Photovoltaic Roofing in Mediterranean Climate Countries

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Photovoltaic Roofing in Mediterranean Climate Countries"

Transcription

1 1 Photovoltaic Roofing in Mediterranean Climate Countries Pere Alavedra¹, Amado Guzmán ², Mauricio Torres ³, Samantha Gallowayº, Daniel Alavedra" Department of Construction Engineering, Catalonia Polytechnic University, Barcelona, Spain. Abstract: This paper compares the photovoltaic roofing system in the Mediterranean climate countries taking into account economic issues as the investment redemption, the existence of subsidy policies, and also the cost benefit relation and the implicated institutional social factors, the real performance and potential of the building due to its design and location. All of that will have a great importance to decide the implementation of these systems in a warm climate. The new demands brought out by the sustainable issue created the need of studying the building on its phase of utilization, taking into account the energetic saving, the comfort and the use of recyclable materials which guided us to different solutions for this system. The use of photovoltaic roofing composed by photovoltaic cells offers the opportunity to produce electricity in the urban zone taking advantage of an inexhaustible natural free source. Key words: sustainability; photovoltaic, subvention program. Introduction The recent concern about world climate changes mostly produced by the fossil fuel consumption, has developed new technologies and laws to prevent this impact. The construction generates almost a third of the global pollution, attending to that, the constructors must generate buildings with sustainable resources such as materials with low ecological impact, materials with thermal isolation to maximize energy utilization as well as using systems that contribute to energy production. The human being spends most of its time between walls; this requires a good environment to develop its functions. Usually for the development of these functions, the use of energy is required, mainly used for air conditioning, heating & lighting, which is reflected in terms of energetic consumption. The actual building has to fulfill the new sustainable demands during its different life cycles: design, construction, use and demolition. During the design period, it s important to have in mind the implementation of materials with low ecologic impact, foreseeing users comfort and energy consumption as well as the use of recyclable materials. Authors Note: Pere Alavedra¹,Ph.D. Industrial Engineer, associate professor, Amado Guzmán²,architect, Mauricio Torres³,architect, Samantha Gallowayº,architect Daniel Alavedra",lawyer,

2 2 During the buildings construction and use phase, it no longer only requires the principal functions, but also new requirements such as comfort for the inhabitants, image and low energy consumption are very important too. Finally, we find ourselves in the demolition phase, where the materials must be easy to recycle showing the importance of their selection during the design phase. In Mediterranean countries the thermal gains produced during the summer are very high, that is why the implementation of photovoltaic roofing with new proposals of isolation is necessary. The photovoltaic roofing not only produces energy, it also contributes to reduced thermal gains, and shows a considerable reduction of costs generated by the use of consumption systems, such as air conditioning or heating. In the case of this article one is going to analyse the main PV producers in Mediterranean countries as Spain, France and Italy, their main principles in photovoltaic, their subsidies and their future perspectives, with the objective of establishing a comparison between these countries. The cost analysis in this article is focused on the four fields of sustainability. Analysing it from an economic perspective, the cost of investment and maintenance, from an institutional perspective, the subventions; from a social perspective, the comfort, image of the building and finally from an environmental perspective, the ecologic costs generated by the use of exhaustible energies. 1. Photovoltaic energy The solar energy is practically inexhaustible; the sun is a clean and renewable energy, this is the - reason why there are so many investigations about it nowadays. It s so abundant, that the energy that the earth receives in 30 minutes is equivalent to the energy consumed by humans during one year. (Greenpeace). The advantages that we find with PV are: We can place it almost anywhere obtaining good results in the main cases, they are easy to transport, their installment is simple and it doesn t produce noise during the process. Besides it has an excellent durability and needs little maintenance. Generally the period of life of these systems is above 30 years but we can find systems from the 1960 s still operative. The PV generates electricity during the whole year. Normally in the summer it increases the electricity generation because the days are longer. During cloudy days it still operative but decreases its functions. Its is recommended to do the maintenance during the night to avoid electric shocks (ASIF) The surface needed to produce 1kWp depends mainly on the type of panel that you want to use, but for practical reasons one can consider it a surface of 10 m2 as it is easier to adapt to roofs to generate electricity. The photovoltaic industry is growing annually at 30% rate, reducing their costs in a 5% on the production of PV module and it intends to continue like that. Today it could produce a quarter of the global energy consumption through the implementation of PV in buildings. 2. Perspective for the next years In the year 2010 it is hoped that the systems in buildings will cover 50 % of the global demand producing 3000 MW of energy following the Commission s White Paper on Renewable Energy. For the year 2020 an output of 276 terawatt hours of energy is expected and finally for 2040 that the production will be more that 9000 terawatt hours which would be 26% of the projected global demand. (EPIA and Greenpeace)

