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1 UNDERSTANDING FLOW PROCESSING WITHIN THE CISCO ACE M ODULE Application de liv e r y pr odu cts can distr ib u te tr af f ic to applications and w e b se r v ice s u sing v ar y ing le v e ls of application m e ssag ing. T h is docu m e nt e x plains h ow th e v ar y ing le v e ls of analy sis e f f e ct th e tr af f ic f low b e tw e e n th e clie nt and se r v ice to h e lp e nsu r e th e m ost e f f e citv e soltu ion can b e de ploy e d u sing th e C isco AC E M odu le. SCOPE Th do de ib ip ic io io d, in is d, d in it ide d is AC du. An is ie, is AC du, d ic io ic io is ide d if dif in ic io io dl in. A U D I EN CE Th e do c u m e n t is in t e n de d a s a t e c h n ic a l r e f e r e n c e f o r n e t w o r k in g p r o f e s s io n a l s f a m il ia r w it h c o n t e n t s w it c h in g, n e t w o r k de s ig n, a n d m a in t a in in g a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y de p l o y m e n t s w it h a de s ir e t o b e t t e r u n de r s t a n d h o w t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e in t e r a c t s w it h c l ie n t s a n d a p p l ic a t io n s a t a t r a n s p o r t a n d a p p l ic a t io n p r o t o c o l l e v e l. V I W h e n r e s e a r c h g v a r u s a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t s b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t t h a t a p p l a t n s c a n b e p r o c e s s e a t v a r u s l e v e l s t o a l l o w f o r m o r e t e l l e n t c n m a k g f o r t r u t g c l n t r e q u e s t s t o a p p l a t n s e r v e r s e e f f e c t e n e s s o f a n a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t b a s e o n a n e q u a l t r u t n o f l o a a c r o s s m u l t l e s e r v e r s l o a s h a r g b e t w e e n t a c e n t e r s p r o v g p e r s t e n c e f o r a u s e r t h r o u g h v a r u s w e b a p p a n t a b a s e t r s o f a s e r v e e n s u r g a p p l a t n a v a a b y s p e a l o c a l s e r v e r f a u r e a n s o f o r t h W h a t a c e n t e r a p p l a t n t r a f f s p e c t e v a r y g g r e e s b a s e o n t h e O S I m o l p l a t n t r u t n o r l o a b a l a n c g c a n o c c u r a t t h e I P l e v e l w h e r e t h e l o a b a l a n c g n e b a s e o n t h e s t a t n I P a e s s k n o w n a s t h e v t u a l I P a e s s ( V I P ) o f t h e c l n t s c o n n e c t n a p p l a t n s h a v e a a n c e t h e y h a v e m o v e f r o m b e g h o s t e o n m u l t l e s e r v e r s w h a s g l e s e r v e r f a r m t o t r s o f s e r v e r f a r m s e c o m m o n t r s a r e w e b a p p l a t n a n t a b a s e w h e a c h t r h a v g s o w n a t e s e r v e r f a r m ( s ) e a a n c e m e n t o f a p p l a t n s h a s e n t h e n e e f o r m o r e t e l l e n t m e t h o o f l o a b a l a n c g w h t h e n e t w o r k y s a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t s m u s t p r o v t r a n a l l o a b a l a n c g a n h a v e t h e a b y t o m a k e t r u t n c n s b y a n a l y z g t h e a p p l a t n m e s s a g e s OV ER EW in io ic io de iv du it ic io d io in ig de is io in dis ib in ie ic io. Th iv ic io de iv du is d : dis ib io d ip, d in da, idin is 1 io,, d da ie ic, in ic io il il it de it il, d. it in da, ic io ic is in d in in de, d de. Ap ic io dis ib io, d in,, d in is do d de in io ddr, ir ddr, ie io. As ic io dv d d in d ip it in in ie. Th ie, ic io, d da it ie in it de dic d. Th dv ic io dr iv d in ig ds d in it in. To da ic io de iv du ide dit io d in d il it dis ib io de is io in ic io. 1 Session persistence or stickiness refers to the ability of the application switch to recognize multiple d istinct client connections as belonging to the same session or business transaction and d irect them to the same serv er for the entire d uration of the transaction. All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 1 of 13

2 Ap p l ic a t io n de c is io n s 2 c a n b e m a de a t v a r io u s l e v e l s o f t h e a p p l ic a t io n c o m m u n ic a t io n s u c h a s : u p o n e a c h n e w TC P c o n n e c t io n, p e r a p p l ic a t io n r e q u e s t, a n d in s o m e s c e n a r io s c o m p l e t e a p p l ic a t io n in s p e c t io n is r e q u ir e d t o p r o p e r l y h a n dl e a p p l ic a t io n s e s s io n s. D u e t o t h e v a r y in g de g r e e s o f w o r k r e q u ir e d t o p r o p e r l y h a n dl e e a c h t y p e o f a p p l ic a t io n f l o w, it is im p o r t a n t t o f u l l y u n de r s t a n d t h e im p a c t t o t h e a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y s r e s o u r c e s w h e n de p l o y in g a p p l ic a t io n s. CI SCO A CE A R CH I TECTU R E O n e o f t h e m a in g o a l s o f a n y a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t is t o p r o v ide a h ig h l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e. Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e is de s ig n e d t o t a k e f u l l a dv a n t a g e o f n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r s t o p r o c e s s f l o w s q u ic k l y a n d e f f ic ie n t l y f o r s im p l e L 3 - L 4 l o a d b a l a n c in g a s w e l l a s a p p l ic a t io n a w a r e ( L 7 ) l o a d b a l a n c in g. C l ie n t f l o w s, o r c o n n e c t io n s, r e q u ir e v a r y in g l e v e l s o f p r o c e s s in g a n d m e m o r y de p e n din g u p o n h o w t h e y a r e h a n dl e d w it h in t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e. Th e t a b l e b e l o w s h o w s t h e l e v e l s o f f l o w p r o c e s s in g a l o n g w it h t h e t y p e o f p r o c e s s in g p e r l e v e l, a n d t h e f e a t u r e s o r f u n c t io n a l it y p r o v ide d a t e a c h l e v e l o f p r o c e s s in g. Th e r e m a in de r o f t h e do c u m e n t e x p l a in s t h e t y p e s o f f l o w p r o c e s s in g in de t a il. T y p t u B f B L B Level of Flow Processing e of Processing Fea re or Fu nct ion Layer 3 and Layer 4 alancing on irst pack et asic oad alancing Applies to T CP / U D P f or L 4 ru les S ou rce I P stick y Applies to all other I P protocols T CP / I P N orm aliz ation 3 S elect serv er or f arm b ased on sou rce I P Layer 7 T C P S p l i c i ng ( U n-p ro x y) T erm inate T CP connection H T T P L 7 ru les on f irst req u est ( U R L L B ) B u f f er req u est, inspect, L B Cook ie stick y ( persistence) Create hard w are shortcu t G eneric T CP payload parsing Layer 7 R e-p ro x y T CP splicing + ab ility to parse su b seq u ent H T T P req u ests w ithin sam e T CP H T T P L 7 ru les w ith H T T P 1. 1 connection k eepaliv e ( persistence reb alance ) Layer 7 F u l l P ro x y F u lly term inate Client T CP connections S S L of f load T CP re-u se H T T P 1. 1 pipelining P rotocol inspections ( F T P, S I P, ) Th e s e 4 dis t in c t l e v e l s o f f l o w p r o c e s s in g a l l o w t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e t o e f f ic ie n t l y u s e it s n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r s t o p r o v ide in du s t r y l e a din g p e r f o r m a n c e in c o n n e c t io n s p e r s e c o n d a n d a p p l ic a t io n t h r o u g h p u t. Tr a dit io n a l l o a d b a l a n c in g ( b a s e d o n t h e de s t in a t io n I P a ddr e s s, w h ic h is k n o w n a s t h e V I P ) is k n o w n a s L a y e r 3 ( L 3 ) l o a d b a l a n c in g, a s it o n l y l o a d b a l a n c e s t r a f f ic f o r c l ie n t s a t t e m p t in g t o r e a c h a n I P a ddr e s s. Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e a l s o s u p p o r t s t h e u s e o f a w il dc a r d V I P ( ), w h ic h m a t c h e s a l l in c o m in g c o n n e c t io n w it h in a V L AN. L a y e r 4 ( L 4 ) l o a d b a l a n c in g is b a s e d o n b o t h a v ir t u a l I P a ddr e s s a n d t h e de s t in a t io n p o r t. Th is t y p e o f l o a d b a l a n c in g is s t il l a v e r y c o m m o n f o r m o f l o a d b a l a n c in g. An e x a m p l e o f L 4 l o a d b a l a n c in g is a c l ie n t s e n din g a n H TTP r e q u e s t t o a v ir t u a l I P a ddr e s s a n d de f in e d p o r t, :8 0. L ik e t h e V I P, a p o r t c a n b e z e r o, h o w e v e r w h e n a L 4 p o r t is de f in e d a s z e r o it is h a n dl e d a s a L 3 m a t c h. L 3 a n d L 4 l o a d b a l a n c in g a r e s im p l e de c is io n s b a s e d o n t h e in f o r m a t io n w it h in t h e f ir s t p a c k e t. O n c e t h e de c is io n is m a de, a c o n n e c t io n I D is c r e a t e d t o a l l o w s u b s e q u e n t p a c k e t s w it h s im il a r I P da t a t o b e s e n t t o t h e s a m e s e r v e r. M a n y a p p l ic a t io n s r e q u ir e a c l ie n t t o u s e t h e s a m e s e r v e r f o r t h e du r a t io n o f t h e a p p l ic a t io n s e s s io n. F o r t h e s e a p p l ic a t io n s s o u r c e I P s t ic k in e s s c a n b e a p p l ie d t o p r o v ide c l ie n t p e r s is t e n c e. S in c e t h is t y p e o f s t ic k in e s s o n l y r e q u ir e s t h e c l ie n t s s o u r c e I P a n d t h e r e a l s e r v e r w h ic h w a s s e l e c t e d, it c a n o p e r a t e a t L a y e r 3, s in c e it o n l y r e q u ir e s I P in f o r m a t io n. W it h in t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e, L a y e r 3 a n d L a y e r 4 is e x t r e m e l y f a s t. 2 D etermine the application serv ice ( load balancing, inspection, application optimization, and so forth) which can be applied to an application session 3 T he ability to v erify T C P and I P options, blocking connections and packets which are not compliant with stand ard T C P / I P specifications or with user-configurable rules. All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 2 of 13

