State of the art of solid biomass technologies in Germany

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1 Energy State of the art of solid biomass technologies in Germany Jens Giersdorf Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH (DBFZ) November 27, 2012, São Paulo, Brazil

2 Legislative framework Overall binding domestic target of 18% renewable energies in gross domestic energy consumption and minimum 10% in the transport sector by 2020 National targets for the share of energy from renewable sources in transport, power, heat and cooling sector by 2020 reference scenario 35% electricity from renewable sources (EEG) 14% renewables for cooling/heating 7% (~12% with regard to energy content) net GHG-emission reductions from biofuels in transportation 2

3 Percentage Contribution of Renewables to 2020 targets in Germany 2020 Targets - Renewable Germany Energy in Germany March % Biomass % Renewable Energies 31 % Electricity 91 % Heating 100 % Fuels % 20 % % 10.4 % 14 % 5.6 % 10 % Target Target Target Target 2020 Final energy consumption Electricity Heating Fuels 3 Target 2020 Hydropower Wind power Biomass Photovoltaics Solar thermal energy Geothermal energy

4 Policy instruments for promoting solid biomass use Biomass for electricity Renewable Energies Act (EEG) 2000 feed-in tariff system Biomass electricity sustainability ordinance (BioSt-NachV) Biomass ordinance Biomass for heating Market incentive programme (MAP) 1999 financial subsidy Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG) 2009 building regulation 4

5 Energy Solid Biomass for Electricity Generation in Germany

6 number of solid biomass installations [-] installed electric capacity [MWel] Electricity from Solid Biomass under the German EEG installations > 5 Mwel installations MWel installations 0.5 MWel installed electric capacity [MWel] Source: DBFZ, Final Report (2012): Monitoring zur Wirkung des EEG auf die Entwicklung der Stromerzeugung aus Biomasse 0

7 Biomass Installations using Wood in Germany Majority of installations in Southern and Central Germany mainly due to feedstock availability and traditional use of wood Southern Germany: small- to mediumscale installations based on untreated wood West Germany: medium- to large-scale installations based on waste wood East Germany: medium- to large-scale installations based on waste wood or untreated wood 7 Source: DBFZ, Final Report (2012): Monitoring zur Wirkung des EEG auf die Entwicklung der Stromerzeugung aus Biomasse

8 Types of Woody Biomass for Electricity Generation 19,5% 2011: 7.8 million tons (bd) 19,5% 2011: 7.8 million tons (bd) 11,7% 13,3% 26,1% 54,7% 33,7% 11,7% 54,7% 13,3% reference: number of installations n=256 untreated wood * * waste wood (AIII, AIV) 29,5% waste wood (AI, AII) mixed assortment 9,0% reference: installed electric capacity Woody biomass is dominating: forest residues and waste wood (AIII, AIV) are the main feedstock In future also solid agricultural residues like straw are going to be used * Forest residues, saw mill residues, landscape conservation wood 8 Source: DBFZ, Final Report (2012): Monitoring zur Wirkung des EEG auf die Entwicklung der Stromerzeugung aus Biomasse

9 number [-] Technologies for Electricity Generation based on Woody Biomass ORC turbine (new installations) ORC turbine steam turbine (new installations) steam turbine 3 technologies for the provision of electricity from biomass established: steam power process organic rankine cycle process thermochemical gasification Source: DBFZ, Final Report (2012): Monitoring zur Wirkung des EEG auf die Entwicklung der Stromerzeugung aus Biomasse

10 Example 1: Biomass CHP Plant (Piesteritz) Location: Piesteritz, Germany (2007) Technology: steam turbine Capacity: 19.3 MW el Investment: 56.9 million Euro Feedstock: forest residues and round wood 10 Picture: DBFZ, 2009

11 Example 1: Biomass CHP Plant (Piesteritz) Modern and large-scale processing and handling of woody biomass for the combustion in CHP plants 11 Pictures: DBFZ, 2009

12 Example 2: Gasification Plant (Austria, Güssing) Location: Güssing, Austria (2001) Technology: dual fluidized bed gasification Capacity: 2 Mw el Investment: 9 million Euro Feedstock: forest residues Picture: 12

13 Example 3: Pellet gasifier (Burkhardt) kw el, 250 kw th Pellet consumption 110 kg/h Net electrical efficiency > 30% Total efficiency 75% Residues: Ash/Coke 2 kg/h, Condensat 8 l/h 29 plants in operation Investment costs: 2,000 3,000 /kw (incl. CHP)

14 Facilities for Heat and Power Generation from Biomass biomass input biomass input

15 Energy Solid Biomass for Heating in Germany

16 Renewable heat generation 2011 in Germany Biogenic solid fuels (households): 47.0 % Structure of renewables-based heat supply in Germany 2011 Total (RES): TWh Near-surface geothermal energy, ambient heat: 4.2 % Biogenic solid fuels (industry): 16.4 % Deep geothermal energy: 0.2 % Solar thermal energy: 3.9 % Biogenic fraction of waste: 5.3 % Landfill gas: 0.2 % Sewage gas: 0.8 % Biogas: 11.8 % Biogenic liquid fuels 1) : 5.4 % Biogenic solid fuels (cogeneration power installations and heating installations): 4.7 % Share of biomass 2) : 92 % 1) Vegetable oil included; 2) Solid and liquid biomass, biogas, sewage and landfill gas, biogenic fraction of waste; RES: Renewable Energy Sources; 1 TWh = 1 Bill. kwh; deviations in the totals are due to rounding; Source: BMU-KI III 1 according to Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat); as at: July 2012; all figures provisional Source: BMU 2012, Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen

17 Renewable Heat Act and Market Incentive Program Renewable Heat Act (EEWärmeG) Obligation to use renewable energy in new buildings As of 1 January 2009 owners of new buildings > 50 m² will be obliged to provide a minimum share of their heat demand with RES: min. 30% with biogas district heating if provided by a CHP plant or min. 50% with liquid biofuels when sustainability is certified or min. 50% with biomass in high efficient systems etc. Market Incentive Program (MAP) Subsidies for modern ovens for pellets / split logs Subsidies for raw biogas grids and district heating grids Investment grants for innovative bioenergy production plants / demonstration plants

18 Heat Conversion Technologies Biomass stoves are used in private households Small- and medium-scale biomass boilers with automatic feeding systems (biomass central heating) are used in households and public facilities Biomass district heating are mainly grate firing boilers to cover the base load; to supply the peak load an additional boiler is installed

19 Pellet boilers in households Source: Agentur für Erneuerbare Energien 2011

20 Wood Pellet Combustion Units Source: Deutsches Pelletinsitut 2012

21 Summary Due to the main focus on biomass for achieving the 2020 targets, the availability of biomass resources might face constraints Legislative framework conditions, technical and economic feasibility as well as competition (use in other industries; use in other countries etc.) need to be considered Problem of scarcity of biomass resources may arise Possible solutions: Utilization of untapped biomass potentials, in particular residues (e.g. straw, landscape conservation material) Increasing efficiency of cultivation and applying different/new cultivation concepts Increasing import of biomass intensification of biomass trading streams, however taking into account environmental and social impacts

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