Annual Report NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. Annual Report 2008 NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

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1 Annual Report 2008 NIOZ Royal Netrlds Institute for Sea Research Annual Report 2008 NIOZ Royal Netrlds Institute for Sea Research

2 T nual report c be ordered free of charge, by preference on exchge base, from t library of NIOZ Royal Netrlds Institute for Sea Research This Annual Report was produced under t responsibility of t directors: C.H.R. Heip & H.J. Ridderinkhof Realization: J Boon, Marcel Wernd, Nelleke Schogt, Marine Baas, Martien Baars, Rogier Da, Nelleke Krijgsm Printed by: drukkerij Thieme Almere, Almere T Netrlds ISSN: photo cold water corals: IFREMER

3 Introduction T year 2008 will remain in t memory of our institute as t year wn our marine technici Willem Polm lost his life in a fatal licopter accident in Antarctica. Full of enthusiasm for his first cruise to Antarctica, left his home isld of Texel for Cape Town in February, wre boarded t research vessel Polarstern of t Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar d Marine Research (AWI, Bremerhaven, Germy) as part of a large Dutch (NIOZ/University of Groningen) team on board. As experienced NIOZ technici, had been in my parts of t world, but t Soutrn Oce d t Antarctic continent were still missing on his long list of destinations. This will be my first d last trip to Antarctica, told his wife Dalea d teen-age daughters Savnah d Britty. How bitterly true this became. Willem was born d grew up on Texel, wre was always attracted by t seas around t isld. He started as a North Sea fisrm on t trawler TX 21. But resistce against sea-sickness was not his strongest point d had to quit. T step to sea-research at NIOZ was obvious one d Willem became responsible for t maintence d operation of our equipment for sampling t seafloor d geophysical measurements. For t cruise with t Polarstern, Willem s task was to operate d to maintain t complex deep sea winch for t new ultra cle CTDwater sampler Tit which has been designed d built by Willem s department Marine Technology for t determination of ultra-low concentrations of trace elements in t deep oce. After a few weeks of sampling on t Soutrn Oce, t Polarstern moored alongside t icy margin of Antarctica in t early morning of March 2 nd. Materials had to be trsported by licopter from t ship to t Polar Research Station Neumayer II. Willem was assigned to t first flight, in beautiful weatr, sitting in front at t side of pilot Stef Winter, to film t ldscape with his new video camera. Wn t licopter crasd, both men died immediately. Sitting in t back, our PhD student Maarten Klunder d two colleagues were injured, but ty have now fully recovered. T news of t accident struck NIOZ in full force later that day. T shock d t following sadness were immense. For weeks, until t bodies were repatriated d Willem was buried, t whole institute was in deep mourning. Nobody who attended tm will ever forget t simulteous ceremonies on board t Polarstern d in t church of Den Burg d t burial on t cemetery at t Hoge Berg, one of t higst places of t isld, in a bitterly cold wind, wre his colleagues from NIOZ carried t coffin to t grave d put him to rest. Willem will receive a lasting place in t portrait gallery that NIOZ is building but especially in t arts of his colleagues d friends at NIOZ. 5 Annual report 2008

