MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS"

Transcription

1 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group of organisms. B. very different among plants and animals. C. the same among the autotrophs but different among heterotrophs. D. the same among prokaryotes but different among eukaryotes. E. very similar in a wide range of different organisms. 2. The ultimate source of energy for almost all living organisms is: A. heat. B. glucose. C. carbohydrates. D. lipids. E. the sun. 3. Kilojoules are: A. units of heat energy. B. units of matter. C. units of work. D. units of kinetics. E. units of mechanical change. 4. An organism can exchange matter and energy with its surroundings. Thus, any change in an organism s energy content must be balanced by a corresponding change in the energy content of the surroundings. As such, an organism is referred to as: A. a closed system. B. an open system. C. a dynamic system. D. a thermally reactive system. E. a potential system. 5. Which word is defined by this statement: A measure of this disorder, or randomness? A. energy B. entropy C. enthalpy D. mass E. catabolism 7-1

2 6. Only 20% to 30% of the energy stored in the chemical bonds of gasoline molecules is transformed into mechanical energy; the other 70% to 80% is dissipated as waste heat. Which statement explains this phenomenon? A. The first law of thermodynamics. B. The second law of thermodynamics. C. When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the energy is converted into heat. D. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. E. Both the second law of thermodynamics, as well as the observation that the conversion of energy involves some energy being converted to heat. 7. In order for a cell to maintain a high degree of order, it must: A. constantly release energy. B. constantly produce energy. C. constantly destroy energy. D. constantly use energy. E. constantly increase energy. 8. The sum of all chemical activities taking place in an organism is: A. anabolism. B. catabolism. C. metabolism. D. dehydration synthesis. E. condensation reactions. 9. Which of the following accurately represents the relationship between the terms anabolism, catabolism, and metabolism? A. anabolism = catabolism B. metabolism = catabolism C. catabolism = anabolism + metabolism D. anabolism = catabolism + metabolism E. metabolism = catabolism + anabolism 10. Catabolic reactions involve the: A. breakdown of large organic molecules to simple building blocks. B. breakdown of life sustaining processes within cells. C. building up of complex organic molecules from simple building blocks. D. anabolic production of complex molecules. E. expenditure of energy. 11. Pathways that have an overall energy requirement are referred to as: A. catabolic reactions. B. anabolic reactions. C. energy-releasing reactions. D. energetically feasible reactions. E. reactions that will proceed spontaneously. 7-2

3 12. Every type of chemical bond contains a certain amount of energy. The total bond energy, which is essentially equivalent to the total potential energy of the system, is a quantity known as: A. entropy. B. kinetic energy. C. thermodynamic energy. D. enthalpy. E. free energy. 13. The equation, G = H - TS, predicts that: A. as entropy increases, the amount of free energy decreases. B. as enthalpy increases, the amount of free energy increases. C. as enthalpy decreases, the amount of entropy also decreases. D. metabolism decreases proportionately to anabolism. E. metabolism increases proportionately to catabolism. 14. An exergonic reaction is considered to be: A. spontaneous. B. potentially spontaneous. C. endergonic. D. nonspontaneous. E. energy requiring. 15. A reaction with a negative value of ΔG is referred to as an reaction. A. endergonic B. entropy C. exergonic D. enthalpy E. activation 16. An endergonic reaction can proceed only if it absorbs: A. more free energy than is released by a coupled exergonic reaction. B. less free energy than was released by a coupled endergonic reaction. C. less free energy than is released by a coupled exergonic reaction. D. the same amount of free energy that is absorbed by the enzymatic breakdown of proteins. E. energy from ADP, forming ATP. 17. In a reaction in which the rate of the reverse reaction is equal to the rate of the forward reaction, a state of is attained. A. total entropy B. enthalpy C. thermodynamics D. dynamic equilibrium E. product reversibility 7-3