3 M T e c h n i c a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Th e n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r is h a n dl in g t h e c o n n e c t io n o n t h e f ir s t p a c k e t, q u e r y in g t h e l o a d b a l a n c e r p r o c e s s f o r t h e b e s t r e a l s e r v e r t o u s e, a n d t h e n e s t a b l is h in g a h a r dw a r e s h o r t c u t f o r t h is f l o w t o t h e r e a l s e r v e r. Th is v e r y q u ic k p r o c e s s in g a l l o w s t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e t o de l iv e r K C P S a n d t r a n s f e r 1 6 G b p s o f c l ie n t / s e r v e r t r a f f ic. F o r L 3 a n d L 4 p r o c e s s in g t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e c a n s u p p o r t u p t o 4 M c o n c u r r e n t c o n n e c t io n s. Figu re 1. L a y e r 3 a n d L a y e r 4 f l o w p r o c e s s i n g C l i e n t C i s c o A C E M o d u l e Se r v e r TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N : SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK a t c h e s V I P S e l e c t s S e r v e r R e w r it e s L 2 / L 3 / L 4 TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a : SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a : SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 3 of 13

4 W h il e t r a dit io n a l l o a d b a l a n c in g ( L 3 a n d L 4 ) h a s b e e n t h e m o s t c o m m o n, a s a p p l ic a t io n s b e c o m e m o r e e v o l v e d t h e y r e q u ir e a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t s t o l o o k f u r t h e r in t o t h e c l ie n t -s e r v e r c o n n e c t io n s t o m a k e m o r e in t e l l ig e n t de c is io n s. Ap p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t s h a v e c l a im e d a p p l ic a t io n a w a r e n e s s t o v a r y in g l e v e l s b y u s in g t h e t e r m s L a y e r 5 ( L 5 ) L a y e r 7 ( L 7 ). Th e a c t u a l a w a r e n e s s s t il l de p e n ds u p o n t h e a p p l ic a t io n, de s p it e t h e m o r e g l o b a l L 5 -L 7 c l a im. Th e dis t in c t io n m a de b e t w e e n L 5 a n d L 7 is t h a t L 5 is c o n s ide r e d t h e S S L s e s s io n I D p e r s is t e n c e o r H TTP U R L de c is io n m a k in g. U p o n a dv a n c in g in t o L 7, a n a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t m u s t u n de r s t a n d m o r e a b o u t t h e a p p l ic a t io n t o a l l o w t h e p a r s in g o f a c l ie n t r e q u e s t. Th is u n de r s t a n din g is u s e d t o f in d, f o r e x a m p l e, a s p e c if ic f ie l d in a c l ie n t r e q u e s t a n d m a k e a n in t e l l ig e n t de c is io n s u c h a s p e r m it o r de n y t h e r e q u e s t, p ic k t h e b e s t s e r v e r t o r e c e iv e t h e r e q u e s t, r e dir e c t t o a n o t h e r de s t in a t io n, a n d s o f o r t h. Th is de c is io n, b a s e d u p o n t h e f ie l d s e x is t e n c e o r t h e a c t u a l v a l u e it c o n t a in s r e q u ir e s a n a l y s is o f t h e r e q u e s t b e f o r e m a k in g a n y s u c h de c is io n. B y f u l l y a n a l y z in g t h e c o m m u n ic a t io n b e t w e e n a c l ie n t a n d a p p l ic a t io n a t L 7, t h e a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t is a b l e t o p r o v ide a ddit io n a l s e r v ic e s s u c h a s S S L a c c e l e r a t io n, TC P R e u s e, a p p l ic a t io n a c c e l e r a t io n, a p p l ic a t io n s e c u r it y, a n d s o f o r t h. W h e n a n a p p l ic a t io n is c o m p l e t e l y in s p e c t e d a t L 7, t h e m a in dif f e r e n c e b e t w e e n L 3 -L 4 a n d L 5 -L 7 is t h a t t h e L 3 -L 4 c o n n e c t io n s c a n b e t r a n s p a r e n t l y l o a d b a l a n c e d, w h il e t h e L 5 -L 7 c o n n e c t io n s m u s t b e TC P t e r m in a t e d a n d t h e c l ie n t r e q u e s t in s p e c t e d b e f o r e a l o a d b a l a n c in g de c is io n c a n b e m a de. D u e t o t h e a ddit io n a l o v e r h e a d o f TC P t e r m in a t io n, L 5 -L 7 c o n n e c t io n r a t e s ( C P S ) a r e l o w e r t h a n s im p l e L 3 -L 4 l o a d b a l a n c in g. I n a L a y e r 5-7 c a s e, t h e r e a r e t h r e e dif f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p