4 T growing international importce of our activities is driven by t fact that marine science is increasingly needed to ensure t sustainability of our plet d to understd climate chge, for t maritime economy d t sustainable use d exploitation of living-d non-living resources from t sea, d for our individual wellbeing. T increasing use of t marine environment requires new national d international legislation d governce d this requires scientific knowledge that is often not yet available. For NIOZ 2008 has been a year of both consolidation d expsion, a year of my exciting projects, some continuing from previous years d some starting. Major new grts were obtained with several new projects in t National Marine d Coastal Research Program ZKO, from ERC, t ESF d t EU. T discussions on t NIOZ Science Pl d on t cooperation with t Centre for Estuarine d Marine Ecology of t Netrlds Institute of Ecology resulted in t definition of several new positions, including two tenure tracks d four PhD positions. Scientific production Scientific production was again excellent. A comparison of scientific output normalized to total staff that was done in t framework of a mid-term evaluation of t performce of t institute, showed NIOZ to be on top of a list of fifteen marine research institutions in Europe d t US both in terms of productivity in peer reviewed journals d in terms of publications in t top journals Science, Nature d PNAS. Three out of t five departments publisd a total of 28 top papers in t past five years out of a total of 762 peer reviewed papers of which 154 in My outstding results are reported in this nual report, covering a wide rge of subjects. Each year, we report about one of our newly defined multi-disciplinary tmes as introduced in our new Science Pl T tme Open Oce Processes starts off with a story about t Polarstern cruise to Antarctica that was so tragically influenced by t death of two expedition members. In t departmental chapters, major new findings are reported on t Coriolis Force d t use of t trmistor string developed jointly by our Physical Oceography d Marine Technology departments to measure t occurrence of internal waves which appear to be essential for t vertical mixing of t oces. Our data magement group finisd t NODC-i i project, allowing users for t first time to access t combined data holdings of t different NODC-i i partners in a harmonized d uniform way. Our orgic biogeocmists demonstrated t successful use of paleoproxies for t reconstruction of climatological d environmental chges in our geological history, t trsport of soil orgic material to t oce by flood events, d t contribution of aerobic ammonium oxidation to t nitrogen-cycle in t oces, especially in biologically highly productive upwelling areas. Our nutrient laboratory performed very well in international inter-calibration exercise. Two projects with strong societal relevce describe t occurrence of natural d thropogenic lead in submarine cyons off Portugal d t fate of experimental oil spill in t North Sea. We also report on two projects involving long-term monitoring series of bivalves d otr macrobenthos species in t Wadden Sea; a specialty of our institute. Major new projects NIOZ was successful in 2008 with new projects accepted for funding by t national marine d coastal research programme ZKO. Two new projects concerning monitoring d hypotsis testing research in t Wadden Sea on t factors explaining carrying capacity are lead by NIOZ researcrs who participate in six more. Tse two will address t biomass d production of several species of algae d fish communities in t western Wadden Sea. Besides t Wadden Sea project also t Open Oce call was very successful with NIOZ scientists covering projects on viruses, trace metals d t exchge between t Indi d Atltic Oce. One major success was t ERC grt of 2.5 M awarded to Jaap Sinning Damsté that aims at improving t current climate models by ccking t accuracy of simu- 6 Annual report 2008

5 lations of past climate chges by reconstruction of t climate of t geological past. T approach advocated by Damsté is to look at cmical fossils, highly specific membre lipids from soil bacteria. T structure of tse molecules depends on temperature d ty c trefore be used to estimate temperature even millions of years ago. A third major grt of 10.5 M of which more th 2 M for NIOZ was obtained by our new ad of t department Biological Oceography Marcel Veldhuis in t Interreg IVb programme of t EU, focusing on t on board treatment of ballast water to prevent t spread of orgisms through maritime trsport. Besides several research institutes, also t authorities of several North Sea states d industry are strongly involved. RV Pelagia T RV Pelagia left in September for a long series of research cruises that will take t vessel around Africa, following a route via t Mediterre, t Indi Oce d t Atltic Oce. T first cruise brought t ship to t Galicia Bk, West of Spain for t BIOFUN cruise, ESF EURODEEP project, whilst during passage t last tests of t multibeam echosounder d t mobile sediment sampler MOVE were performed. After BIOFUN, Pelagia sailed into t Mediterre Sea, starting mid-october, for t ALW project MOCCHA of Utrecht University. Early November t science team chged in Heraklion on Crete for t IfM-GEOMAR team from Kiel to start t Charter cruise in t West Nile Delta. Also t ROV Genesis of Gnt University was on board. Wn t WND team left t ship in Port Said, t Pelagia entered t Suez Chnel to sail via t Red Sea d t Gulf of Aden to Muscat in Om. This was a moment of high tension on board d at NIOZ adquarters as t ship came within reach of t Somali pirates who have become very active in Pelagia had to wait for a few days in Djibouti to join a convoy guarded by a French military fregate. Fortunately nothing happened d in December a team from NERC embarked for a barter cruise to do geophysical d geological observations in t East Arabi Sea. In t summer of 2009 t Pelagia is plned to be back at its home harbour at Texel. Prices T Deputy Minister for Traffic d Water Magement Huizinga awarded a price to t captain d crew of Pelagia for tir contribution to meteorology. Measurements on board Pelagia are used for t day to day weatr forecasting in Europe d worldwide via t Royal Netrlds Institute of Meteorology. As Pelagia is often in water without much, or even y, commercial traffic, tse data are very importt for adequate weatr forecasting. PhD tses Four PhD promotions were noted in Jayne Rattray worked on laddere lipids as biomarkers for t occurrence of Anammox Bacteria d defended r tsis at t Utrecht University. Furu Mienis studied cold-water coral growth d carbonate mound formation in t eastern Atltic Oce d defended r tsis at t Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Tya Compton addressed t question why tre are much more bivalve species on t intertidal flats in tropical areas compared to our temperate Wadden Sea, d Deborah Buhler studied chges in t strength of t immune system of knots as model migratory birds during tir nual migratory cycle. Both Tya d Deborah defended tir tses at t University of Groningen. FOKUZ On 20 November NIOZ d t Netrlds Institute of Ecology NIOO orgized a very successful symposium 'FOKUZ on Sea Research' in Amsterdam to officially start t cooperation programme 'FOKUZ' (Dutch for Fundamental Research on Coasts d Seas), signed between t umbrella orgisations of NIOZ d NIOO, Netrlds Orgisation for Scientific Research NWO d t Royal Netrlds 7 Annual report 2008