3 3 3. PV In Europe Many programs have been developed in Europe regarding of the implementation of PV energy. We can find a good example in Germany. This country implemented its 1,000 roofs program that was carried out in the early 1990s, although the must remarkable one is the German project "100,000 roofs". This program has shown excellent results. It started in 1999 installing 300 Mw of solar electricity and accomplished its goals before its predetermined deadline. During the two year period Western Europe governments have invested about 400M. and Germany was the largest single investor with more than 114M. (IEA) Italy France Spain Germany Switzerland Austia Instaled PV capacity M w (2002) Production of PV Electricity in some countries of the UE, Source (IEA) Price Evolution in the price of PV, Source: ASIF

4 4 4. Electricity price in Europe It is important to analyze the cost of electricity in the EU to be able to evaluate the later recovery of the total equipment cost. In almost all EU countries the price of electricity has decreased during the period of 1996 to 2002, in some countries more than 12%. Price of electricity for a domestic user Dc (Euros/100Wh) Belgium 14,94 13,76 France 13,66 11,49 Germany 16,43 16,99 Italy 21,48 19,84 Netherlands 12,12 17,58 Portugal 13,17 13,22 Spain 12,48 10,63 United Kingdom 10,02 10,61 Price for electricity in some of the EU countries, Source Eurostat. 5. Financing mechanisms Governments have a central role in the exploitation of solar energy, effecting the legal regulations of new buildings, construction and safety standards as well as urban planning. The Principal financing mechanisms in these countries are: PV Grants The actual cost for photovoltaic production is still very high so some of the countries concede subsidies in addition to compensate the owner for the high costs of the PV system. The average nowadays in the EU is between 30-50%, but in some cases it reaches 75% of the cost (see the case of Italy). Feed In This is the model successfully used in Germany, which consists in regulating the electricity law which forces the electric companies to buy electricity induced to the net at largest costs. In the case of Germany s program 100,000 roofs program the actual cost was 0.49 per W induced to the net. In this example the cost will be amortized with the energy production but the application of other financial costs is necessary to reduce the initial expenditure. Fiscal Incentives In some countries like Italy the government implemented tax regulation, so the consumer of the Photovoltaic system could amortize the cost with fiscal requirements. Loans at low interest Loans are given by enterprises or associations to support the largest initial cost of the PV system.

5 5 Overview of the principal financing mechanisms used in Mediterranean countries. Financing mechanism Incentives Grants/ Subsidies Feed In Fiscal Incentives Loans at low interests There are other financial mechanisms as Greenprice, certification, to mention some, but in the case of Mediterranean countries the use of these programs are hardly used. So we are not going to considerate those in this article. 6. PV in Spain Spain is situated between 36º and 43º coordinates and it has an media annual radiation of kwh/m2 together with Portugal they are considered two of the countries in the EU with the best characteristics of the production of solar energy. Besides the fact that the Spanish territory produces 8% of the worlds solar cells. Nowadays the cost of the production of 1 Wp, could be between 6,50 and 7,5 euros. (ASIF) Spain has progressed during the last ten years implementing different programs to sustain the installation of photovoltaic systems. Today the energy produced has exceeded the 19,2 MWp. positioning it in one of the most important producer countries with this kind of energy. Installed Year potential (kw) Mwp Table: Evolution of the installation of PV in Spain, Source: IDEA Graph: Evolution of the PV in Spain. Sources: IDAE+ASIF In the year 2002 the actual production of energy in Spain was 5 MWp situating it on one of the largest consumers of PV electricity in the EU. 2 Data not provided. Aproximated.