r o c e s s in g. Th e s e a r e t y p ic a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h r e e m f o r h a n dl in g L a y e r 7 p r o c e s s in g. e t h o ds 1 e s p l e s t c a s e w h e r e P t e r m a t e t h e l t a p a r s e a n t h e n t h e P c o n n e c t n s a r e s p l e b a c k t o g e t h e r t h e p r o c e s s g n e t o h a n e m a n y L 7 c n s ; c o o k s t k e s s U R L p a r s g a n g e n e r p r o t o c o l p a r s g w h h a n e w f e a t u r e t r o c e C c o E M o l e r e l e a s e 2 2 e n e x t m e t h o o f p r o c e s s g c a l l e L 7 r e r o x y w h h t h e a b y t o r e r o x y a f l o w o n c e h a s b e e n s p l e t o g e t h e r L 7 r e r o x y u s e f u l f o r a p p l a t n s h o s t g c l n t s t h r o u g h a r e v e r s e r o x y s e r v e r o r a p p l a t n s p l o y e w h t r s o f s e r v e s t h a t m a y r e q u e t h e a p p l a t n l e r p r o c t t o m a k e a p p l a t n c n s f o r e a c h r e q u e s t w h a P c o n n e c t n p e r f e c t e x a m p l e a p p l a t n l e r y o f w e b t r a f f w h e r e m u l t l e H 1 G E r e q u e s t s c a n b e s e n t o v e r a s g l e P c o n n e c t n a l l o w s e a c h r e q u e s t t o b e s e n t t o a f e r e n t g r o u p o f s e r v e r s b a s e o n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e q u e s t 3 e t h m e t h o o f p r o c e s s g L 7 f u l l p r o x y t h l e v e l t h e P c o n n e c t n n e v e r s p l e b a c k t o g e t h e r u s t h e C c o E M o l e p r o c e s s e s e v e r y p a c k e t o f t h e a p p l a t n s e s s n b e t w e e n t h e c l n t a n s e r v e r a s t w o t c t c o n n e c t n s a n h a s t h e a c t n o f b e g a P p r o x y t o b o t h t h e c l n t a n s e r v e r f o r t h e r a t n o f t h e a p p l a t n f l o w L 7 f u l l p r o x y a l l o w s t h e C c o E M o l e t o s u p p o r t P R e u s e H 1 P e l g S S L c e l e r a t n a n a p p l a t n s p e c t n s / n o r m a l a t n s f o r p r o t o c o l s c l u g H F S I P a n S k n y t h o u g h t h e t h r e e L 7 l e v e l s o f p r o c e s s g a r e s a r t h e r e s o u r c e r e q u e m e n t s a s s o c t e w h e a c h m e t h o c a n v a r y s n a n t l y e C c o E M o l e w l a l w a y s p k t h e o p t a l m e t h o b a s e o n t h e r e q u e m e n t s f o r t h e s p e c p r o t o c o l o r a p p l a t n b e g h a n e u s p o r t a n t t o u n r s t a n h o w f l o w s a r e b e g h a n e t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s o f L 7 p r o c e s s g l L 7 p r o c e s s g b e g s w h t h e n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r o f t h e C c o E M o l e c o m g P S Y N s a r e r e c e e t h e C c o E M o l e c r e a t e s a n L 4 a n L 7 c o n n e c t n o b j e c t a n s e n a S Y N / K t o t h e c l n t e c l n t r e t u r n s a n K t o c o m p l e t e t h e P 3 a y h a n h a k e a n s e n t h e l a p p l a t n r e q u e s t e r e q u e s t b u f f e r e t o a l l o w f o r p a r s g s p e c t n a n l o a b a l a n c g w h e r e m a t c h e s o n H S I P R I U S R D P H e a r s o r g e n e r P p a y l o a t a o c c u r t e r e n o u g h t a h a s b e e n r e c e e t o m a k e a c n t h e C c o E M o l e e s t a b l h e s a n e w P c o n n e c t n t o t h e s t a t n U p o n e s t a b l h g t h e s t a t n P c o n n e c t n t h e c l n t s r e q u e s t f o r w a r t o t h e s t a t n s e r v e r O n c e t h e s e r v e r a c k n o w l e e s t h a t a l l o f t h e b u f f e r e c l n t t a h a s b e e n r e c e e t h e C c o E M o l e c r e a t e s a h a r a r e s h o r t c u t a n r e l e a s e s t h e L 7. Th im is TC is in d, in it ia da is d, d TC io ic d. Th is is in do dl de is io ie ic in, in, d ic in ic is in du d in is AC du.0.. Th d in is d -p, ic is il it -p it ic d. -p is ic io in ie -p ic io de d it ie ic ir ic io de iv du ic io de is io it in TC io. A is ic io de iv ic, ip TTP.1 T in TC io. Th is dif d.. Th ir d d in is. At is TC io is ic d. Th is AC du ic io io ie d dis in io d io in TC ie d du io ic io. is AC du TC, TTP.1 ip in in, Ac io, d ic io in io iz io in din TTP, TP,, d in. Al in im il, ir ia d it d ig if ic. Th is AC du il ic im d d ir if ic ic io in dl d. Th, it is im de d in dl d in in. Al in in it in is AC du. As in in TC iv d, is AC du d io d ds AC ie. Th ie AC TC -w ds d ds in it ia ic io. Th is d in, in io, d d in. Th is is TTP,, AD, de, ic TC d da. Af da iv d de is io, is AC du is TC io de in io. is in de in io TC io ie is de d de in io. dg d ie da iv d, is AC du dw d All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 4 of 13