6 Academy of Arts d Sciences KNAW. T ties between t two marine institutes have been strong since my years d FOKUZ is a logical step furtr towards a strong institute for fundamental marine research in t Netrlds d Europe. International Cooperation Most research at NIOZ is done in cooperation with research groups outside t institute. Most papers from NIOZ trefore have multi institute affiliation. Oceography is international science par excellence d funding from t EU d t ESF has been a major driver in assuring t international position of our institute. Just as examples, we wt to mention NIOZ s participation in t EU Integrated Project HERMES (Hot Spot Ecosystem Research on t margins of Europe) which greatly expded our knowledge of peculiar ecosystems such as cold seeps, mud volcoes, cyons d cold water coral reefs in Europe. HERMES was elected one of t 40 top projects from FP6, out of over 10,000 projects (d over 50,000 proposals). Likewise, NIOZ was very active in t Network of Excellence MarBEF on Marine Biodiversity d Ecosystem Functioning. Magement T function of ad of department was redefined d will now be a temporary position for four years. Two new ads of department were appointed under t new regime, Geert-J Brummer as interim in Marine Geology d Hendrik v Aken in Physical Oceography. Gerhard Herndl left t department of Biological Oceography d moved to t University of Vienna at t end of In t coming years, t cooperation with Gerhard will continue. In 2008 t labs d offices of t department of Biological Oceography were completely renovated, a major operation that was completed without major hindrce to t department d that will serve as example for otr renovations in t coming years. Somewhat coupled to this renovation was t start of a first supporting laboratory on plkton, which also serves as a prototype for similar chges in t orgization in t next few years. Carlo Heip Herm Ridderinkhof 8 Annual report 2008

