Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing

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1 Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing Donald M. Mattox AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON k^tj WilliЗ.ГП F^Wm NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO Щ Л. M A 1.ЖШШша, SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO EA1 Al luxcw ELSEVIER William Andrew is an imprint of Elsevier Applied Science Publishers

2 Contents Preface to First Edition Preface to Second Edition Acknowledgements Acronyms Biography xix xxi xxiii xxv xlv Chapter 1: Introduction Surface Engineering Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes Non-PVD Thin Film Atomistic Deposition Processes Applications of Vacuum-deposited Materials Thin Film Processing Stages of Fabrication Factors that Affect Film Properties Scale-Up and Manufacturability Process Documentation Process Specifications Manufacturing Process Instructions (MPIs) Travelers Equipment and Calibration Logs Commercial/Military Standards and Specifications (Mil Specs) Safety and Environmental Concerns Units Temperature Scales Energy Units Prefixes The Greek Alphabet Summary 23 Chapter 2: Substrate ("Real") Surfaces and Surface Modification Introduction Materials and Fabrication Metals 26 V

3 vi Contents Ceramics and Glasses Polymers Atomic Structure and Atom-particle Interactions Atomic Structure and Nomenclature Excitation and Atomic Transitions Chemical Bonding Probing and Detected Species Characterization of Surfaces and Near-surface Regions Elemental (Chemical) Compositional Analysis Phase Composition and Microstructure Molecular Composition and Chemical Bonding Surface Morphology Adsorption - Gases and Liquids Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Surfaces Surface Energy and Surface Tension Acidic and Basic Properties of Surfaces Bulk Properties Outgassing Outdiffusion Modification of Substrate Surfaces Surface Morphology Surface Hardness Strengthening of Surfaces Surface Composition Surface "Activation" ("Functionalization") Surface "Sensitization" Summary 71 Chapter 3: The "Good" Vacuum (Low Pressure) Processing Environment Introduction Gases and Vapors Gas Pressure and Partial Pressure Molecular Motion Gas Flow Ideal Gas Law Vapor Pressure and Condensation Gas-surface Interactions Residence Time Chemical Interactions Vacuum Environment Origin of Gases and Vapors Vacuum Processing Systems System Design Considerations and "Trade-Offs" Processing Chamber Configurations 97

4 Contents Equilibrium Conductance Pumping Speed and Mass Throughput Fixturing and Tooling Feedthroughs and Accessories Liners and Shields Fail-Safe Designs Vacuum pumping Mechanical Pumps Ill Momentum Transfer Pumps Capture Pumps Hybrid Pumps Vacuum- and Plasma-Compatible Materials Metals Ceramic and Glass Materials Polymers Assembly Permanent Joining Non-Permanent Joining Lubricants for Vacuum Application Heating and Cooling in Vacuums Evaluating Vacuum System Performance System Records Purchasing a Vacuum System for PVD Processing Cleaning of Vacuum Surfaces Stripping Cleaning In Situ "Conditioning" of Vacuum Surfaces System-related Contamination Particulate Contamination Vapor Contamination Gaseous Contamination Changes with Use Process-related Contamination Safety Aspects of Vacuum Technology Summary 144 Chapter 4: The Sub-Atmospheric Processing Environment Introduction Pressure Monitoring and Control Mass Flow Meters (MFMs) and Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) Liquid Precursors Geometry of the Pumping Manifold Pumps 151

5 viii Contents 4.5 Conduction Downstream Flow Control (Throttling) Transit Conductance Distribution Manifolds for Gas Flow Uniformity Changing Gas Cylinders Effluent Removal Conclusion 156 Chapter 5: The Low Pressure Plasma Processing Environment Introduction The Plasma Plasma Chemistry Plasma Properties and Regions Plasma-surface Interactions Sheath Potentials and Self-bias Applied Bias Potentials Particle Bombardment Effects Gas Diffusion into Surfaces Configurations for Generating Plasmas Electron Sources Electric and Magnetic Field Effects Direct Current (dc) Plasma Discharges Pulsed Power Plasmas Radio Frequency (rf) Capacitively Coupled Diode Discharge Plasmas Arc Plasmas Laser-Induced Plasmas Ion and Plasma Sources Plasma Sources Ion Sources (Ion Guns) Electron Sources Plasma Processing Systems Electrodes Corrosion Pumping Plasma Systems Plasma-related Contamination Desorbed Contamination Sputtered Contamination Arcing Vapor Phase Nucleation Cleaning Plasma Processing Systems Some Safety Aspects of Plasma Processing Summary 190