6 Programmes Different inquiries developed by different groups such as Greenpeace proves that almost 100% of the questioned people would implement PV systems in their homes if they would get the economic support. In Spain the main subsidy is the ordinance of 1998, which obligates the electrical companies to buy the energy produced by these systems at a price of 0,39 (RD 2818/1998) The IDAE also gives support such as credits for the implementation of the PV systems. IDAE in collaboration with the ICO finances the installations, with a credit of 70% of the cost and extra support for those of less than 100 Kw. There are also fiscal Incentives. The European commission also support the use of PV with 35% according to the Hip-Hip program. With the actual Financing mechanism of feed in with out the grants given by IDAE and ICO, the return period would be from 19 to 25 years (Greenpeace) In Spain there are some programs of solar energy production which intend to have by the end of 2010 an installed solar power of 143,7 MWp. This is equivalent to a total of 4.5 Million m2 although studies have been made by the EurObserv'ER which reflects that at today s growth rhythm another 40 years would be necessary to reach the goal. 7. PV in France In the south of France, which is the area that has almost the same characteristic of the countries previously mentioned, the solar radiation is the same that Spain, kwh/m2. France has increased considerably its photovoltaic installations since 1996, and during the last year (2002) more than 3 MW were installed in French territory. Installed Year potential (kw) Mw Evolution of the installation of PV in France, Source: ADEME Today the energy produced in France has exceeded the 17,2 MWp

7 Programmes The interest of PV systems in France is still growing. It is important that research institutes such as CSTB in partnership with ADEME have organized different campaigns for the assessment of the PV modules in buildings and congresses with the main objective of promoting the use renewable energy. (Chevalier) France is one of the countries with less subventions compared to the rest of Mediterranean countries. Some of these incentives are the feed in, which started in March of 2002 through buying consumed energy at 0.15 Kw in continental France and 0,30 in Corsica and overseas departments. These cost have decreased 5% per year since The main national grant program France comes from ADEME, which supports 15% of the initial cost of the PV system. In some cases local activities support up to 30% of the system but the major initiative comes from the European commission with the Hip-Hip program that supports with 35%. Another support system is that the cost of PV systems is subventioned to reduce their initial cost per Watt connected to the grid, the actual cost varies between 4,6 minimum and 6,1 attempting to reduce the cost in January 2005 to 3,8 and 4,9 per watt, (ADEME) Today the cost production for a 10kWc Nowadays could be around 60,000, but if we implement the subventions from the European Commission, ADEME and the regional ones, this would diminish to a 30,000 to 48,000 which is still being a big initial cost. So the implementation of loan or grant programs are necessary. (Hip-Hip program) 8. PV in Italy Since the beginning of the 1980 s, Italy has invested in research and photovoltaic programs. It has become one of the most important producers of PV energy since then. Nowadays the price of photovoltaic energy in Italy is about 3,5 adn 4,3 per watt, making these prices one of the lowest registered in the European community. Cumulative Year Installed potential (MW) , , , , , , , Mw Evolution of the installation of PV in France, Source: IEA Today the energy produced in Italy has exceeded the 22 MWp

8 Programmes The main public financial support comes from the Italian roof-top programme, founded at the beginning of It is mainly focused on small PV plants (1-20 kw) supporting the 50% of the cost, with this program and other regional programs the contribution to the PV system could be up to 75% maximum. Also Italy has been invited to participate in the Hip-Hip program which supports 35% of the cost coming from the European Commission. 9. Overview of PV in Mediterranean countries Year Financing Mechanism Grant Feed-In Fiscal I. Loan Spain 19,2 MWp 135 MW 30% - 35% France 17,2 MWp % Italy 22 MWp 300 MW 75% Maximum % / 5 Years Conclusion The generation of clean energies are necessary to decrease the CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere according to the Kyoto protocol and the White paper issued by the European Commission. Considering that Mediterranean countries have the best characteristics in the EU, they should mainly focus on programs to give major impulse to the PV systems. The energy generated from PV has grown considerably in Europe and through the generation of programs we will manage to get a more sustainable world. As we can see in this article the use of only one financial mechanism is not sufficient, so the need to implement integrated programs could give better results. Studies indicate that it would be possible to reach these goals by the year 2010, but development and diffusion of existent and new programs is necessary. 1) Feed-In Tariff still under consideration.