7 Multidisciplinary Tme Open Oce Processes

8 Netrlds participation in t Antarctic expedition aboard Polarstern in t International Polar Year In t context of t International Polar Year (IPY), 17 scientists from NIOZ d t University of Groningen joined Antarctic expedition of overall 54 scientists d 42 officers d crew aboard t research ice-breaker Polarstern of t Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar d Marine Research (Germy). T aim of t expedition was to conduct integrated research program of physical oceography d sea-ice dynamics (Climate in Antarctica d t Soutrn Oce; IPY- CASO) with t study of of trace elements d isotopes (IPY-GEOTRACES) in relation to t plkton ecosystem d t oce carbon cycle. Polarstern expedition ANT XXIV-3 left from Cape Town, South Africa, at 10 February 2008 d arrived at 16 April 2008 in Punta Arenas, Chile (Fig. 1). During t expedition a large number of physical, cmical d biological parameters were measured using t NIOZ Tit Ultracle sampling system d a conventional CTD sampling system. T team of T Netrlds focused on t Fig. 2. First deployment of t Tit(ium) ultracle frame with internal teflon coated PVC water samplers at 11 February at test station (37 o S, 13 o E) in still warm temperate region. Hdling of t frame by ship s crew d NIOZ trace metal scientists; in t background Willem Polm (right) with t remote control leading t operation, next to boatswain Reiner Loidl (left) supervising. See Marine Cmistry (2008), 111, 4-21 for details of Tit system. Photograph courtesy Ilias Nasis. Fig. 1. Route of expedition ANT XXIV-3 aboard Polarstern, dots show days of t calender year trace metals iron (Fe), mgese (Mn) d aluminium (Al); t major nutrients N, P d Si; t increasing CO 2 inventory of t Soutrn Oce due to uptake of CO 2 from t atmospre; t effects of this elevated CO 2 accompied by oce acidification on t plkton ecosystem; t photoinhibition d photopigments composition of phytoplkton; d t role of viruses in plkton ecology. One day after leaving Cape Town at a test station (37 o S, 13 o E) in t South East Atltic Oce t Tit system was successful, confirming its correct functioning d cleliness (Fig. 2). Hereafter, 4 more stations were sampled for trace metals d 6 more for CO 2, alkalinity d nutrients (d my otr parameters by t otr participts) before reaching t first station (51 o 30'S, 0 o W) at t Zero Meridi on 19 February. Along t Zero Meridi, complete vertical profiles comprising 24 sampling depths were collected, for trace metals samples at 16 more stations at every full 10 Annual report 2008 Corresponding author:

9 Fig. 3. Big is beautiful. One of three humpback whales visiting Polarstern for about one hour in a mingle of exciting water ballet show d apparent curiosity. Large ty may be, tir worldwide population of estimated 30,000 humpback whales is modest compared to t smallest virus orgisms in t sea whose total biomass would be equivalent to some 88 million humpbacks. Photograph courtesy Alexdra Gronholz. degree latitude, d for CO 2, alkalinity d nutrients at 44 stations every half degree. T close encounter with a group of three humpback whales (Fig. 3) cavorting around t ship for one hour was a furtr stimulus for studying t Antarctic Oce ecosystem. T Zero Meridi section was interrupted at 29 February for trsit to t Germ Neumayer station on t Antarctic ice slf in time to supply t base d exchge a few personnel. Shortly after t early morning sunrise arrival at Sunday 2 March 2008 of Polarstern at t ice edge a licopter left t ship bound for t Neumayer station. T licopter crasd d t pilot d our colleague Willem Polm lost tir lives. Maarten Klunder, PhD student of NIOZ, was among t three passengers on t back bench whom fortunately survived t accident thks also due to tir fast rescue d excellent medical treatment of injuries. My feelings hard to tell was t introduction Hein de Baar used in his NIOZ colloquium in October 2008 about this special expedition. Tse exact words are valid re in t nual report wre grief for t loss of Willem Polm d t pilot combines with gratitude for t full recovery of Maarten Klunder d t two otr injured who have now all returned to work. T expedition was delayed until successful evacuation of t three injured passengers by airple on Wednesday 5 March upon which date Polarstern continued t journey d t scientific program also in honour of our lost colleagues. Polarstern returned at 7 March to 66 o 30 S, 0 o W to t Zero Meridi to complete t trsect to t Vertical section of dissolved iron [10-9 mol L -1 ] at t zero meridi including north of 51 o 30'S t four stations more to t east (1.5 o E to 9 o E) of t trsit from Capetown. Shipboard alyses of 20 stations, comprising 24 sampling depths each, by Maarten Klunder d Patrick La. Notice plume of high iron over t mid oce ridge (also found for mgese, not shown re) likely due to hydrotrmal vent activity; extremely low values in surface waters at 67 o S-68 o S due to iron uptake by phytoplkton bloom. 11 Annual report 2008