4 18, 19. Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions. 18. Which of the following statements about the accompanying figure is true? A. The reactants have more free energy than the products. B. The products have more free energy than the reactants. C. The figure represents a spontaneous reaction. D. The figure represents an endergonic reaction. E. The reaction is endergonic, and also the products have more free energy than the reactants. 19. Which of the following conclusions can be accurately derived from the associated figure? A. ΔS is positive. B. ΔH equals zero. C. ΔG is positive. D. ΔG is negative. E. ΔT is negative. 20. Energy stored within the molecules of ATP is in the form of energy. A. kinetic B. heat C. potential D. nuclear E. light 21. Consider the following two chemical equations: A) glucose + fructose sucrose + H2O, ΔG = +27kJ/mole (or +6.5 kcal/mole) B) glucose + fructose + ATP sucrose + ADP + P i, ΔG = -5kJ/mole (or -1.2 kcal/mole) The free energy change difference between the chemical equations (A) and (B) above is accomplished by: A. a decrease in activation energy. B. combining two endergonic reactions. C. combining an endergonic and an exergonic reaction. D. combining two exergonic reactions. E. measuring the reaction rate. 22. Which of the following statements concerning ATP is FALSE? A. It is a nucleotide. B. It is called the energy currency of the cell. C. It contains phosphate groups joined in a series. D. It stores energy for long periods. E. It contains phosphate groups joined by unstable bonds. 7-4

5 23. Select the phosphorylation reaction: A. glucose + fructose sucrose + H 2 O B. glucose + ATP glucose-p + ADP C. glucose-p + fructose sucrose + P i D. glucose + glucose maltose E. None of these are phosphorylation reactions. 24. The maintenance of a high ATP to ADP ratio within cells ensures that: A. the hydrolysis of ADP to ATP will be strongly exergonic. B. the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP will be strongly exergonic. C. the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP will be strongly endergonic. D. the hydrolysis of ADP to ATP will be an energy releasing reaction. E. the conversion of ADP to ATP will proceed spontaneously. 25. The transfer of electrons from one compound to another is equivalent to transfer. A. heat B. oxygen C. enzymatic D. phosphorus E. energy 26. is a process where energy (as electrons) is released, whereas is a process where energy (as electrons) is accepted. A. Reduction; oxidation B. Enthalpy; entropy C. Entropy; enthalpy D. Oxidation; reduction E. Anabolism; catabolism 27. XH 2 + NAD + X + NADH + H +. In the preceding equation, NAD + is said to be: A. an enzyme. B. storing two hydrogen atoms. C. reduced. D. oxidized. E. a catalyst. 28. Select the reduced molecule: A. NAD + B. FAD C. NADH D. H - E. NADP Select the hydrogen acceptor molecule that stores electrons in the process of photosynthesis: A. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) B. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP + ) C. flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) D. adenine triphosphate (ATP) E. adenine diphosphate (ADP) 7-5

6 30. FAD and cytochromes are classified as: A. hydrogen or electron acceptors. B. phosphate oxidizers. C. phosphate reducers. D. proteins that donate hydrogens or electrons. E. redox intermediate catalysts. 31. Because enzymes affect the speed of chemical reactions without being consumed, they are referred to as: A. hydrogen acceptors. B. activation energy. C. catalysts. D. cytochromes. E. transformation proteins. 32. Which of the following statements concerning enzymes is FALSE? A. Each enzyme has an optimal temperature. B. Each enzyme has an optimal ph. C. Most enzymes are highly specific. D. Some enzymes require cofactors. E. Most enzymes are RNA molecules. 33. Enzymes are important biological catalysts because they: A. supply the energy to initiate a biochemical reaction. B. increase the free energy of a biochemical reaction. C. lower the entropy of a biochemical reaction. D. decrease the enthalpy of a biochemical reaction. E. lower the activation energy of a biochemical reaction. 34. Which of the following statements concerning activation energy is FALSE? A. Exergonic reactions have an energy of activation. B. Endergonic reactions have an energy of activation. C. Enzymes lower a reaction s activation energy. D. Catalysts raise a reaction s activation energy. E. Activation energy is the energy required to break existing bonds. Use the figure to answer the corresponding questions, 35 &

7 35. The line on the graph labeled B represents the: A. activation energy with an enzyme. B. activation energy without an enzyme. C. free energy of the reactants. D. change in entropy. E. change in enthalpy. 36. The line on the graph labeled C represents the: A. activation energy with an enzyme. B. activation energy without an enzyme. C. change in free energy. D. change in entropy. E. change in enthalpy. 37. Parts of the enzyme molecule that interact with a substrate are called: A. cofactors. B. active sites. C. induced-fit models. D. orientation sites. E. reaction sites. 38. The substance on which an enzyme acts is called the: A. substrate. B. product. C. ATP. D. free energy. E. cofactor. 39. What refers to the situation in which the binding of a substrate to the enzyme causes a change in the enzyme s shape, facilitating an enzyme s function? A. active site B. cofactor C. activation energy D. induced fit E. allosteric inhibition 40. Hydrolases are one important class of enzyme that function to catalyze: A. splitting a molecule using water. B. conversions between isomers. C. reactions in which double bonds are formed. D. oxidation-reduction reactions. E. None of these. 7-7