9 9 References: ADEME, 2002, Photovoltaic electricity industry in france ASIF, 2003, Situación actual de la energía fotovoltaica en España. CHEVALIER J. 2002, Introducing practically the environmental concern when prescribing construction products, International conference Sustainable Building 2002, Oslo, Norway. BIKAS, D. and Kantoleon, K Environmental evaluation of thermal inertia factors of buildings envelopes as a function of Solar Absorbity. Sustainable Building Conference Oslo DAVILA, L Et. Al, 2001 Las energias renovables en españa, Era solar 108.EC, European Comision, Solar ElectriCity Guide, Energy publication. EPIA (Eurpean Photovoltaic Industry Asosiation), 2002, Executiv Sumary, Solar Electricity in 2010 EPIA and Greenpeace, Solar Generation: electricity for over 1 billion people and 2 million jobs by 2020 GREENPEACE, 1997, Report Building homes with solar power. IEA, 2002 Market deployment strategies for PV systems in the built environment: An evaluation of Incentives,Support Programmes and Marketing Activities. IEA- PVPS 7-06:2002 IEA, Trends in photovoltaic applications, IEA-PVPS T1-12:2003 LORENZO E., 2001La energía que producen los sistemas fotovoltáicos conectados a la red. Era solar 107. NORDMANN T., 2001, Subsides versus rated based incentives; fer technologyeconomica- and market development of the PV. The European experience. TNC Consulting AG, Seestrasse 141, CH-8703 Erlenbach, Switzerland SEBA, 1998 Manual del Usuario de Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas (para instalaciones autónomas). Ed. Progensa. Web Links:

Nuevos Aspectos Normativos para Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas en España

Nuevos Aspectos Normativos para Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas en España UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III DE MADRID ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT POWER ELECTRONIC SYSTEM GROUP (GSEP) Nuevos Aspectos Normativos para Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas en España Dr. Vicente Salas Merino OUTLINE

More information

International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center)

International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center) International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center) Good morning. Sayin Bakanım. Members of Parliament. Ladies and Gentlemen. Slide 1: Opening

More information

Compared assessment of selected environmental indicators of photovoltaic electricity in OECD cities

Compared assessment of selected environmental indicators of photovoltaic electricity in OECD cities Compared assessment of selected environmental indicators Electricity production based on solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is pollution-free at the local as well as the global level, it does not emit

More information

EUROPEAN PHOTOVOLTAIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

EUROPEAN PHOTOVOLTAIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION EUROPEAN PHOTOVOLTAIC INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Overview of current market trends for PV systems Ir Gaëtan Masson EPIA - Head of Business Intelligence IEA-PVPS - Task 1 Operating Agent 4 February 2014 Could

More information

Why. solar Thermal. is the better solution.

Why. solar Thermal. is the better solution. Why solar Thermal is the better solution FOR HOT WATER AND HEATING www.sonnenkraft.com THE RIGHT SOLUTION FOR EACH ENERGY DEMAND From north to south, about 2/3 of a European household s energy demand is

More information

Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2012 Facing a sunny future

Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2012 Facing a sunny future > Competitiveness Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 1 Facing a sunny future 1 Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 1 Facing a sunny future Demand side The solar PV market has been

More information

Distributed Solar Energy Opportunities for the U.S. Border Region

Distributed Solar Energy Opportunities for the U.S. Border Region Distributed Solar Energy Opportunities for the U.S. Border Region Cecilia Aguillon Dir. Market Development & Government Affairs Kyocera Solar, Inc. Cecilia.aguillon@kyocera.com www.kyocerasolar.com Layout

More information

Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany

Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany Solar Power International 08 Panel Technology & Regulation: How to do it Right 16th October 2008, San Diego, California, USA Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany Gerhard Stryi-Hipp

More information

The Importance of Feed In Tariffs to Attract Financial Resources Asset & Capital Structuring Corporate & Investment Banking

The Importance of Feed In Tariffs to Attract Financial Resources Asset & Capital Structuring Corporate & Investment Banking The Importance of Feed In Tariffs to Attract Financial Resources Asset & Capital Structuring Corporate & Investment Banking Madrid, November 2008 Index 1. Asset & Capital Structuring 2. Capital Structuring

More information

PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET DYNAMICS

PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET DYNAMICS PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MARKET DYNAMICS The global PV market has been growing rapidly during the past years. Despite the International Financial Crisis during 2008 2009, the PV Market continued to grow and the

More information

SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister

SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister «Symposium on Strengthening Sino-Spain cooperation in multiple Fields» New Energy Cooperation

More information

The Situation of Photovoltaics in Hungary

The Situation of Photovoltaics in Hungary The Situation of Photovoltaics in Hungary Miklos Palfy Solart-System PV global production PV installations 1460 MWp PV in 2005 Yearly growing rate >40% Largest market = EU Topics Radiation energy History

More information

Electricity from PV systems how does it work?