10 Vertical profiles collected on 13 February at (42 o 20 S, 9 o E) versus depth [metres] of 0.2 micrometer filtrate dissolved Fe (dark blue), t smaller 1000 kilodalton filtrate dissolved Fe (light blue), d t concentration of iron-binding orgic ligd (in units of equivalent of Fe) in t same two filtrates (red d yellow, respectively). Units are nomol per Litre [nm] which is 10-9 mol per Litre, or neq per Litre for t orgic ligd L. T Fe-binding Ligd L is always in excess of t dissolved Fe. T dissolved Fe in itself is very unstable in seawater d tends to be removed as iron-oxide particles, but t excess orgic ligd L keeps some dissolved Fe in solution. Data by Loes Gerringa d Charles-Edouard Thuroczy. ice edge. Helicopter technici Michael Stimac (Germy) jointly with Sven Ober was able to continue t winch operations for ultracle sampling throughout t remaining 7 weeks of t expedition. T second trsect of stations commenced at 13 March d crossed t Weddell Sea. Several intended stations had to be ccelled due to slow icebreaking in t avy ice conditions visa-vis t need to be in time at 30 March at King George Isld for otr personnel chge d cargo supply. Nevertless, across t Weddell Sea 8 stations were sampled for trace metals d 38 stations for CO 2, alkalinity d nutrients. Moreover amazing abundce of wild-life including emperor penguins, seals d minke whales was observed. At King George Isld part of Vertical section of dissolved mgese [10-9 mol L -1 ] across Drake Passage. Shipboard alyses by Rob Middag d Cees v Slooten. Notice elevated values near t Antarctic peninsula due to dissolution of Mn within oxic sediments of t extensive slf. In contrast t more rocky slf of Tiera del Fuego hardly gives rise to elevated values. T rate of increase of Dissolved Inorgic Carbon (DIC) in units of micromoles per kg seawater per decade [10-6 mol kg -1 decade -1 ] at t Zero Meridi in t Soutrn Oce (latitude 42 o S to 69 o S) calculated from observations of 12 expeditions in t period. This increase shows t slow invasion of thropogenic CO 2 from t atmospre into t oce, also giving rise to oce acidification. Based on data by Steven v Heuven d Hs Slagter. t scientific crew was scduled to be exchged. T 8 new scientists were already at King George Isld d boarded t ship. However t flight scduled for t departing scientists was ccelled due to unsafe ice conditions on t runway. So with a somewhat crowded ship carrying 104 staff t final trsect crossing of t Drake Passage commenced. Here otr 10 stations were sampled for trace metals d 30 more stations for CO 2, alkalinity d nutrients. T total productivity of this expedition was 930 measurements for dissolved iron, 931 for dissolved aluminium, 939 for dissolved mgese d some 2700 measurements for CO 2, alkalinity d 12 Annual report 2008

11 T Redfield ratio nitrate/phosphate at t Zero Meridi. High accuracy determinations by J v Ooijen permit to discern natural variability partly due to regional iron limitation hampering t uptake of nitrate, relative to phosphate, by phytoplkton. T high ratio values in surface waters at 67 o S-68 o S are consistent with t local iron deficiency hampering nitrate uptake by phytoplkton such that left behind in seawater is a high ratio value. Carbondioxide incubation experiments under controlled laboratory conditions to mimic t effect of CO 2 on t plkton community during t last glacial maximum ( atm), present ( atm) d t future acidified oce ( atm). This project of t Netrlds Polar Program (NWO) is a collaboration between NIOZ d t University of Groningen (Oce Ecosystems d Ecophysiology of Plts) on t Soutrn Oce in a High-CO 2 World. Shipboard research by Babette Bontes d Ika Neven, photograph by Ika Neven. Daily depth profiles to determine t abundce of eukaryotic algae, cyobacteria, bacteria d viruses were made. Approximately 20 serial dilution experiments were conducted along t Zero Meridi d t Drake Passage to determine t in situ phytoplkton growth rates, grazing pressure d virusinduced mortality. Measurements of bacterial production were conducted at approximately 40 sites along t cruise track in parallel with experiments to determine bacteriovory d virusinduced bacterial lysis. Furtrmore, samples were collected at all experimental stations to examine t diversity of viruses d tir microbial hosts. Preliminary results indicate that whilst viral lysis is importt regulator of bacteria, algal populations are predomintly controlled by grazing by microzooplkton. Besides this, in a joint project with Stford University, short term (20 minutes) sunlight exposure experiments were done to study photoinhibition d recovery of algae in combination with investigation of photoprotective versus light-harvesting photopigments. Moreover 6 phytoplkton experiments were conducted of which 3 on t Zero Meridi, 2 in t Weddell Sea d 1 in t Drake Passage. In tse experiments t local phytoplkton community was exposed to different CO 2 levels to assess t response of algae to past, present d future CO 2 conditions. An effect of t different CO 2 levels on t carbon uptake mechism was observed, however no unequivocal effect on t growth rate was observed. Chges in t composition of t phytoplkton community are still being assessed in stored samples. T CO 2 was measured as total inorgic carbon in full depth profiles over t water column d t measurements were in good agreement with results from previous cruises. T CO 2 data con- nutrients. Togetr with similar size dataset for our preceding 2007 Arctic IPY GEOTRACES expedition, t world dataset for dissolved iron in deep oce waters has become threefold larger. For mgese d aluminium a similar spectacular increase of t world dataset was achieved. Nine stations in t three trsects were sampled to measure t speciation of Fe (t distribution over cmical d physical forms). Moreover very my ultracle samples were collected for shipboard colleagues investigating otr trace metals, as well as for delivery to various home laboratories for determination of trace metals d also tir stable isotopes, notably t isotope systematics of cadmium d of iron. Additionally, several hundreds of samples were alysed for CO 2, alkalinity d nutrients in t biological experiments for effect of oce acidification. Results of t dilution experiments conducted along t Zero Meridi. Growth rates d rates of grazing d viral-induced mortality of t Cyobacteria d Picoeukaryote groups I d II are plotted against latitude. Data by Claire Evs d Erwin Frijling. 13 Annual report 2008

