Fundamentals of THERMALFLUID SCIENCES


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1 Fundamentals of THERMALFLUID SCIENCES THIRD EDITION YUNUS A. CENGEL ROBERT H. TURNER Department of Mechanical JOHN M. CIMBALA Me Graw Hill Higher Education Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, Wl New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto
2 CONTENTS Preface xv Nomenclature xxiii ONE INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Introduction to ThermalFluid Sciences 12 Thermodynamics and Energy Heat Transfer Fluid Mechanics Importance of Dimensions and Units * 16 ProblemSolving Technique 13 Summary 18 References and Suggested Readings 18 Problems 18 THREE ENERGY, ENERGY TRANSFER, AND GENERAL ENERGY ANALYSIS Introduction Forms of Energy Energy Transfer by Heat Energy Transfer by Work Mechanical Forms of Work The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy Conversion Efficiencies Energy and Environment 94 Summary 100 References and Suggested Readings 100 Problems 101 PART1 THERMODYNAMICS 21 TWO INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 21 Systems and Control Volumes Properties of a System Density and Specific Gravity State and Equilibrium Processes and Cycles Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Pressure Pressure Measurement Devices 39 Summary 47 * References and Suggested Readings 48 Problems FOUR PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Pure Substance 112 Phases of a Pure Substance 112 PhaseChange Processes of Pure Substances 113 Property Diagrams for PhaseChange Processes 118 Property Tables 126 The IdealGas Equation of State 137 Compressibility Factor A Measure of Deviation from IdealGas Behavior 139 Other Equations of State 144 Summary 149 References and Suggested Readings 150 Problems 150
3 x I Fundamentals of ThermalFluid Scitnces FIVE ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS Moving Boundary Work Energy Balance for Closed Systems Specific Heats Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids 183 Summary 187 References and Suggested Readings 188 Problems 188 SIX MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL VOLUMES Conservation of Mass Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid Energy Analysis of SteadyFlow Systems Some SteadyFlow Engineering Devices Energy Analysis of UnsteadyFlow Processes 228 Summary 234 References and Suggested Readings 235 Problems The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 710 The Carnot Heat Engine The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump Summary 285 References and Suggested Readings 286 Problems 286 ENTROPY 297 EIGHT 81 Entropy The Increase of Entropy Principle Entropy Change of Pure Substances Isentropic Processes Property Diagrams Involving Entropy What is Entropy? The T ds Relations Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases Reversible SteadyFlow Work Minimizing the Compressor Work Isentropic Efficiencies of SteadyFlow Devices Entropy Balance 343 Summary 354 References and Suggested Readings 355 Problems SEVEN THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Introduction to the Second Law Thermal Energy Reservoirs Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat F*umps PerpetualMotion Machines Reversible and Irreversible Processes The Carnot Cycle The Carnot Principles 275 PART 2 FLUID MECHANICS 373 NINE INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The NoSlip Condition Classification of Fluid Flows A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics Vapor Pressure and Cavitation Compressibility and Speed of Sound 385
4 96 Viscosity Surface Tension and Capillary Effect 391 Summary 396 References and Suggested Readings 396 Problems 397 TEN FLUID STATICS Introduction Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces Buoyancy and Stability 412 Summary 418 References and Suggested Readings 419 Problems 419 ELEVEN FLUID KINEMATICS Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization Vorticity and Rotationality The Reynolds Transport Theorem 441 Summary 445 References and Suggested Readings 446 Problems 446 Contents THIRTEEN MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW SYSTEMS Newton's Laws Choosing a Control Volume Forces Acting on a Control Volume The Linear Momentum Equation Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum The Angular Momentum Equation 511 Summary 519 References and Suggested Readings Problems FOURTEEN INTERNAL FLOW Introduction Laminar and Turbulent Flows The Entrance Region Laminar Flow in Pipes Turbulent Flow in Pipes Minor Losses Piping Networks and Pump Selection 559 Summary 568 References and Suggested Readings 569 Problems 570 FIFTEEN EXTERNAL FLOW: DRAG AND LIFT 579 XI TWELVE BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Mechanical Energy and Efficiency The Bernoulli Equation General Energy Equation Energy Analysis of Steady Flows 476 Summary 483 References and Suggested Readings 484 Problems Introduction Drag and Lift Friction and Pressure Drag Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates Flow Over Cylinders and Spheres Lift 604 Summary 612 References and Suggested Readings 613 Problems 614