5 M T e c h n i c a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n n e c t n f o r m a t n a l l o w s t h e r e m a r o f t h e f l o w t o b e h a n e v e r y f a s t s c e t h e s a m e h a r a r e s h o r t c u t a s a n L 3 o r L 4 c o n n e c t n p r o c e s s o f s p l g P c o n n e c t n s a l l o w s C c o E M o l e t o f r e e u p t h e L 7 c o n n e c t n o b j e c t u s w h e a c o n n e c t n p r o c e s s e a t L 7 o n e o f t h e K L 7 c o n n e c t n o b j e c t s r e q u e h o w e v e r a s t h e c o n n e c t n s p l e b a c k t o g e t h e r t h e L 7 c o n n e c t n o b j e c t f r e e a n t h e c o n n e c t n o n l y o c c u p s a L 4 c o n n e c t n o b j e c t o f w h h t h e r e a r e 4 M e P s p l g c a n b e s e e n w h a l s n f e r t r a c e s t a k e n o n t h e c l n t a n s e r v e r s o f t h e C c o E M o l e e C c o E M o l e a e r t e s a P w w s e o f w h e p r o x y g a P c o n n e c t n W h e n t h e P c o n n e c t n e s t a b l h b y t h e c l n t t o t h e V I P t h e P c o n n e c t n c o m p l e t e l y t e r m a t e b y t h e C c o E M o l e t o a l l o w t h e c l n t r e q u e s t t o b e b u f f e r e a n p a r s e O n c e a m a t c h m a t h e C c o E M o l e e s t a b l h e s a n e w P c o n n e c t n t o t h e s e l e c t e r e a l s e r v e r I f P R e u s e c o n f u r e t h e C c o E M o l e w l r e u s e a n e x t g P c o n n e c t n a v a a b l e o n e n o t a v a a b l e a n e a n e w P c o n n e c t n w l b e e s t a b l h e u s g a P w w s e o f t e r t h e s e r v e r s P c o n n e c t n e s t a b l h e t h e c l n t s r e q u e s t w l b e f o r w a r t o t h e s e r v e r O n c e a l l o f t h e b u f f e r e t a w h t h e C c o E M o l e h a s b e e n a c k n o w l e e s a f e t o P p l e t h e c l n t a n s e r v e r c o n n e c t n s t o g e t h e r I n t h e s n f e r t r a c e t h n e o n c e t h e s e r v e r s P w w s e s e e n t h e c l n t s t r a c e a n w h e n t h e c l n t P w w s e s e e n o n t h e s e r v e r s s F r o m t h p o t o n t h e c l n t w l c o m m u n a t e t o t h e s e r v e r v t h e h a r a r e s h o r t c u t w h t h e C c o E M o l e L 7 t h e C c o E M o l e m u s t r e m a t h e p a t h o f c l n t a n s e r v e r c o m m u n a t n t o a l l o w t h e h a r a r e s h o r t c u t t o p r o p e r l y m o y t h e s e q u e n c e a n a c k n o w l e e m e n t s f o r t h e r e m a r o f t h e c l n t s s e s s n e r e q u e m e n t n o t s p e c t o t h e C c o E M o l e a r e q u e m e n t f o r a n y a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t w h h t e r m a t e s P c o n n e c t n s ( r e g a r e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e y t h e n s p l e t h e f l o w s o r c o n t u e b e g a f u l l p r o x y a l l o f t h e t e ) b e c a u s e e a c h s o f t h e a p p l a t n l e r y v e h a s a n e s t a b l h e P c o n n e c t n t h o u g h t h e s e q u e n c e n u m b e r s t h e a c k n o w l e e m e n t n u m b e r s a n p o s s l y t h e p o r t n u m b e r s c a n b e a u s t e q u k l y b y a n a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t t h e r e n o w a y t o m o y t h e c l n t a n s e r v e r c o n n e c t n t o r e m o v e t h e n e e f o r t h e s e a u s t m e n t s u s a n y P c o n n e c t n s t e r m a t e a n s p e c t e a t L 7 m u s t c o n t u e t o t r a v e r s e t h e a p p l a t n l e r p r o c t f o r t h e l e t e o f t h e P c o n n e c t n I n F u r e 2 b e l o w t h e L 7 P s p l g c a n b e c l e a r l y s e e n b y t h e a c t n o f t h e C c o E M o l e w h h a t e b y b a c k g r o u n o f l h t b l u e e P s p l g o c c u r s w h e n t h e C c o E M o l e t a k e s t h e a c t n o f c r e a t g a h a r a r e s h o r t c u t w h h l a b e l e w h a g r a y b a c k g r o u n t h e p o t w h e r e t h e c o n n e c t n s p l e t o g e t h e r t h e C c o E M o l e s P w w s e o f c a n n o l o n g e r b e s e e n t h e t r a c e s a n t h e c l n t s a n s e r v e r s w w s e a r e t r a n s p a r e n t l y p a s s e t h r o u g h t h e C c o E M o l e e c h a n g e f l v a l u e s n o t e b l u e t o a r e a g t h e p a c k e t f l o w io in io. Th is in de dl d, in it is in dw io. Th is ic in TC io is AC du io. Th il io is d io is ir d, io is ic d io is d, d io ie io, ic. Th TC ic in it in du if ie d ide is AC du. Th is AC du dv is TC in do iz il in TC io. TC io is is ie, TC io is in d is AC du ie d d d. is de is AC du is TC io d. TC is ig d is AC du il is in TC io if il, if is il d idl, TC io il is d in TC in do iz. Af ide TC io is is d, ie il de d. d da it in is AC du dg d it is TC -S ic ie d io. if is is do TC in do iz is in ie ide, d ie TC in do iz is