Electricity from PV systems how does it work? Electricity from photovoltaic systems Bosch Solar Energy 2 Electricity from PV systems Electricity from PV systems how does it work? Photovoltaics: This is the name given to direct conversion of radiant

More information

Renewable Energies in the Czech Republic

Renewable Energies in the Czech Republic Renewable Energies in the Czech Republic Lucie Chmielová Czech Renewable Energy Agency Czech Republic Scientific Technical Reference System on Renewable Energy and Energy End-Use Efficiency: 1 st Specific

More information

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Contents Overview a. Drivers of electricity prices b. Jobs and growth c. Trade d. Energy dependence A. Impact assessment

More information

NET-METERING AND SELF- CONSUMPTION SCHEMES IN EUROPE

NET-METERING AND SELF- CONSUMPTION SCHEMES IN EUROPE NET-METERING AND SELF- CONSUMPTION SCHEMES IN EUROPE Marie Latour Senior National Policy Advisor IEA-PVPS - EPIA WS - 30 September 2013 Content What is self-consumption? Self-consumption incentives and

More information

INTERFACES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

INTERFACES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS INTERFACES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS Paulo Ferreira, Manuel Trindade, Júlio S. Martins and João L. Afonso University of Minho, Braga, Portugal paulo.alves.ferreira@sapo.pt,

More information

What is Solar? The word solar is derived from the Latin word sol (the sun, the Roman sun god) and refers to things and methods that relate to the sun.

What is Solar? The word solar is derived from the Latin word sol (the sun, the Roman sun god) and refers to things and methods that relate to the sun. What is Solar? The word solar is derived from the Latin word sol (the sun, the Roman sun god) and refers to things and methods that relate to the sun. What is the solar industry? The solar industry is

More information

Photovoltaics as a Future Sustainable Energy Option. in Egypt. January 2013

Photovoltaics as a Future Sustainable Energy Option. in Egypt. January 2013 Photovoltaics as a Future Sustainable Energy Option in Egypt January 2013 1 Ancient Egypt... 3,000 years B.C., Egyptians believed in the sun as a god of Light Warmth Energy In short: Life itself 2 Twentieth

More information

Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development and Perspectives

Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development and Perspectives Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development and Perspectives Matthias Reitzenstein German Solar Industry Association (BSW-Solar) German Solar Industry Association 2 TASK To represent the German solar industry

More information

Strategies for the development of PV in Barcelona

Strategies for the development of PV in Barcelona Strategies for the development of PV in Barcelona Barcelona is the capital and most populous city of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain. A major economic centre with one of Europe's principal

More information

SOLAR TECHNOLOGY CHRIS PRICE TECHNICAL SERVICES OFFICER BIMOSE TRIBAL COUNCIL

SOLAR TECHNOLOGY CHRIS PRICE TECHNICAL SERVICES OFFICER BIMOSE TRIBAL COUNCIL SOLAR TECHNOLOGY CHRIS PRICE TECHNICAL SERVICES OFFICER BIMOSE TRIBAL COUNCIL SOLAR TECHNOLOGY Photovoltaics Funding Options Solar Thermal Photovoltaics 1. What are they and how do they work? 2. The Solar

More information

Solar Thermal Systems

Solar Thermal Systems Solar Thermal Systems Murat Aydemir Viessmann Middle East General Manager (M.Sc. Mech.Eng., ASHRAE) Dubai American University 25.06.2008 "Green Building Conference Dubai LEED requirements and solutions

More information

Global market outlook for photovoltaics until 2013

Global market outlook for photovoltaics until 2013 2013 Global market outlook for photovoltaics until 2013 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTs 1 Executive Summary p 2 2 Global Historical PV Market Development p 3 3 Global PV

More information

Solar technology. A guide to solar power at utility scale. in Africa

Solar technology. A guide to solar power at utility scale. in Africa Solar technology A guide to solar power at utility scale in Africa About solar power Solar electricity is generated using a free and abundant energy source the sun. In a single hour, the sun transmits

