The Integration of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Data in a Marine Geographic Information System U.S. Hydro 2015

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1 The Integration of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Data in a Marine Geographic Information System U.S. Hydro 2015 Karen Hart CARIS USA

2 Oceanography and Hydrography Defined Oceanography: The branch of Earth science that studies the ocean Covers a wide range of topics Scientists must have a knowledge of biology, chemistry, geology, and physics Hydrography The IHO definition: the branch of applied science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the navigable portion of the earth s surface [seas] and adjoining coastal areas, with special reference to their use for the purpose of navigation.

3 Oceanographic Disciplines Disciplines of Oceanography: Geological: study of the history and structure of the ocean floor Physical: the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean Chemical: the study of ocean chemistry; i.e. the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans Biological: the scientific study of organisms in the ocean

4 Oceanography Data Sources Geological Oceanography Gas plumes / seeps Sub-bottom/seismic profiles Geomorphology as shown by bathymetry Physical Oceanography CTD Profiles with various measurements Temperature Salinity ADCP data Tides / Water Levels Other current data Gas seeps shown by sonar

5 Oceanography Data Sources Chemical Oceanography Various water column measurements (from CTD casts): dissolved oxygen, ph Carbon budget ocean acidification Temperature and Salinity Biological Oceanography Various water column measurements (from CTD casts): light%, dissolved oxygen Primary production Diurnal plankton transport (from ADCP) CTD Profile Selected Points

6 Merging Hydrography and Oceanography

7 Use of Hydrographic Data for Oceanography Use of nautical charts to navigate to survey areas Required for all aspects of mineral exploration, fisheries, engineering construction, and other offshore operations Detailed bathymetry Gridded surfaces, TINs, dense sounding sets or depth curves Bathymetry can depict geomorphological features Seafloor morphology affects tides GEBCO Bathymetry

8 Use of Oceanographic Data for Hydrography Sound velocity correct sounding values for speed of sound in seawater computed from measured conductivity, temperature, and pressure Tide tide models are needed for datum correction of bathymetry 3 Tide (Meters) Time (12 min)

9 Spatial Data Visualization and Product Creation World Sea Surface Salinity, December 2007

10 Spatial Data Visualization Coverage / Raster Data Vertical profiles (CTD Casts) Point clouds Grids / surfaces World Sea Surface Temperature, December 2007

11 Spatial Data Visualization Vector Data (points, lines, areas) Charted Bathymetry IHO formats: S-57 ENC, S-100/101 Information overlays Supplements to ENCs Object Catalogue Metadata for each feature object (S-100?) Current direction - St. Lawrence River

12 Geological Oceanographic Spatial Data Geomorphology as shown by gridded multibeam bathymetry Submarine Canyon, East coast of US

13 Geological Oceanographic Spatial Data Seabed surface sediment type (from grab sampling, core sampling, backscatter) Multibeam Backscatter sediment analysis Grain Size (phi)

14 Geological Oceanographic Spatial Data Gas seeps found by sonar

15 Physical Oceanographic Spatial Data Surface Current Speed and Direction Current Speed (m/s) Port of Montreal, Quebec, Canada

16 Physical or Chemical Oceanographic Spatial Data Salinity (PSU) Temperature ( C)

17 Biological Oceanographic Spatial Data Example showing light percentage at depth

18 Visualizing hydrographic and oceanographic data together Sound velocity profiles and bathymetry in 3D Sound Velocity Profiles

19 Visualizing hydrographic and oceanographic data together Depth curves over gridded temperature at 5m and 100m

20 Spatial Data Management in a Database

21 Spatial Data Management in a Database Database Management RDBMS Backend + Spatial component Metadata Catalogue Database Query Working with Data from a Database (import/export)

22 Conclusions Hydrographic data is collected an analyzed concurrently with traditional oceanographic data Oceanographic and hydrographic data is mutually beneficial Data visualization in a Marine GIS essential for analysis Need for an object catalogue for oceanographic data Spatial data management of all data types possible using a database

23 Data acknowledgements Gulf of Alaska Data Roger P Kelly, University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography Bering Sea Bathymetry General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) Montreal Current Data Port of Montreal World Wide Salinity and Temperature Canadian Hydrographic Service Gas Seeps and bathymetry, US East Coast NOAA, Okeanos Explorer

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