunity. Table 10.3 Functions and Possible sources of Selected Vitamins and Minerals

10 The Many Roles of Water in the Body Water makes up over 60% of the body mass, and is required for the proper function of cells and organs. - Transports dissolved nutrients (diffusion/osmosis) from the small intestine. - Lubricates tissues and joints. - Forms blood and mucus. - Controls body temperature (37 0 C). - Flushes toxins from cells - Eliminates metabolic wastes. The water is necessary to maintain the body s fluid balance and blood pressure. The amount of fluid lost must equal the amount of fluid intake, the average adult requires 2.5 L of water per day during normal activity. How Animals Obtain their Food Energy enters our plant in the form of sunlight energy. Autotrophs (green plants) use sunlight in a chemical process called photosynthesis. Plants convert sunlight energy into a chemical potential energy called sugar, glucose, or starch. Animals are heterotrophs; they need to consume food to obtain their energy. These organisms are herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. There are four feeding mechanisms used by animals: - Filter feeders (sponges) - Substrate feeders (caterpillars) - Fluid feeders (butterflies) - Bulk feeders (humans)

11 The Four Stages of Food Processing 1. Ingestion the taking in or eating of food. 2. Digestion the breakdown of food by mechanical and chemical processes into molecules small enough for cells of the body to absorb. 3. Absorption the transport of the products of digestion from the digestive system into the circulatory system, which distributes them to the rest of the body cells. 4. Elimination the removal of undigested solid waste matter from the body. Digestion and the Alimentary Canal Alimentary Canal is the tube through which food is processed beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus; also known as the digestive tract. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces in the mouth by the action of teeth, beak, and other similar structures, and by contractions and churning motions in the stomach. Chemical digestion - is the chemical breakdown of nutrient molecules into smaller molecules by enzyme action. Figure 10.3 the earthworm has a simple digestive tract. Decaying plant and animal matter in the soil provides the earthworm with nutrients. Undigested materials pass through the tract and are eliminated through the anus as worm castings.

12 The Length of the Digestive Tract All digestive tracts function in a similar manner for all animals, but the length of the digestive tract varies according to the feeding habits of the animals. Herbivores and omnivores usually have a longer digestive tract relative to their body size, than carnivores. Plant tissue (cellulose) is more difficult to digest than animal tissue. The longer the digestive tract of herbivores and omnivores allows more time for digestion. Figure 10.5 the digestive tract of a small herbivore, such as a rabbit, is longer than that of a small carnivore, such as a fox. In both digestive tracts you can see the cecum, a pouch at the beginning of the large intestine that receives waste material from the small intestine. Learning Check, questions 1 6, pg. 406 Section 10.1 Review, questions 1 16, pg. 410

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