12 Group photo of t team of T Netrlds at t licopter deck at t end of t Weddell Sea section. Missing are Willem Polm (deceased 2 March) d Maarten Klunder (evacuated 5 March). From left to right: Hs Slagter, J v Ooijen, Sven Ober, Babette Bontes, Patrick La (back) d Charles- Edouard Thuroczy, Rob Middag, Hein de Baar, Loes Gerringa, Erwin Frijling, Cees v Slooten, Ika Neven, Steven v Heuven, Anne-Carlijn Alderkamp, Claire Evs. tributes significtly to t detection of trends in t CO 2 inventory of t Soutrn Oce over t time interval of high accuracy measurements. T total alkalinity lps in separating t thropogenic contribution to observed trends in t CO 2 inventory of t Soutrn Oce from natural variability. T trace metal work showed some interesting results. For t first time a direct in situ correlation was observed in t surface waters between dissolved mgese on t one hd d biological production d nutrients on t otr hd. T concentrations of dissolved aluminium were lower th previously reported in t literature for t Soutrn Oce d provide new information on t global aluminium cycle d its intimate relation to t silicate cycle driven by diatom algae which have silicon skeletons. T concentration of dissolved iron was relatively constt in t deep waters of t Weddell Sea. Elevated dissolved iron concentrations related to continental slf d/or hydrotrmal inputs were observed in conjunction with elevated mgese concentrations. Surface water concentrations of dissolved iron were generally low d appeared to be related to iron uptake in phytoplkton growth. In one region of t surface waters of t Zero Meridi, all three trace metals showed a relation with apparently recent event of deposition of atmospric dust coming from ld. Aerosol dust samples have also been collected d are being alyzed to confirm this. Iron is kept in t dissolved form by dissolved orgic molecules, preventing Fe to precipitate d to be scavenged out of t water column. At all stations tse orgic molecules had concentrations higr th t dissolved Fe concentration. T ratio of t concentration of tse orgic molecules versus Fe is high in t surface (up to 20) d decreases with depth to a value close to 1 in t deep waters in t total dissolved fraction (<0.2µm); tse molecules become saturated with Fe with depth. In t smaller fraction (<1000kDa) this ratio is always higr th in t total dissolved fraction. This mes that small orgic molecules govern t reactivity of iron in t deep oce. T cruise was scientifically very successful d t major findings are written into muscripts for several PhD tses d a dedicated special issue of Deep-Sea Research II. For those who returned home, t wondrous impressions of Antarctica remain but are dominated by t tragic events of 2 March d t memories of our lost friends remain etcd into our minds. 14 Annual report 2008