ide. is in ie il ic ia dw it in is AC du. At is AC du in in ie d ic io dw dif d dg in de ie io. Th ir is if ic is AC du, it is ir ic io de iv du ic in TC io dl ic in in im. Th is is ide ic io de iv de ic is d TC io. Al, dg, d ib dj d ic ic io de iv du, is dif ie d io d dj. Th TC io in d d in d, in ic io de iv du if im TC io. ig, TC ic in io is AC du, ic is in dic d d ig. Th TC ic in is AC du io in dw, ic is d it d. At in io is ic d is AC du TC in do iz in, d ie d in do iz d is AC du. Th in ie d is de d in ide in din. Figu re 2. L a y e r 7 ( T C P Sp l i c i n g ) f l o w p r o c e s s i n g C l i e n t C i s c o A C E M o d u l e Se r v e r TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK a t c h e s V I P TC P Te r m in a t e d R e s p o n d w it h a S Y N / AC K All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 5 of 13

6 C l i e n t C i s c o A C E M o d u l e Se r v e r T C P SE Q A CK Aw a it in g D a t a TCP D a t a SE Q A C K B u f f e r a n d P a r s e D a t a TCP SE Q A CK C l ie n t R e q u e s t R e c e iv e d E s t a b l is h N e w TC P C o n n R e c e iv e S Y N / AC K R e s p o n d w it h AC K S e n d C l ie n t R e q u e s t R e q u e s t R e c e iv e d TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K R e c e iv e R e s p o n s e C r e a t e H W AC K f r o m C l ie n t TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 6 of 13

7 C l i e n t C i s c o A C E M o d u l e Se r v e r TCP D a t a SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK P r io r t o H TTP 1.1, TC P S p l ic in g w a s s u f f ic ie n t t o e f f e c t iv e l y l o a d b a l a n c e a p p l ic a t io n s u s in g L 7 in s p e c t io n s. O n c e H TTP 1.1 b e c a m e w ide l y de p l o y e d o n b o t h c l ie n t s a n d s e r v e r s, a p p l ic a t io n s b e g a n t o r e q u ir e l o a d b a l a n c in g p e r H TTP R e q u e s t, w h ic h c o u l d b e s e n t o v e r a n e s t a b l is h e d TC P c o n n e c t io n. Th is f u n c t io n a l it y a l l o w s e a c h c l ie n t r e q u e s t t o b e dis t r ib u t e d t o t h e a p p l ic a t io n t ie r a n d r e a l s e r v e r w h ic h c a n b e s t r e s p o n d t o t h e c l ie n t r e q u e s t. To da y t h e r e is a c o m m o n r e q u ir e m e n t f o r a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t s t o m a k e L 7 de c is io n s b a s e d o n e a c h c l ie n t r e q u e s t, w it h m in im a l im p a c t t o a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p e r f o r m a n c e. Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e u s e s a TC P r e -p r o x y m e t h o d k n o w n a s p e r s is t e n c e -r e b a l a n c e t o m e e t t h e s e r e q u ir e m e n t s. Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e u s e s t h e s e r v e r in f o r m a t io n t o de t e r m in e w h e n t o r e -p r o x y t h e TC P c o n n e c t io n a f t e r a h a r dw a r e s h o r t c u t is e s t a b l is h e d. B y c a l c u l a t in g t h e TC P s e q u e n c e n u m b e r t o de t e r m in e w h e n t h e s e r v e r w il l h a v e s e n t t h e l a s t b y t e o f da t a, t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e c a n de t e c t w h e n t o r e -p r o x y t h e TC P c o n n e c t io n t o r e c e iv e t h e n e x t c l ie n t r e q u e s t. W h e n c h u n k e d e n c o din g is u s e d b y t h e s e r v e r, t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e c o n t in u e s t o p r o x y t h e c o n n e c t io n u n t il t h e l a s t c h u n k o f da t a b e g in s f r o m t h e s e r v e r. Th e p r o c e s s o f TC P r e -p r o x in g a l l o w s t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e t o m o r e e f f ic ie n t l y u s e it s n e t w o r k p r o c e s s t o k e e p p e r f o r m a n c e v e r y h ig h, in e n v ir o n m e n t s w h e r e e a c h c l ie n t r e q u e s t m u s t b e in s p e c t e d. B e l o w in F ig u r e 3, t h e L 7 TC P r e -p r o x y p r o c e s s is in dic a t e d b y t h e a c t io n o f t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e, w h ic h is de n o t e d in w it h a b a c k g r o u n d o f l ig h t b l u e a n d g r a y. N o t ic e t h e c l ie n t r e q u e s t a n d t h e f ir s t p a c k e t o f t h e s e r v e r r e s p o n s e is r e s p o n de d t o b y t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e u s in g a TC P w in do w s iz e o f Af t e r e a c h r e q u e s t t h e TC P c o n n e c t io n is u n p r o x ie d a t w h ic h p o in t t h e TC P w in do w s iz e o f c a n n o l o n g e r b e s e e n in t h e t r a c e s, a n d t h e c l ie n t s a n d s e r v e r s w in do w s iz e a r e t r a n s p a r e n t l y p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e. All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 7 of 13