6 Contents ix Chapter 6: Vacuum Evaporation and Vacuum Deposition Introduction Thermal Vaporization Vaporization of Elements Vaporization of Alloys and Mixtures Vaporization of Compounds Polymer Evaporation Thermal Vaporization Sources Single Charge Sources Replenishing (Feeding) Sources Baffle Sources Beam and Confined Vapor Sources Flash Evaporation Radiant Heating Transport of Vaporized Material Masks Post-Vaporization Ionization Gas Scattering Condensation of Vaporized Material Condensation Energy Deposition of Alloys and Mixtures Deposition of Compounds from Compound Source Materials Some Properties of Vacuum-Deposited Thin Films Materials for Evaporation Purity and Packaging Handling of Source Materials Vacuum Deposition Configurations Deposition Chambers Fixtures and Tooling Shutters Substrate Heating and Cooling Liners and Shields In Situ Cleaning Getter Pumping Configurations Process Monitoring and Control Substrate Temperature Monitoring Deposition Monitors - Rate and Total Mass Vaporization Source Temperature Monitoring In Situ Film Property Monitoring Contamination from the Processing Contamination from the Vaporization Source Contamination from the Deposition System 227

7 x Contents Contamination from Substrates Contamination from Deposited Film Material Advantages and Disadvantages of Vacuum Deposition Some Applications of Vacuum Deposition Freestanding Structures Graded Composition Structures Multilayer Structures Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Gas Evaporation and Ultrafine (Nano) Particles Other Processes Reactive Evaporation and Activated Reactive Evaporation (ARE) Jet Vapor Deposition Process Field Evaporation Summary 232 Chapter 7: Physical Sputtering and Sputter Deposition (Sputtering) Introduction Physical Sputtering Bombardment Effects on Surfaces Sputtering Yields Sputtering of Alloys and Mixtures Sputtering Compounds Distribution of Sputtered Flux Sputtering Configurations Cold Cathode Direct Current (dc) Diode (Non-magnetron) Sputtering AC (Including Mid-frequency) Sputtering Radio Frequency (rf) Sputtering Direct Current (dc) Magnetron Sputtering Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering Dual (Redundant) "Anode" Sputtering Ion and Plasma Beam Sputtering Transport of the Sputter-vaporized Species Thermalization Scattering Collimation Post-vaporization Ionization Gas Flow Sputtering Condensation of Sputtered Species Elemental and Alloy Deposition Reactive Sputter Deposition Deposition of Composite Films Some Properties of Sputter-Deposited Thin Films 260

8 Contents 7.6 Sputter Deposition Geometries Fixturing Target Configurations Ion and Plasma Sources Plasma Activation Using Auxiliary Plasmas Targets and Target Materials Target Configurations Target Materials Target Cooling, Backing Plates, and Bonding Target Shielding Target Specifications Target Surface Changes with Use Target Conditioning (Pre-Sputtering) Target Power Supplies Process Monitoring and Control Sputtering System Pressure Gas Composition Gas Flow Target Power and Voltage Plasma Properties Substrate Temperature Sputter Deposition Rate Monitoring Contamination Due to Sputtering Contamination from Desorption Target-Related Contamination Contamination from Arcing Contamination from Wear Particles Vapor Phase Nucleation Contamination from Processing Gases Contamination from Deposited Film Material Advantages and Disadvantages of Sputter Deposition Some Applications of Sputter Deposition Summary 279 Chapter 8: Arc Vapor Deposition Introduction Arcs Vacuum Arcs Gaseous Arcs Anodic Arcs "Macros" Arc Plasma Chemistry Post Vaporization Ionization 292

9 xii Contents 8.3 Arc Source Configurations Cathodic Arc Sources Anodic Arc Sources Reactive Arc Deposition Arc Materials Arc Vapor Deposition System Arc Source Placement Fixtures Power Supplies Process Monitoring and Control Contamination Due to Arc Vaporization Advantages and Disadvantages of Arc Vapor Deposition Advantages Disadvantages Some Applications of Arc Vapor Deposition Summary 298 Chapter 9: Ion Plating and Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition Introduction Stages of Ion Plating Surface Preparation (In Situ) Nucleation Interface Formation Film Growth Sources of Depositing and Reacting Species Thermal Vaporization Physical Sputtering Arc Vaporization Chemical Vapor Precursor Species Laser-Induced Vaporization Gaseous Species Film Ions (Self-Ions) Sources of Energetic Bombarding Species Bombardment from Gaseous Plasmas Bombardment from Gaseous Arcs Bombardment by High Energy Neutrals Gaseous Ion and Plasma Sources (Guns) Film Ion Sources Sources of Accelerating Potential Applied Bias Potential Plasma Bias Potentials Self-Bias Potential 316

10 Contents 9.6 Some Plasma-Based Ion Plating Configurations Plasma and Bombardment Uniformity Fixtures Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD) Process Monitoring and Control Substrate Temperature Gas Composition and Mass Flow Plasma Parameters Deposition Rate Contamination in the Ion Plating Process Plasma Desorption and Activation Vapor Phase Nucleation Flaking Arcing Gas and Vapor Adsorption and Absorption Advantages and Disadvantages of Ion Plating Some Applications of Ion Plating Plasma-Based Ion Plating Vacuum-Based Ion Plating (IBAD) Summary 325 Chapter 10: Atomistic Film Growth and Some Growth-Related Film Properties Introduction Condensation and Nucleation Surface Mobility Nucleation Growth of Nuclei Condensation Energy Interface Formation Abrupt Interface Diffusion Interface Compound Interface Pseudodiffusion ("Graded" or "Blended") Interface Modification of Interfaces Characterization of Interfaces and Interfacial Material Film Growth Columnar Growth Morphology Substrate Surface Morphology Effects on Film Growth Modification of Film Growth Lattice Defects and Voids Film Density Residual Film Stress 364