More information

Renewable energy strategies in Barcelona

Renewable energy strategies in Barcelona Renewable energy strategies in Barcelona Toni Pujol Barcelona Energy Agency Second World Renewable Energy Forum 29-31 May 2004 Bonn, Germany Renewable energy strategies in Barcelona PROMOTION POLICIES

More information

Solar energy is available as long as the sun shines, but its intensity depends on weather conditions and geographic

Solar energy is available as long as the sun shines, but its intensity depends on weather conditions and geographic Solar Energy What is Solar Energy? The radiation from the sun gives our planet heat and light. All living things need energy from the sun to survive. More energy from sunlight strikes the earth in one

More information

TRENDS 2015 IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

TRENDS 2015 IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TRENDS 2015 IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Report IEA-PVPS T1-27:2015 FOREWORD.... The IEA PVPS Programme is proud to provide you with its 20 th edition of the international survey report

More information

Waste-to-Energy in Europe

Waste-to-Energy in Europe Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Waste-to-Energy in Europe WTERT Annual General Meeting 2006 Ferdinand Kleppmann, President Dr. Ella Stengler, Managing Director 1 CEWEP Confederation of

More information

The cogeneration in the EU ceramic industry

The cogeneration in the EU ceramic industry Annual Conference 2013 The cogeneration in the EU ceramic industry Renaud Batier, Cerame-Unie 8 sectors 28 billion Europe s ceramic industry 25% sold outside of the EU 200,000 direct jobs in all European

More information

Technology Fact Sheet for Mitigation

Technology Fact Sheet for Mitigation Technology Fact Sheet for Mitigation Solar PV systems (>1MW) i Technology: Solar PV systems (>1MW) Sector : Energy Subsector : Technology characteristics Introduction Solar photovoltaic, or simply photovoltaic

More information

Status of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Development at Wärtsilä

Status of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Development at Wärtsilä Status of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Development at Wärtsilä 29.10.2008 2008 Fuel Cell Seminar Phoenix Jerri Laine Innovation Manager Wärtsilä Finland jerri.laine@wartsila.com Wärtsilä Fuel Cell

More information

The Renewable Energy Sector in Cyprus

The Renewable Energy Sector in Cyprus Energie The Renewable Energy Sector in Cyprus Dr. Isabelle Riesenkampff, German Energy Agency (dena) Cologne, 29 November 2010 Conference Solar Industry in the Republic of Cyprus Outline: The Renewable

More information

How are energy companies adapting to the changing rules in the energy sector? Jaroslav Zlabek Country President Schneider Electric Polska

How are energy companies adapting to the changing rules in the energy sector? Jaroslav Zlabek Country President Schneider Electric Polska How are energy companies adapting to the changing rules in the energy sector? Jaroslav Zlabek Country President Schneider Electric Polska Sopot November, 2011 the energy challenges today 2 The solution

More information

Trends in Market Segments

Trends in Market Segments Trends in Market Segments Towards More Solar Parks or Individual Installations? EPIA 2 nd International Conference on Solar Photovoltaic Investments EuPD Research Frankfurt, February 19 th, 2008 Agenda

More information

Solar Energy in India

Solar Energy in India Solar Energy in India Pranav R. Mehta Chairman National Solar Energy Federation of India Conference held on Behalf of Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy Germany and Indo-German Chamber of

More information

Delivering on innovation and market uptake. Best-in-cases of nzeb. Ramon Pascual Bucharest May 8th, 2015

Delivering on innovation and market uptake. Best-in-cases of nzeb. Ramon Pascual Bucharest May 8th, 2015 www.zebra2020.eu Delivering on innovation and market uptake. Best-in-cases of nzeb Ramon Pascual Bucharest May 8th, 2015 Outline nzeb Database Best in cases of nzeb Climates in Europe Preliminary results

More information

Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany

Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany This document will show how this success story has been brought about and is made up of the following sections: 1. What is a Feed-In Tariff?

More information

Solar Power in China. By Zhou Fengqing

Solar Power in China. By Zhou Fengqing Solar Power in China By Zhou Fengqing Overview Adjust Chinese power structure Feasibility of solar power in China Solar energy as national policies Legislations of solar energy Adjust Chinese Power Structure

More information

Renewable Energies- the answer to the world s energy demand?

