Electricity for the Entertainment Electrician Ef Technician

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1 Electricity for the Entertainment Electrician Ef Technician Richard Cadena ЩШ ' AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK JPPwlffl OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO л»еж SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO ELSEVIER Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier

2 Contents PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION What Is an Entertainment Electrician? Technology Moves On Keeping Up with Technology Overview Electricity Kills, But It Doesn't Have To xiii xv xvii xvii xviii xix xx xxiii CHAPTER 1 The Theory of Electricity 1 What Is Electricity? 1 Electrons in Motion 2 The Atom 2 Subatomic Particles 3 Electrostatic Charges 3 Electronic Drift 5 Conductive Properties of Materials 6 Current Convention 8 Summary 9 Understanding Electricity 9 CHAPTER 2 Electrical Concepts 11 Pulling Back the Veil of Mystery 11 Voltage 11 Current 12 Resistance 13 Power 13 Energy 14

3 V SI Units of Measure: Amperes, Volts, Ohms, Siemens, Joules, Watts 15 The Ampere 15 The Volt 16 The Ohm 16 The Siemens 16 The Joule 18 The Watt 18 Conservation of Energy 20 Understanding Electrical Concepts 20 CHAPTER 3 DC Electricity 21 The DC Circuit 23 Ohm's Law 24 DC Power 26 Understanding DC Electricity 29 CHAPTER 4 AC Electricity 31 Magnetism 31 Electromagnetism 33 Magnetic Induction 35 Faraday's Law of Induction 35 Fleming's Right-Hand Rule 37 The AC Generator 38 Exercise Your Knowledge of Sinewaves 42 Frequency 45 The Sinewave 46 RMS Value 47 True RMS Meters 49 Understanding AC Electricity 55 CHAPTER 5 Circuit Elements 59 Series Resistance 60 Parallel Resistance 61 Series/Parallel Resistance 63 Real-World Resistance 64 Impedance 65

4 Reactance 65 Inductors 65 Capacitors 68 Phase Angles 71 Complex Impedance 72 Transformers 75 Understanding Circuit Elements 78 CHAPTER 6 AC Power 83 AC Power Formula 85 Power Factor 85 Power Factor Correction 86 Complex Power 87 Three-Phase Power 89 Three-Phase Power Calculations 91 Understanding AC Power 93 CHAPTER 7 Electrical Safety 95 Electric Shock 95 Effects of Electrical Current 96 Arc Flash and Arc Blast 97 Lockout/Tagout 100 Drugs and Alcohol 102 Understanding Electrical Safety 102 CHAPTER 8 Grounding/Earthing 105 The Complete Circuit 105 Earthing/Grounding 106 Zero-Volt Reference 106 Voltage Stability 108 Safety Grounding 108 Grounded Versus Grounding Versus Bonding 110 Uni-Grounding Versus Multi-Grounding 110 Ground Loops Ill Balanced Power Systems 112 Technical Earth/Technical Ground 114 Understanding Grounding Concepts 114

5 CHAPTER 9 Overcurrent and Undercurrent Protection 117 Fuses 117 Circuit Breakers 121 Circuit Breaker Ratings 125 Residual Current Devices 125 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters 126 ClassAGFCIs 128 Understanding Overcurrent and Undercurrent Protection 129 CHAPTER lo Power Distribution Systems 131 Three-Phase Four-Wire Plus Ground Wye or Star 132 Three-Phase Four-Wire Delta (High Leg Delta) 137 Single-Phase Three-Wire Earthed Midpoint 137 Single-Phase Three-Wire Earthed End of Phase 139 Color Codes 139 Balancing Three-Phase Loads 140 Understanding Power Distribution Systems 142 CHAPTER 11 Dimming Systems 147 Phase-Control Dimming 147 Reverse Phase-Control Dimming 151 Third-Order Harmonics 152 Sinewave Dimming 156 Feeder Transformers for Non-Linear Loads 157 K-Rated Transformers 158 Harmonic Mitigating Transformers 159 Harmonic Suppression Systems 161 Understanding Dimming Systems 162 CHAPTER 12 Best Practices, Codes, and Regulations 165 Tying In 166 Single-Core Conductors, Feeder Cable, and Tails 169 Single-Pole Connectors 173 Neutral Conductor Sizing 182 Portable Power Distribution Systems 184 Branch Circuits or Final Circuits 187

6 Breakouts or Spiders 191 Stage Pin Connectors 194 N EM A Connectors 194 PowerCon Amp Plugs 198 CEE-Form Connectors 198 I EC Connectors 198 Schuko Connectors 199 Understanding Best Practices, Codes, and Regulations 200 EPILOGUE 203 APPENDIX 1 Useful Formulas 207 APPENDIX 2 Conversion Factors 209 APPENDIX 3 Energy Conversion Factors 211 APPENDIX 4 Scientific, Exponential, and Engineering Notation 213 APPENDIX 5 Answers to Practice Problems 215 REFERENCES 239 INDEX 241

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