8 41. Which refers to an organic, nonpolypeptide compound that binds to the apoenzyme and serves as a cofactor? A. coenzyme B. catalyst C. substrate D. mineral E. allosteric regulator 42. Which of the following does not represent a method by which cells regulate enzyme activity? A. controlling the intracellular concentration of the enzyme B. feedback inhibition of enzymes C. the binding of allosteric regulators to allosteric sites on the enzyme D. differential gene expression of the genes that produce enzymes E. heat denaturation of the enzyme 43. Select the enzyme that does not match the reaction: A. sucrase splits sucrose into glucose and fructose B. lipase breaks ester linkages C. phosphatase removes phosphate groups D. urease converts urea to ammonia and CO 2 E. kinase breaks peptide bonds 44. If one continues to increase the temperature in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the rate of the reaction: A. does not change. B. increases and then levels off. C. decreases and then levels off. D. increases and then decreases rapidly. E. decreases and then increases rapidly. 45. You conduct an experiment in which you add increasing amounts of substrate to an enzyme solution and then measure the resulting reaction rate. You graph your results, plotting the rate of the reaction on the Y-axis versus substrate concentration on the X-axis. What do you conclude from your graph? A. The reaction rate is directly proportional to substrate concentration. B. The reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. C. The reaction rate increases but then decreases, forming a bell-shaped curve. D. The reaction rate decreases with increasing substrate concentration. E. The reaction rate increases with increasing substrate concentration up to a point, above which the rate remains constant. 7-8

9 46. An allosteric enzyme: A. has an active site that binds to the substrate and an allosteric site that binds to the product. B. allows the movement of molecules and ions from one part of the cell to another. C. catalyzes both oxidation and reduction reactions. D. raises a reaction s activation energy so that the rate of the reaction declines. E. allows a substance other than the substrate to bind to the enzyme, thereby activating or inactivating it. 47. Competitive inhibitors inhibit biochemical reactions in such a way as to seemingly: A. increase the concentration of substrate. B. reduce the concentration of enzyme. C. increase the concentration of enzyme. D. reduce the concentration of substrate. E. denature the enzyme. 48. Penicillin is a drug that acts by: A. irreversibly inhibiting transpeptidase. B. reversibly inhibiting transpeptidase. C. competitively inhibiting transpeptidase. D. noncompetitively inhibiting transpeptidase. E. None of these. DISCUSSION OR THOUGHT QUESTIONS- Pick ONE of the following questions and type your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Living cells maintain biochemical reactions far from equilibrium conditions. They do this by constantly manipulating the concentrations of reactants and products. Why is it important that a state far from equilibrium be maintained? 2. How is it possible for an enzyme to lower the required energy of activation for a reaction? 3. It is a fact that enzymes are highly specific and will only catalyze one or a few reactions. Can you think of a benefit that is derived from such specificity? (i.e. What would happen if most biochemical reactions were catalyzed by the same enzyme?) 7-9

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within

More information

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d.

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. 1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of

More information

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy.

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential

More information

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. The totality of an organism

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism Microbial Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living a living organism. These chemical reactions are generally of two types: Catabolic:

More information

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism Metabolism: Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions Chemical Reactions: Activation Every chemical reaction involves bond breaking and bond forming A chemical reaction

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it?

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Where does Energy come from? Ultimately, from the sun. It is transferred between organisms in the earth s lithosphere,

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

More information

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe

More information

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme. Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change Bioenergetics Energy is the capacity or ability to do work All organisms need a constant supply of energy for functions such as motion, transport across membrane barriers, synthesis of biomolecules, information

More information

Microbial Metabolism. Biochemical diversity

Microbial Metabolism. Biochemical diversity Microbial Metabolism Biochemical diversity Metabolism Define Requirements Energy Enzymes Rate Limiting step Reaction time Types Anabolic Endergonic Dehydration Catabolic Exergonic Hydrolytic Metabolism

More information

Cellular Respiration & Metabolism. Metabolism. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics. Cellular Respiration: ATP is the cell s rechargable battery

Cellular Respiration & Metabolism. Metabolism. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics. Cellular Respiration: ATP is the cell s rechargable battery Cellular Respiration & Metabolism Metabolic Pathways: a summary Metabolism Bioenergetics Flow of energy in living systems obeys: 1 st law of thermodynamics: Energy can be transformed, but it cannot be

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.

