FÖS Seite 2. Energy subsidies and regulation with subsidy character in Germany , favouring electricity production

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1 G R E E N B U D G E T G E R M A N Y FORUM ÖKOLOGISCH-SOZIALE MARKTWIRTSCHAFT FÖS-RESEARCH ON ENERGY SUBSIDIES IN GERMANY June 2011 Energy subsidies and regulation with subsidy character in Germany bn. Euro 288 bn state aid value of decommissioning funds regulation value of feed in tariffs for renewables benefits of emissions trading bn other tax exemptions energy / electricity tax bn 39 bn sonst. Finanzhilfen 0 Hard Coal Lignite Nuclear Renewables Forschung und Entwicklung Total Funding Funding 2010 in bn in bn (real, 2010 (real, 2010 Nuclear A. Financial Aid 74,1 1,3 B. Tax Benefits 44,1 1,6 C1. Emissions Trading 9,6 1,4 C2. Decommissioning Regulation 68,2 1,8 Nuclear total 196,0 6,1 Hard Coal A. Financial Aid 185,2 2,2 B. Tax Benefits 92,8 2,2 C1. Emissions Trading 10,1 1,5 Hard Coal total 288,0 6,0 Lignite A. Financial Aid 0,1 0,01 B. Tax Benefits 55,6 1,7 C1. Emissions Trading 11,2 1,3 Lignite total 66,9 3,1 Renewables A. Financial Aid 11,5 1,1 B. Tax Benefits -1,4-0,3 C1. Emissions Trading 5,3 1,0 C2.-C5. Renewable Energy Law 23,8 5,6 Renewables total 39,2 7,5 GREEN BUDGET GERMANY (GBG) FORUM ÖKOLOGISCH-SOZIALE MARKTWIRTSCHAFT e.v. Schwedenstraße 15a D Berlin Fon/Fax /-59 GLS Gemeinschaftsbank eg Konto BLZ IBAN DE Gemeinnützig zur Förderung wissenschaftlicher Zwecke laut Finanzamt München für Körperschaften

2 FÖS Seite 2 Energy subsidies and regulation with subsidy character in Germany , favouring electricity production 200 bn Euro cumulative 186 bn. Euro Nuclear Hard Coal Lignite Renewables 165 bn. Euro 57 bn. Euro 0 28 bn. Euro Evolution of energy subsidies and regulation with subsidy character , favouring electricity production in relation to quantity of electricity Ct EUR / kwh Hard Coal Lignite Nuclear Renewables

3 FÖS Seite 3 Societal costs of electricity in 2010: market value of electricity, state aid and not internalised external costs Ct EUR/ kwh 48 46, not internalised external costs state aid with budget effects (sum A+B) ,8 12,1 12,1 7,6 6,5 1. sale value of electricity (electricty stock exchange / renewable energy tariffs) societal costs of electricity 0-4 Nuclear Hard Coal Lignite Wind (onshore) Water PV Methodology Subsidies with budget effect (A) financial (B) tax benefits transfers / exemptions Examples from the energy sector -Direct financial -Tax allowances in transfers, e.g. coal energy taxation sector -Exemption from -Grants to stimulate royalties investment -R&D expenditure -Ecological restoration of coal mines Narrowly defined subsidies Subsidies without budget effect (D) external (C) regulation costs with subsidy effects -emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants -noise, radiation -use of space / eco-systems Broadly defined subsidies -Benefits of emissions trading -Incomplete competition in electricity markets -Feed-in tariffs (German EEG ) -Nuclear energy: decommissioning funds regulation