Renewable Energies- the answer to the world s energy demand? 4 Renewable Energies- the answer to the world s energy demand? Eng. Maritza VARGAS Independent Environmental and Sustainability Consultant The adjective Renewable means that the object or subject in question

More information

Comparison of support schemes for the production of electricity from renewable energy AEEC Autumn Conference

Comparison of support schemes for the production of electricity from renewable energy AEEC Autumn Conference Comparison of support schemes for the production of electricity from renewable energy AEEC Autumn Conference Paris, 24 November 2014 Etienne Jan etienne.jan@e-cube.com 1 The support schemes of renewable

More information

SOLAR PV SYSTEM INFORMATION PACK

SOLAR PV SYSTEM INFORMATION PACK SOLAR PV SYSTEM INFORMATION PACK Apollo Solar the solar pv professionals If you are considering going green and earning money from solar energy, look no further than Apollo Solar we are fully qualified

More information

WP1 Task 1 The Drivers of Electricity Demand and Supply

WP1 Task 1 The Drivers of Electricity Demand and Supply PROJECT NO 518294 SES6 CASES COST ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS Observatoire Méditerranéen de l Energie WP1 Task 1 The Drivers of Electricity Demand and Supply Version April 2007 1. Drivers

More information

Perspectives of the German PV Market after Recent Changes in the Renewable Energy Act

Perspectives of the German PV Market after Recent Changes in the Renewable Energy Act 6 th Germany California Solar Day, September 14 th, 2010 Perspectives of the German PV Market after Recent Changes in the Renewable Energy Act Gerhard Stryi-Hipp Head Energy Policy Fraunhofer Institut

More information

WATERPROOF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

WATERPROOF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM WATERPROOF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM Nola, the biggest BIPV plant in the world. 25 MWp 9 KWp 7 KWp 580 KWp 110 KWp 20 KWp 430 KWp Synthetic layer - 50 KWp Synthetic layer - 30 KWp Synthetic layer -9 KWp STOPPING

More information

Renewable Energy Sector in the EU: its Employment and Export Potential

Renewable Energy Sector in the EU: its Employment and Export Potential Renewable Energy Sector in the EU: its Employment and Export Potential A Final Report to DG Environment ECOTEC Research & Consulting Limited Priestley House 28-34 Albert Street Birmingham B4 7UD United

More information

Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development, Technology and Trends

Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development, Technology and Trends Photovoltaics in Germany Market Development, Technology and Trends Gerhard Stryi-Hipp Managing Director Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft BSW German Solar Industry Association Stralauer Platz 34, 10243 Berlin

More information

The structure of the Italian PV market: characteristics, segmentation, SWOT analysis

The structure of the Italian PV market: characteristics, segmentation, SWOT analysis The structure of the Italian PV market: characteristics, segmentation, SWOT analysis Gerardo Montanino Head of Operations Department ITALIAN PV SUMMIT Verona, 3 May 2010 www.gse.it 2 Agenda The role of

More information

DISTRIBUTION GRID TARIFF STRUCTURES FOR SMART GRIDS AND SMART MARKETS. CEDEC POSITION PAPER March 2014

DISTRIBUTION GRID TARIFF STRUCTURES FOR SMART GRIDS AND SMART MARKETS. CEDEC POSITION PAPER March 2014 DISTRIBUTION GRID TARIFF STRUCTURES FOR SMART GRIDS AND SMART MARKETS CEDEC POSITION PAPER March 2014 2 CEDEC WHO ARE WE? CEDEC represents the interests of local and regional energy companies. CEDEC represents

More information

Example of the French electricity mix

Example of the French electricity mix Example of the French electricity mix Christophe TRZPIT Generation Economics & Strategy Deputy Director EDF - Nuclear & Thermal Generation Division ENYGF Paris June 22, 2015 1 The French electricity mix

More information

Renewable energy incentive program

Renewable energy incentive program Switzerland Renewable energy incentive program This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without our prior written permission.