More information

Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes

Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes Enzymes: as a catalyst, an enzyme increases the rate of a reaction by changing the way a reaction takes place, but is itself not changed at the end of the reaction. An

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

CHAPTER 4: Enzyme Structure ENZYMES

CHAPTER 4: Enzyme Structure ENZYMES CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells, each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í ENZYMES

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í ENZYMES = substances that... biological reactions 1. Provide an alternative reaction route which has a lower... energy 2. Reactions catalysed by enzymes occur under mild conditions + good yield + fast 3. Enzymes

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Enzymes. Enzyme Structure. Enzyme Classification. CHEM464/Medh, J.D. Reaction Rate and Enzyme Activity

Enzymes. Enzyme Structure. Enzyme Classification. CHEM464/Medh, J.D. Reaction Rate and Enzyme Activity Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts They are not consumed or altered during the reaction They do not change the equilibrium, just reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. They increase the rate

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. AP bio fall 2014 final exam prep Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, a. the energy of a system

More information

pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done

pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done Objectives Students will explore the importance of chemical reactions in biology Students will discuss the role of enzymes as catalysts in biological reactions. Students will analyze graphs showing how

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is:

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is: Lecture 4 Catalytic proteins Are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst-speeding up chemical reactions A catalyst is defined as a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed

More information

Microbial Metabolism. Chapter 5. Enzymes. Enzyme Components. Mechanism of Enzymatic Action

Microbial Metabolism. Chapter 5. Enzymes. Enzyme Components. Mechanism of Enzymatic Action Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism, including anabolic (biosynthetic) reactions and catabolic (degradative) reactions. Anabolism is

More information

CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna

CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES Enzymes are usually proteins (some RNA) In general, names end with suffix ase Enzymes are catalysts increase the rate of a reaction not consumed by the reaction act repeatedly to

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Living cells require a continuous supply of energy for maintaining various life activities. This energy is obtained by oxidizing the organic compounds (carbohydrates,

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Twenty Three 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Twenty Three 1 23.2 Glucose Metabolism: An Overview When glucose enters a cell from the bloodstream, it is immediately converted to glucose 6- phosphate. Once this phosphate is formed, glucose is trapped within the cell

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Enzymes. Enzymes are characterized by: Specificity - highly specific for substrates

Enzymes. Enzymes are characterized by: Specificity - highly specific for substrates Enzymes Enzymes are characterized by: Catalytic Power - rates are 10 6-10 12 greater than corresponding uncatalyzed reactions Specificity - highly specific for substrates Regulation - acheived in many

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Lecture 10 Enzymes: Introduction

Lecture 10 Enzymes: Introduction Lecture 10 Enzymes: Introduction Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer, 6th ed., Chapter 8, pp. 205-217 (These pages in textbook are very important -- concepts of thermodynamics are fundamental to all of biochemistry.)

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch23_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except A) The major physical

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction.

Catalysis by Enzymes. Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Catalysis by Enzymes Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Enzymatic Reaction Specificity Enzyme Cofactors Many enzymes are conjugated proteins that require nonprotein portions

More information

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle

21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle 21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle The carbon atoms from the first two stages of catabolism are carried into the third stage as acetyl groups bonded to coenzyme A. Like the phosphoryl groups in ATP molecules,

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle

The Citric Acid Cycle The itric Acid ycle February 14, 2003 Bryant Miles I. itrate Synthase + 3 SoA The first reaction of the citric acid cycle is the condensation of acetyloa and oxaloacetate to form citrate and oas. The enzyme

More information

2(H 2 O 2 ) catalase 2H 2 O + O 2

2(H 2 O 2 ) catalase 2H 2 O + O 2 Enzyme Model Catalase Student Guide Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions that otherwise proceed slowly. The enzyme called catalase is a catalyst. It exists in plant and animal cells and breaks down

More information

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons Cellular Respiration- Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H20 and energy -The energy is released from the chemical bonds in the complex organic molecules -The catabolic process of releasing energy from food

More information

CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/12 SPRING 2012 Professor Christine Hrycyna