4 FÖS Seite 4 PUBLISHED FÖS-REPORTS Bettina Meyer, Swantje Küchler (2011): Was Strom wirklich kostet Vergleich von staatlichen Förderungen und gesamtgesellschaftlichen Kosten von Atom, Kohle und erneuerbaren Energien. The real price of electricity Comparison of Societal Costs and State Aid for Nuclear Energy, Coal and Renewable Energy, FÖS-report commissioned by Greenpeace Energy Download (German only): (long version) (short version) Bettina Meyer, Swantje Küchler (2010): Staatliche Förderungen der Atomenergie im Zeitraum State Aid for Nuclear Energy , Update of FÖS-report 2009 commissioned by Greenpeace Download (German only): _ pdf Bettina Meyer, Swantje Küchler and Oliver Hölzinger (2010): Staatliche Förderungen der Steinund Braunkohle im Zeitraum State Aid for Coal and Lignite , FÖS-report commissioned by Greenpeace Download (German only): Bettina Meyer, Sebastian Schmidt, Volker Eidems (2009): Staatliche Förderungen der Atomenergie im Zeitraum State Aid for Nuclear Energy , FÖS-report 2009 commissioned by Greenpeace Download: German Endbericht-3%20li.pdf English %20Energy.pdf Bettina Meyer (2006): Subventionen und Regelungen mit Subventionsähnlichen Regelungen im Energiebereich Zusammenfassung und Thesen. Energy subsidies and regulation with subsidy character in Germany. FÖS Discussion Paper Download (German with English summary): ThesenSubventionenV2.pdf

5 FÖS Seite 5 FUBNDING FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY all specifications in billions of Euro Funding proportion favouring electricity production A. Financial Aid 48,8 > 74,1 > 40,2 > 64,2 A.1. research (Germany) 26,6 47,6 26,6 47,6 A.2. federal state contributions 5,0 5,3 5,0 5,3 A.3. guaranteed loans 0,1 > 0,1 * 0,1 0,1 A.4. Euratom + Phare (German share) 2,3 2,9 2,3 2,9 A.5. closure of east German nuclear power 3,0 > 3,1 * 0 0 A.6. Wismut decontamination 5,4 6,5 0 0 A.7. Morsleben 0,8 0,9 0,5 0,6 A.8. Asse 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 A.9. repository site search 0 0 *** 0 0 A.10. Chernobyl 0,4 0,5 0,4 0,5 A.11. contributions for international organizations 4,8 6,7 4,8 6,7 B. Tax Benefits 37,9 44,1 37,9 44,1 B.1 net energy tax benefits 37,9 44,1 37,9 44,1 C. Provisions without Budget Effect 63,5 77,8 63,5 77,8 C.1. increase in price of electricity through emissions trading 9,2 9,6 9,2 9,6 C.2. state aid value of decommissioning funds regulation 54,2 68,2 54,2 68,2 A. +B. Sum 1: Budgetary Funding 86,7 118,3 78,0 108,3 average in cents per kwh 1,7 2,4 ** 1,7 2,4 A.+B.+ C. Sum 2: Budgetary Funding + benefits of emissions trading 150,2 196,0 141,5 186,1 + decommissioning regulation average in cents per kwh 3,1 4,1 ** 3,1 4,1 * Inflation adjustment not possible because the sources used only display cumulative value, not values for individual years ** Financial aids for the former use of nuclear energy in East Germany are not included in the calculation of specific funding in cents per kwh (concerns A.5, A.6, partly A.7), since East German electricty production from nuclear energy is not insluded either *** included in expenditures for research

6 FÖS Seite 6 FUNDING FOR HARD COAL all specifications in billions of Euro Funding proportion favouring electricity production (57%) A. Financial Aid 132,3 185,2 75,6 105,7 A.1. reseacrh: mining engineering and power plants 3,5 6,1 2,0 3,5 A.2. research and pilot projects CCS Germany total * 0,155 0,160 thereof hard coal (72%) 0,060 0,115 0,034 0,066 A.3. research and pilot projects CCS EU* 0,113 0,117 thereof hard coal (72%); thereof Germany (20%) 0,081 0,084 0,05 0,05 A.4. sales aids 110,8 148,9 63,3 85,0 A.5. structural aids 5,8 11,6 3,3 7 A.6. social aids 8,6 12,1 4,9 6,9 A.7. decommissioning aids 3,5 6,3 2,0 4 B. Tax Benefits 68,5 92,8 39,1 53,0 B.1. net energy tax benefits 54,3 68,6 31,0 39,2 B.2. exemption mining royalties 10,3 16,6 5,9 9,5 B.3. exemption water royalties (since 1995) 0,07 0,08 0,0 0,0 B.4. sales aids 0,4 1,2 0,2 0,7 B.5. structural aids 0,7 1,7 0,4 1,0 B.6. social aids 2,7 4,6 1,5 2,6 C. Provisions without Budget Effect 9,7 10,1 5,6 5,8 C.1. emissions trading (free allocation of EUAs) 9,7 10,1 5,6 5,8 A.+B. Sum 1: Budgetary Funding 200,8 277,9 114,7 158,7 average in cents per kwh** 0,83 1,14 2,2 3,1 A.+B. + C.1. Sum 2: Budgetary Funding + Benefits of Emissions Trading 210,6 288,0 120,2 164,5 average in cents per kwh** 0,87 1,18 2,3 3,2 * not included in full amount of financial aid, for information only ** state aid for electricity production: rated with gross electricty generation, total funding : rated with primary energy consumption of hard coal