8 M T e c h n i c a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Figu re 3. L a y e r 7 T C P R e -p r o x y f l o w p r o c e s s i n g C l i e n t C i s c o A C E M o d u l e Se r v e r TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK T C P SE Q A CK a t c h e s V I P TC P Te r m in a t e d R e s p o n d w it h a S Y N / AC K Aw a it D a t a TCP D a t a SE Q A C K B u f f e r a n d P a r s e D a t a TCP SE Q A CK C l ie n t R e q u e s t R e c e iv e d E s t a b l is h N e w TC P C o n n R e c e iv e S Y N / AC K R e s p o n d w it h AC K S e n d C l ie n t R e q u e s t R e q u e s t R e c e iv e d TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 8 of 13

9 M T e c h n i c a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n TCP D a t a SE Q A C K R e c e iv e R e s p o n s e C r e a t e H W TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K AC K f r o m C l ie n t R e -P r o x y o n S E Q B u f f e r a n d P a r s e TCP SE Q A CK C l ie n t R e q u e s t a t c h e d n e w S e r v e r f a r m Te a r D o w n p r e v io u s TC P E s t a b l is h N e w TC P C o n n R e c e iv e S Y N / AC K R e s p o n d w it h AC K S e n d C l ie n t R e q u e s t R e q u e s t R e c e iv e d TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP R ST SE Q A C K TCP SY N SE Q TCP SY N SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK R e c e iv e R e s p o n s e C r e a t e H W AC K f r o m C l ie n t TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 9 of 13

10 M T e c h n i c a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e is a l s o c a p a b l e o f p r o v idin g L 7 F u l l P r o x y t o p r o v ide a ddit io n a l s e r v ic e s s u c h a s : H TTP 1.1 P ip e l in in g, w h ic h a l l o w s t h e c l ie n t t o s e n d m u l t ip l e H TTP r e q u e s t b e f o r e r e c e iv in g a r e s p o n s e TC P R e u s e t o o f f l o a d TC P t e r m in a t io n f r o m a p p l ic a t io n s e r v e r s S S L c e l e r a t n w h h o f f l o a a p p l a t n s e r v e r a n a l l o w s t h e C c o E M o l e t o s p e c t c r y p t e S S L t r a f f Ac io, ic ds ic io d is AC du in de d ic Ap p l ic a t io n s e c u r it y w h e r e t h e a p p l ic a t io n de l iv e r y p r o du c t in s p e c t s t h e a p p l ic a t io n p r o t o c o l f o r m is u s e, p r o p e r f o r m a t t in g, a n d t u n n e l in g p r e v e n t io n Th e b e n e f it o f f u l l y p r o x in g a TC P c o n n e c t io n a t L 7 is t h a t it a l l o w s t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e t o in s p e c t a l l o f t h e c o m m u n ic a t io n s b e t w e e n t h e c l ie n t a n d s e r v e r, w h ic h e n a b l e s t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e t o p r o v ide t h e f e a t u r e s r e q u ir e d in t o da y s a p p l ic a t io n a n d da t a c e n t e r s o l u t io n. B y t e r m in a t in g t h e c l ie n t s ide c o n n e c t io n t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e c a n f u l l y s u p p o r t t h e u s e o f H TTP 1.1 P ip e l in in g w h ic h a l l o w s t h e c l ie n t t o s e n d m r e s p o n s e. D u e t o t h e n a t u r e o f p r o x ie d c o n n e c t io n s, t h e C is c o AC E M it is s e n t a n d p r o p e r l y dis t r ib u t e it t o t h e c o r r e c t a p p l ic a t io n t ie r a n d r e a l s e r v e r. W u l t ip l e H TTP r e q u e s t s b e f o r e r e c e iv in g a o du l e is a b l e t o a n a l y z e e a c h c l ie n t r e q u e s t a s h e n t h e TC P R e u s e f e a t u r e is e n a b l e d t h e AC E m o du l e c a n o p e n TC P c o n n e c t io n s t o t h e s e r v e r a n d p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m b e in g t o r n do w n, t h u s f u t u r e c l ie n t r e q u e s t s c a n b e h a n dl e d o v e r t h e s e e x is t in g TC P c o n n e c t io n s, s ig n if ic a n t l y r e du c in g t h e o v e r h e a d o f t h e a p p l ic a t io n s e r v e r s o p e r a t in g s y s t e m r e q u ir e d f o r o p e n in g a n d c l o s in g TC P c o n n e c t io n s. Th e C is c o AC E M o du l e c a n p r o v ide t h e s a m e l e v e l o f f e a t u r e s u p p o r t a n d f u n c t io n a l it y f o r c l ie n t a n d s e r v e r c o m m u n ic a t io n s s e c u r e d b y S S L o r TL S. W h e n c o n f ig u r e d f o r S S L a c c e l e r a t io n t h e s e c u r e d da t a is de c r y p t e d w it h in t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e s n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r a l l o w in g t h e de c r y p t e d t r a f f ic t o b e in s p e c t e d a n d p a r s e d t o p r o v ide c o m p l e t e L 7 in s p e c t io n s u p p o r t. Th e de c r y p t e d t r a f f ic c a n t h e n b e s e n t t o t h e a p p l ic a t io n s e r v e r s dir e c t l y, r e du c in g t h e o v e r h e a d o f S S L t e r m s e r v e r, o r t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e c a n r e -e n c r y p t t h e t r a f f ic t o p r o v ide a s e c u r e e n d t o e n d s o l u t io n. in a t io n o n t h e I n F ig u r e 4, t h e L 7 f u l l p r o x y p r o c e s s in g is il l u s t r a t e d. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v io u s L 7 p r o c e s s e s, a f u l l y p r o x ie d c o n n e c t io n w il l n e v e r h a v e a h a r dw a r e s h o r t c u t c r e a t e d a s t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e m u s t p a r s e e v e r y b y t e o f da t a e x c h a n g e d b e t w e e n t h e c l ie n t a n d s e r v e r. B e l o w o n e c a n s e e t h e c l ie n t a n d s e r v e r a l w a y s c o m m u n ic a t e w it h t h e C is c o AC E M o du l e u s in g a TC P w in do w s iz e o f Figu re 4. L a y e r 7 F u l l P r o x y f l o w p r o c e s s i n g C i s c o A C E M o d u l e C l i e n t Se r v e r TCP SY N SE Q a t c h e s V I P TC P Te r m in a t e d TCP SY N SE Q A CK T C P SE Q A CK R e spond w ith a S Y N / AC K Aw ait D ata All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 10 of 13

11 TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK B u f f e r and P ar se D ata C lie nt R e q u e st R e ce iv e d E stab lish N e w T C P C onn TCP SY N SE Q R e ce iv e S Y N / AC K R e spond w ith AC K S e nd C lie nt R e q u e st R e q u e st R e ce iv e d TCP SY N SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP D a t a SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK R e ce iv e d R e sponse C lie nt R e ce iv e d R e sponse S e cond R e q u e st S e cond R e sponse C lie nt R e ce iv e d R e sponse TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP SE Q A CK TCP D a t a SE Q A C K TCP D a t a SE Q A CK TCP SE Q A CK All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 11 of 13

12 U D e l e r g a p p l a t n s a n c o n t e n t t o y s m a n g D a t a e n t e r s o r w e b p o r t a l s r e q u e a c o m p l e t e s e t o f c o n f u r a b l e f e a t u r e s a n b e h a v r s b a s e o n p r o t o c o l s a n s p e c a p p l a t n e n v o n m e n t s M o r n a p p l a t n l e r y p r o c t s h a v e e v o l v e t o s u p p o r t s o p h t a t e f e a t u r e s w h t h e r k o f r e c g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a s t h e c o m p l e x y o f t h e r e q u e f u n c t n a l s c r e a s e s a v o s u c h p e r f o r m a n c e g r a t n s t h e C c o E h a s b e e n s n e t o a p t s s e s s n p r o c e s s g m e c h a n m s ( p l e m e n t e h h p e e n e t w o r k p r o c e s s o r s ) t o e v e r y c c u m s t a n c e b a s e o n u s e r o n f u r a b l e f e a t u r e s a n p a r a m e t e r s a l l o w s t h e C c o E t o s e l e c t t h e m o s t e f f n t p r o c e s s g m e t h o f o r e a c h n e w c o n n e c t n e C c o E f u l l y s u p p o r t s t h e m o r e f l e x l e f u l l r o x y m o t r e a t g c l n t a n s e r v e r c o n n e c t n s p e n n t l y t h u s s u p p o r t g a a n c e f e a t u r e s l e P r e s e H 1 p e l g o r S S L o f f l o a b u t a t t h e s a m e t e c a p a b l e o f o p t g s r e s o u r c e u t a t n a l w a y s u s g t h e f a s t e s t p o s s l e s e s s n p r o c e s s g m e t h o f o r e a c h n e w c o n n e c t n e a b y t o a p t a p p l a t n s e s s n p r o c e s s g m e c h a n m s b a s e o n t h e f e a t u r e r e q u e m e n t s o n a p e r c o n n e c t n b a s h e l p s m a k e C c o E M o l e t h e a l p r o c t f o r a p p l a t n l e r y r e q u e m e n t s CON CL SI ON iv in ic io d in da de din -C ir ig d io, d d if ic ic io ir. de ic io de iv du d is ic d, it is du in ir, it ir d io it ie in. To id de da io, is AC de ig d da it io in is im d in ig -s d ir, d -c ig d. Th is is AC ic ie in d io. Th is AC ib -p de, in ie d io in de de, in dv d ik TC -u, TTP.1 ip in in d, im it is im iz in it il iz io, in ib io in d io. Th il it da ic io io in is d ir - io is is AC du ide du ic io de iv ir. All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 12 of 13

13 P r i n t e d i n U S A C /06 All contents are Copyright Cisco S ystem s, I nc. All rights reserv ed. T his d ocu m ent is Cisco P u b lic I nf orm ation. P age 13 of 13

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