CHM333 LECTURE 13 14: 2/13 15/12 SPRING 2012 Professor Christine Hrycyna INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES Enzymes are usually proteins (some RNA) In general, names end with suffix ase Enzymes are catalysts increase the rate of a reaction not consumed by the reaction act repeatedly to

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 54

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 54 Pyruvate Oxidation Overview of pyruvate metabolism Pyruvate can be produced in a variety of ways. It is an end product of glycolysis, and can be derived from lactate taken up from the environment (or,

More information

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

More information

Enzymes. OpenStax College

Enzymes. OpenStax College OpenStax-CNX module: m44429 1 Enzymes OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you will be able

More information

PRACTICE SET 1. Free energy changes and equilibrium constants

PRACTICE SET 1. Free energy changes and equilibrium constants PRACTICE SET 1 Free energy changes and equilibrium constants 1. Calculate the standard free-energy changes of the following metabolically important enzyme-catalyzed reactions at 25 C and ph 7.0 from the

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Cellular Respiration An Overview

Cellular Respiration An Overview Why? Cellular Respiration An Overview What are the phases of cellular respiration? All cells need energy all the time, and their primary source of energy is ATP. The methods cells use to make ATP vary

More information

Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III

Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III I. HOW IS ATP GENERATED IN THE FINAL STAGE CATABOLISM? A. OVERVIEW 1. At the end of the citric acid cycle, all six carbons of glucose have been oxidized

More information

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

008 Chapter 8. Student:

008 Chapter 8. Student: 008 Chapter 8 Student: 1. Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary Proteins that function as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions. Low contamination, low temperature and fast metabolism are only possible with enzymes.

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Production of acetyl-coa (activated acetate) Page: 603 Difficulty: 2 Ans: A Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by

More information

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle The Amphibolic Nature of the Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview

More information

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt.

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. Section 2: Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the parts of a chemical reaction?

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Chapter 19 & 20. Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Chapter 19 & 20. Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 19 & 20 Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale 1. Cellular respiration (energy capture) The enzymatic breakdown of food stuffs in the presence

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure

More information

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100 COURSE: MIB 303 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3 Units- Compulsory) Course Duration: Three hours per week for 15 weeks (45 hours). Lecturer: Jimoh, S.O. B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D Microbiology (ABU, Zaria)

More information

Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function

Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function Objectives To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate the effect

More information

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy whereby carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules. The process occurs in most algae,

More information

Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer. α-helix transmembrane domain. Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide

Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer. α-helix transmembrane domain. Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer α-helix transmembrane domain Hydrophobic R groups of a.a. interact with fatty acid chains Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide Polar a.a. Hydrophilic

More information

Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Multiple Choice Questions 1. Electron-transfer reactions in mitochondria Page: 707 Difficulty: 1 Ans: E Almost all of the oxygen (O 2 ) one

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

Review Questions Photosynthesis

Review Questions Photosynthesis Review Questions Photosynthesis 1. Describe a metabolic pathway. In a factory, labor is divided into small individual jobs. A carmaker, for example, will have one worker install the front windshield, another

More information

Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts

Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Chapt. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Student Learning Outcomes: Explain general features of enzymes as catalysts: Substrate -> Product Describe nature of catalytic sites general mechanisms

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu Electron Transport System May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu What did We learn so far? Glucose is converted to pyruvate in glycolysis. The process generates two ATPs. Pyruvate is taken into

More information

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW SHEET FOR TEST Part A: Match the terms below with the correct description Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electromagnetic spectrum Electron transport chain Grana Light-dependant reactions

More information

Photosynthesis (Life from Light)

Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy o Heterotrophs (consumers) Animals, fungi, most bacteria Get their energy from other organisms

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best.

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. Photosynthesis Practice Fill in the blanks. Name Date Period 1. Molecules that collect light energy are called _P. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. 3. _C is the main

More information

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE 1 Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE MULTIPLE CHOICE: CIRCLE ALL THE ANSWERS THAT ARE TRUE. THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE CORRECT ANSWER! 1. Which molecule stores more than 90 times

More information

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration 1. Base your answer to the following question on the chemical reaction represented below and on your knowledge of biology. If this reaction takes place in an organism that requires sunlight to produce

More information

Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function

Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function 1 2 3 Structure and function Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP Synthesis Peroxisome Overview 2 Mitochondria have characteristic morphologies despite variable

More information

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information