7 FÖS Seite 7 FUNDING FOR LIGNITE all specifications in billions of Euro Funding proportion favouring electricity production (85%) A. Financial Aid 0,06 0,07 0,05 0,06 A.1. research and development 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 A.2. research and pilot projects CCS Germany total * 0,155 0,160 thereof hard coal (18%) 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,02 A.3. research and pilot projects CCS EU* 0,113 0,117 thereof hard coal (18%); thereof Germany (20%) 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02 B. Tax Benefits 45,3 55,6 38,4 47,2 B.1. net energy tax benefits 40,4 49,5 34,3 42,0 B.2. exemption mining royalties 4,2 5,4 3,5 4,6 B.3. exemption water royalties (since 1995) 0,66 0,75 0,6 0,6 C. Provisions without Budget Effect 10,7 11,2 9,1 9,5 C.1. emissions trading (free allocation of EUAs) 10,7 11,2 9,1 9,5 E. Other Funding* 9,1 10,8 > 7,7 > 9,1 E.1. environmental burdens / decontamination of mining areas 9,1 10,8 7,7 9,1 E.2. resettlement and infrastructural measures > 0,013 > 0,016 > 0,011 > 0,013 A.+B. Sum 1: Budgetary Funding 45,3 55,7 38,5 47,2 average in cents per kwh** 0,28 0,35 0,8 1,0 A.+B. + C.1. Sum 2: Budgetary Funding + Benefits of Emissions Trading 56,1 66,9 47,6 56,7 average in cents per kwh** 0,35 0,42 1,0 1,2 * not included in full amount of financial aid, for information only ** state aid for electricity production: rated with gross electricty generation, total funding : rated with primary energy consumption of lignite

8 FÖS Seite 8 FUNDING FOR RENEWABLES all specifications in billions of Euro Funding (electricity and heat production) proportion favouring electricity production A. Financial Aid 9,9 11,5 4,8 5,8 A.1. research and development 2,7 3,6 1,9 2,5 A.2. support programs German federations and federal states 5,8 6,5 2,6 2,9 A.3 EU-programs 1,4 1,5 0,3 0,3 A.4 contributions for international organizations 0,008 0,008 0,004 0,004 B. Tax Benefits 0,3-1,4-4,2-6,6 B.1. net energy tax benefits 0,3-1,4-4,2-6,6 C. Provisions without Budget Effect 27,7 29,1 27,7 29,1 C.1. increase in price of electricity through emissions trading 5,1 5,3 5,1 5,3 C.2. renewable energy law / feed in tariffs 38,0 40,1 38,0 40,1 C.3 compensation for shutdown of renewable facilities C.4. balance energy 1,6 1,6 1,6 1,6 C.5. merit order effect -17,0-17,9-17,0-17,9 A.+B. Sum 1: Budgetary Funding 10,1 10,1 0,6-0,8 average in cents per kwh** 0,3 0,3 0,0-0,1 A.+B.+C. Sum 2: Budgetary Funding + Renewable Energy Law 37,9 39,2 28,4 28,3 + Benefits of Emissions Trading average in cents per kwh** 1,1 1,2 2,2 2,2 * not included in full amount of financial aid, for information only ** state aid for electricity production: rated with gross electricty generation, total funding : rated with usage of renewables for heat and electricity production for further information, please contact Swantje Küchler (research associate) Phone: +49(0)

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