13 Physical Oceography T Th e re resea se earch h of th t e De D pa p rttme m ntt of Phys Ph hys ysic iccal al Occe ea nog o ra r phy ph hy ((F FYS YS) ca c n be e rou o gh ghly ly y d viided di ded iin de nto thr h ee e sub u -t -t me m s, whi me whi h ch ha all l hav ll ve mu mullttid tid disci isscciipl p in nar ary y asspe pect cctts, fit itti ting ng g int ntto t ma th t main in res in e earc ea arch ch th m mes e of th t NI NIOZ O Sci OZ c en ence ce e Pla l. n n. Ocea Oc eo ea nog no grap gr phy hy of sh ellf se eass a d nd ccoa oast oa stal st al se ea ass.. as. Th re rese se sear earch h of FYS FY YS in in t ssha hall llow ow Wad adde den de ns Se ea de deal alls wi a with th tth h e tra sspo port rtt of of si silt as silt well we ll as wi with th th e loc lo occcal al clliim al ma ate te.. FY YS ma main inta in t in ta inss a se sens nsor ns or ssys yste ys tem te m at at t N NIO IO OZ je ettty, y wh w r ere re m me eas asur surre em men nts of tte em mp per e at a ur ure e d d sa sali lini li nity ni ty con con onti tinu ti nue nu e obs bse errva vati tiion o al al tim ime e seri se ries ri ie ess tha hat a allre ead dy sttar a te ted d in th e sum u me merr of T T tim me se seri r es is wi ri wide d ly ly use sed for fo or stud st u ie ud es of of rreg egio eg iona nal ma mariine ne clliima m te ea nd n d of th t e Wa Wadd dden dd en S Sea ea e eco cosy syst sy sttem m. In I tw two p pe pa pers rss werre p pu ublis l s d d describi bin bi ng g tt e var aria iati tion ti onss of sal on alin init in itty ity d d te emp mpe era er attu urre on tiid dal dal a to o cen nte tenn n ia nn ial ti t me ssca cale les. s Sin nce e th re remo m te sen e si sing ng ref efle lect ct ct ce c ce ssp pe ecctrrum m is me m as asur ured ed eve v ry 15 5 minu nute te es w wiith th a set of mu ult ltii ch ih ne nell op ne o ti tical cca al se sensso orrs. s. Th s ese ed da ata aw wil illl be use ed to t proviid de e a tim ime e se seri ries es of wa wate t r qu te ual alit ity y da data ta,, in n parti arti ar ticcu ula ar off t o e amo m un nt of p pla lk nkto ton n or chl hlor orop o hy op yll ll-a a.a An no oth tr e iimp er mp por o ta t nt asp asp s ec ectt off re essearc ea arch rch in rc in t Wa th Wadd d en ns Sea ea ad dea ea e als wiitth tth ci circ rcul ulat ul atiio on nd si siltt tra s n po port rt tthr hrrou oug gh h tt e Mar a sd die ep. Mo oni nitto oring rin ri ng go off th t e cu urrren ents ts a d nd d ssil illt tr tr tra ssp ports orttss is ca or carrrie ed ou o t wiith th insstr trum ume enta en tattiion n, mo m ou un ntte nte ed o ed on n t TESO ESO fe ES f rri rrrie ies wh whic ich h sa saiill hou ourrlly ffrrom Tex exel e to th ma m in inla ld nd d d nd /vi /vic viice ce ve erssa a//. Ad Add diiti tion o al on ally ly y obser bser bs erva v ti tion onss att a ch c orr sta tati tion ti on are on e car arri r ed out reg egu ullar u arly y to prrov ovid de da data t ffor orr calib bra r ti t on ons off t h fer erry ry y me ea assu ure r me m nt nts. s. Als l o in i t N Nor orth or th h Sea a a ncho nch ch ho orr ssttati tion on n wa ass occ occup upied nd in inst s ru rume ment me nttat nta atiio on to on t m mea e su ea ure e sil iltt co ontten entt a nd tr tr a ss-porrt po rt was dep ploye yed d. 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