Photovoltaics as a Future Sustainable Energy Option. in Egypt. January 2013

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1 Photovoltaics as a Future Sustainable Energy Option in Egypt January

2 Ancient Egypt... 3,000 years B.C., Egyptians believed in the sun as a god of Light Warmth Energy In short: Life itself 2

3 Twentieth Century... I'd put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that. (Thomas Alva Edison, 1931) 3

4 Today Engcotec Engco Advanced Technology GmbH was founded in 1987 in Stuttgart. Our office is located in the heart of the city. One of the first solar generators was installed on the roof to demonstrate our connection with solar energy and to supply about half of the amount of electricity our office needs! 4

5 Engcotec GmbH worldwide projects Canada USA El Salvador Mauritania Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Egypt Niger Nigeria South Afrika Kenia Turkey Lebanon Pakistan India Thailand Taiwan Sri Lanka United Arab Emirates Kuwait Saudi Arabia Iraq Finland Great Britain Netherlands Belgium Germany Austria Switzerland France Italy Greece Croatia Romania Spain Cyprus 5

6 Egyptian Energy Consumption ~ 112 TWh ~ 120 TWh ~ 128 TWh ~180 TWh 6

7 The Global Solar Potential The total amount of energy radiated from the sun to the earth s surface is enough to provide for annual global energy consumption times over!! - To convert solar irradiation to electricity, we need photovoltaic technology. - PhotoVoltaic = Light into electricity 7

8 The Advantages of Solar Energy 1. Can be installed quickly anywhere in the world 2. No noise, no emissions, no pollution 3. Excess energy can be stored in batteries 4. Minimal maintenance work required 5. Very long working life 8

9 The Advantages of Solar Energy EU. has set a preliminary target of producing 20% of its energy consumption from Renewable Energy by 2020 By 2050, more than 80% of the electricity produced in EU. will come from Renewable Energy Sources 9

10 Solar Energy offers huge advantages Geothermal energy Wind Water Biomass Solar Advantages Disadvantages Constantly available (irrespective of sun and wind) Little change in landscape Low space requirement Cannot be used everywhere High cost Risk of earthquakes Low operating & maintenance costs No follow-on costs Wind needed Noise High investment Large installations (change in nature) Simple technology High efficiency High investment costs Submersion of biotopes and useful space Disturbation of the biological balance Constantly available Recycling In poor countries: Displacement of resource production of local life (biomass production) Increased output of nitrous oxide (fertilisation and combustion of biomass) No pollution Surplus electricity can be stored Low maintenance and operating costs Easily to be integrated into the environment Long lifetime of systems In some cases, still low efficiency 10

11 Electricity Generating Cost Electricity generating cost [ ct/kwh] Fossil (coal, gas) Nuclear Wind (onshore / offshore) 6.1 / 8 5 / / 8 4 / / 8 Solar thermal 8 / PV solar (south / north) ref: EURELECTRIC and W. Hoffmann personal estimates 10 / 14 5 / 7 3 / 6 = forecast by Engcotec 11

12 PV Technology - Main Production 1. Silicon Technology - mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline (multi) 2. Thin Film Technology 3. Concentrating Solar Power 12

13 1. Mono- and Polycrystalline Silicon Technology Refining Silicon Ingots Wafer Solar Cells Module System 13

14 Thin Film and Cell Technology One Line Production 14 14

15 PV Market Main Sectors 1. Consumer Applications 2. Developing Countries % % % % % % % % 3. Stand-Alone Systems 4. Grid-Connected Systems % % % % % % % % 15

16 Why does the EU Model influences the Global Market to boom? 16

17 Feed-in Tariffs for Success Guarantee of Return on Investment high profitability of about 7 8% Output-based revenues on kwh installed Fixed tariffs for at least 20 years create the necessary security for investors No bureaucracy 17

18 Successful Story: German Feed-in-Tariff How does the German feed-in law (EEG) work? Principles Every PV system has to be connected to the grid Every solar kwh has to be bought by the energy provider for 20 years 18

19 Development of the German PV market Under the influence of feed-in tariffs PV Market Data Newly installed power : 7091 MWp 2- Total installed power : MWp 3- Newly installed systems : Total of system installed : Turnover till August 2012 : 19 Mrd. 6- Employees :

20 Spain- total installed capacity Spain 20

21 Comparison of Solar Irradiation Germany Spain Egypt Solar irradiation (kwh/m²/year) 900-1, Sunny days per year Daily sunshine hours Possible PV-generated electricity (kwh/y)* * depending on the project's location 21

22 Gigawatts Future of the Solar Electricity Market Year PV System Capacity 12 GWp 207 GWp 683 GWp Year 22

23 The Desert Energy The biggest energy resource Available on earth The World s Deserts 23

24 The World s Largest Deserts (excluding Ice Deserts) Rank Desert Area (km²) 1 Sahara (Africa) thereof: North African / Mediterranean 9,100,000 1,000,000 2 Arabian Desert (Middle East) 2,330,000 3 Gobi Desert (Asia) 1,300,000 4 Kalahari Desert (Africa) 900,000 5 Patagonian Desert (South America) 670,000 6 Great Victoria Desert (Australia) 647,000 7 Syrian Desert (Middle East) 520,000 8 Great Basin Desert (North America) 492,000 24

25 The World s Largest Deserts - VISION The North African Sahara 1 km 2 of desert = 60 MW 6000 km 2 of desert = 360,000 MW (equivalent to the full oil production of the Middle East = 9 bio. barrels/year) The total desert area is about 1,000,000km 2 10% - that means from only 100,000km 2 - can be generated 600 GW of ENERGY (approx. 80% of total European demand) 25

26 The Egyptian desert The Egyptian Desert 1 km 2 60 MW

27 Intelligent Management System Technology PV-Diesel Hybrid System saves cost. PV generator Inverters Diesel generator End consumer area Hybrid Energy Management (Fuel saving controller)

28 Engcotec GmbH Large-scale projects 28

29 Projects Lehrter Bahnhof (Main Railway Station), Berlin The 189 kw installation consists of 780 custom-made modules 29

30 Projects New German Chancellory, Berlin 1,200 m 2 PV installation on one of the biggest government buildings 30

31 Projects Reichstag Building, Berlin Symbol of combining history and innovation 31

32 Projects Mercedes-Benz Factory of the Future 350 MWh of electricity per year 1997 the biggest building-integrated PV installation in Europe 32

33 Projects Wastewater treatment plant, Mannheim The PV installation protects the wastewater treatment basin from the sun 33

34 Projects Kobern-Gondorf Oldest large-scale PV project in Germany and biggest PV plant in Europe,

35 Projects Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) Façade-integrated PV installation 35

36 Mojave Desert California, USA (354 MWp) 36

37 Seville, Spain (150 MWp) 37

38 Granada, Spain (150 MWp) 38

39 Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Spain (100 MWp) 39

40 Moura, Portugal (46 MWp) 40

41 Brandis, Germany (40 MWp) 41

42 Roofs in Görlitz, Germany 42

43 Thank You Very Much 43

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