5 xii I Fundamentals of ThermalFluid Sciences PART 3 HEAT TRANSFER 623 SIXTEEN MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction Conduction Convection Radiation Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms 638 Summary 643 References and Suggested Readings 644 Problems 644 SEVENTEEN STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION «3 17*4 Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls 654 Thermal Contact Resistance 664 Generalized Thermal Resistance Networks 669 Heat Conduction in Cylinders and Spheres 672 Critical Radius of Insulation 678 Heat Transfer from Finned Surfaces 681 Heat Transfer in Common Configurations 696 Summary 701 References and Suggested Readings 703 Problems 703 EIGHTEEN TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION Lumped System Analysis 724 Transient Heat Conduction in Large Plane Walls, Long Cylinders, and Spheres with Spatial Effects 730 Transient Heat Conduction in SemiInfinite Solids 746 Transient Heat Conduction in Multidimensional Systems 754 Summary 762 References and Suggested Readings 763 Problems 764 NINETEEN FORCED CONVECTION Physical Mechanism of Convection Thermal Boundary Layer Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres General Considerations for Pipe Flow General Thermal Analysis Laminar Flow in Tubes Turbulent Flow in Tubes 808 Summary 815 References and Suggested Readings 816 Problems 817 TWENTY NATURAL CONVECTION Physical Mechanism of Natural Convection Equation of Motion and the Grashof Number Natural Convection Over Surfaces Natural Convection from Finned Surfaces and PCBs Natural Convection Inside Enclosures 851 Summary 861 References and Suggested Readings 862 Problems 863 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 875 TWENTYONE 211 Introduction Thermal Radiation Blackbody Radiation Radiative Properties The View Factor Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces Radiation Heat Transfer: Diffuse, Gray Surfaces 909 Summary 922 References and Suggested Readings 924 Problems 924
6 TWENTYTWO HEAT EXCHANGERS Types of Heat Exchangers The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Analysis of Heat Exchangers The Log Mean Temperature Difference Method The EffectivenessNTU Method Selection of Heat Exchangers 968 Summary 971 References and Suggested Readings 972 Problems 973 APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) 987 Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and criticalpoint properties 988 Table A2 Idealgas specific heats of various Table A1 E common gases 989 Table A3 Properties of common liquids, solids, Table A2E and foods 992 Table A4 Saturated water Temperature Table A3E table 994 Table A5 Saturated water Pressure table 996 Table A4E Table A6 Superheated water 998 Table A7 Compressed liquid water 1002 Table A5E Table A8 Saturated icewater vapor 1003 Table A6E Figure A9 Ts diagram for water 1004 Table A7E Figure A10 Mollier diagram for water 1005 Table A8E Table A11 Saturated refrigerant134a Figure A9E Temperature table 1006 Figure A10E Table A12 Saturated refrigerant134a Table A11E Pressure table 1008 Table A13 Superheated refrigerant134a 1009 Table A12E Figure A14 Ph diagram for refrigerant134a 1011 Table A15 Properties of saturated water 1012 Table A13E Table A16 Properties of saturated Figure A14E refrigerant134a 1013 Table A15E Contents I xiii Ta b I e A17 Properties of saturated ammonia 1014 Ta b I e A18 Properties of saturated propane 1015 Table A19 Properties of liquids 1016 Table A20 Properties of liquid metals 1017 Ta b I e A21 Idealgas properties of air 1018 Table A22 Properties of air at 1 atm pressure 1020 Table A23 Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure 1021 Table A24 Properties of solid metals 1023 Table A25 Properties of solid nonmetals 1026 Table A26 Emissivities of surfaces 1027 Figure A27 The Moody Chart 1029 Figure A28 NelsonObert generalized compressibility chart 1030 APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) 1031 Molar mass, gas constant, and criticalpoint properties 1032 Idealgas specific heats of various common gases 1033 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods 1036 Saturated water Temperature table 1038 Saturated water Pressure table 1040 Superheated water 1042 Compressed liquid water 1046 Saturated ice water vapor 1047 Ts diagram for water 1048 Mollier diagram for water 1049 Saturated refrigerant134a Temperature table 1050 S aturated refrigerant134a Pressure table 1051 Superheated refrigerant134a 1052 Ph diagram for refrigerant134a 1054 Properties of saturated water 1055
7 xiv I Fundamentals of ThermalFluid Sciences Ta b le A16 E Properties of saturated refrigerant134a 1056 Table A17E Properties of saturated ammonia 1057 Table A18E Properties of saturated propane 1058 Table A19E Properties of liquids 1059 Table A20E Properties of liquid metals 1060 Ta b I e A21E Idealgas properties of air 1061 Table A22E Properties of air at 1 atm pressure 1063 Table A23E Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure 1064 Ta b I e A24E Properties of solid metals 1066 Table A25E Properties of solid nonmetals 1068 Index 1069
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