11 xiv Contents Crystallographic Orientation Gas Incorporation Reactive and Quasi-Reactive Deposition of Films of Compound Materials Chemical Reactions Plasma Activation Bombardment Effects on Chemical Reactions Getter Pumping During Reactive Deposition Particulate Formation Post-Deposition Processing and Changes Topcoats Chemical and Electrochemical Treatments Mechanical Treatments Thermal Treatments Ion Bombardment Post-Deposition Changes Deposition of Unique Materials and Structures Metallization Transparent Electrical Conductors Low Emissivity (Low-E) Coatings Permeation and Diffusion Barrier Layers Porous Films Composite (Two-Phase) Films Intermetallic Films Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Films Hard Coatings Summary 390 Chapter 11: Film Characterization and Some Basic Film Properties Introduction Objectives of Characterization Types of Characterization Precision and Accuracy Absolute Characterization Relative Characterization Functional Characterization Behavioral Characterization Sampling Stages and Degree of Characterization In Situ Characterization First Check Rapid Check Post-Deposition Behavior Extensive Check 406

12 Contents Functional Characterization Stability Characterization Failure Analysis Specification of Characterization Techniques Some Film Properties Residual Film Stress Thickness Density Porosity, Microporosity, and Voids Optical Properties Mechanical Properties Electrical Properties Chemical Stability Barrier Properties Elemental Composition Crystallography and Texture Surface, Bulk, and Interface Morphology Incorporated Gas Summary 432 Chapter 12: Adhesion and Deadhesion Introduction Origin of Adhesion and Adhesion Failure (Deadhesion) Chemical Bonding Mechanical Bonding Stress, Deformation, and Failure Fracture and Fracture Toughness Liquid Adhesion Adhesion of Atomistically Deposited Inorganic Films Condensation and Nucleation Types of Interface Film Properties that Affect Adhesion Substrate Properties that Affect Adhesion Post-Deposition Changes that Can Improve Adhesion Post-Deposition Processing to Improve Adhesion Ion Implantation Deliberately Non-Adherent Interfaces Adhesion Failure (Deadhesion) Spontaneous Failure Externally Applied Mechanical Stress - Tensile and Shear Chemical and Galvanic (Electrochemical) Corrosion Diffusion to the Interface Diffusion Away from the Interface Reaction at the Interface 453

13 xvi Contents Fatigue Processes Subsequent Processing Storage and In-Service Local Adhesion Failure - Pinhole Formation Adhesion Testing Adhesion Test Program Adhesion Tests Non-Destructive Testing (Acceptance Testing) Accelerated Testing Designing for Good Adhesion Film Materials, "Glue Layers," and Layered Structures Special Interfacial Regions Substrate Materials Failure Analysis Summary 466 Chapter 13: Cleaning Introduction Gross Cleaning Stripping Abrasive Cleaning Chemical Etching Electrocleaning Fluxing Deburring Specific Cleaning Solvent Cleaning Aqueous Cleaning - Saponifiers, Soaps, and Detergents Solution Additives Reactive Cleaning Reactive Plasma Cleaning and Etching Application of Fluids Soaking Agitation Vapor Condensation Spraying Ultrasonic Cleaning Megasonic Cleaning Wipeclean Removal of Particulate Contamination Blow-Off Mechanical Disturbance 502

14 Contents Fluid Spraying Ultrasonic and Megasonic Cleaning Flow-Off Contact Cleaning Rinsing Hard and Soft Water Pure and Ultrapure Water Surface Tension Drying, Outgassing, and Outdiffusion Drying Outgassing Outdiffusion Cleaning Lines Handling and Storage/Transportation Handling Storage/Transportation Evaluation and Monitoring of Cleaning Behavior and Appearance Chemical Analysis Particle Detection In Situ Cleaning Plasma Cleaning Sputter Cleaning Laser Cleaning Photodesorption Electron Desorption Contamination of the Film Surface Safety Summary Cleaning Metals Cleaning Glasses and Ceramics Cleaning Polymers 526 Chapter 14: The External Processing Environment Introduction Reduction of Contamination Elimination of Avoidable Contamination Static Charge Materials Cloth, Paper, Foils, etc Containers, Brushes, etc Chemicals Processing Gases 534

15 xviii Contents 14.4 Body Coverings Gloves Coats and Coveralls Head and Face Coverings Shoe Coverings Gowning Area Personal Hygiene Processing Areas Mechanical Filtration Electronic and Electrostatic Filters Humidity Control Floor and Wall Coverings Cleanrooms Soft Wall Clean Areas Cleanbenches Ionizers Particle Count Measurement Vapor Detection Reactive Gas Control Microenvironments Personnel Training Summary 544 Appendix 545 Glossary 553 Index 735

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