More information

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE Photovoltaics Report Freiburg, December 11, 2012 www.ise.fraunhofer.de CONTENT Introduction Executive Summary PV Market Solar Cells / Modules / System

More information

Commercial Outlook for Solar Power Generation

Commercial Outlook for Solar Power Generation Commercial Outlook for Solar Power Generation International Conference on Alternative Energy 2010 March 27, 2010 Karachi Expo Center Nadeem Haque Nadeem Haque Energy Potential Inc. Topics 1. Market Scenario

More information

Renewable Energy Strategy for 2020 and Regulatory Framework. Eng. Hatem Amer Egyptian Electric Regulatory and Consumer Protection Agency

Renewable Energy Strategy for 2020 and Regulatory Framework. Eng. Hatem Amer Egyptian Electric Regulatory and Consumer Protection Agency Renewable Energy Strategy for 2020 and Regulatory Framework Eng. Hatem Amer Egyptian Electric Regulatory and Consumer Protection Agency Objectives of the Agency Regulate, supervise, and control all matters

More information

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA Increasing electricity generation from renewable energy sources is one of the main strategies to reduce greenhouse emissions from the power sector. Australia has historically

More information

Renewable Energy Support Policies in Europe June 2016 RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT POLICIES

Renewable Energy Support Policies in Europe June 2016 RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT POLICIES Renewable Energy Support Policies in Europe June 2016 RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPORT POLICIES TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS... 2 LIST OF FIGURES... 9 OVERVIEW... 14 MAJORS CHANGES SINCE THE LAST VERSION

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014)

THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014) THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014) 18.08.2014 Energy Regulatory & Governmental Affairs The Amended Renewable Energy Sources Act 2014 (EEG 2014) With the most recent amendment of the

More information

Photovoltaic in Mexico Recent Developments and Future

Photovoltaic in Mexico Recent Developments and Future Photovoltaic in Mexico Recent Developments and Future Rodolfo Martínez Strevel Berlin, Germany May 23th, 2013 Bufete de Tecnología Solar, S.A. (BUTECSA) Production of Primary Energy in Mexico, 2011 % 7,0

More information

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Support Levels, 2009

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Support Levels, 2009 Austria Hydropower Green electricity act Feed-in tariff (incentive only) 3.25 644,000 5.05 Wind (onshore) Green electricity act Feed-in tariff (incentive only) 59.46 1,915,000 31.05 Biomass Green electricity

More information

VGB Congress Power Plants 2001 Brussels October 10 to 12, 2001. Solar Power Photovoltaics or Solar Thermal Power Plants?

VGB Congress Power Plants 2001 Brussels October 10 to 12, 2001. Solar Power Photovoltaics or Solar Thermal Power Plants? VGB Congress Power Plants 2001 Brussels October 10 to 12, 2001 Solar Power Photovoltaics or Solar Thermal Power Plants? Volker Quaschning 1), Manuel Blanco Muriel 2) 1) DLR, Plataforma Solar de Almería,

More information

Production of Electricity with RES & CHP for Homeowners

Production of Electricity with RES & CHP for Homeowners A Quality and Technology Network PERCH Production of Electricity with RES & CHP for Homeowners Contract No: EIE/06/107/SI2.446527 Duration:1/11/2006 31/10/2008 Partnership for Energy and Environmental

More information

Geothermal ERA NET. 7 th Geothermal ERA NET meeting Trieste, Italy 10-11 September 2014. Guðni A Jóhannesson Director General, Orkustofnun, Iceland

Geothermal ERA NET. 7 th Geothermal ERA NET meeting Trieste, Italy 10-11 September 2014. Guðni A Jóhannesson Director General, Orkustofnun, Iceland Cooperation between European countries through the Geothermal ERA NET 7 th meeting Trieste, Italy 10-11 September 2014 Guðni A Jóhannesson Director General, Afternoon Session The is supported by the European

More information

Why is the Poitou-Charentes Region well advanced to develop low cost electric cars of new generation?

Why is the Poitou-Charentes Region well advanced to develop low cost electric cars of new generation? [ A region commited ] Why is the Poitou-Charentes Region well advanced to develop low cost electric cars of new generation? Why did we build the first Kyoto Lycee, 100% clean energy? Why are we the first

More information

The city of Malmö, Sweden

The city of Malmö, Sweden The city of Malmö, Sweden 1. Introduction Malmö is a municipality of 280 000 inhabitants located in Southern Sweden. It is the third largest city in Sweden. It developed from a garrison town in the late

More information

Making Modern Living Possible with Danfoss Solar Inverters

Making Modern Living Possible with Danfoss Solar Inverters Making Modern Living Possible with Danfoss Solar Inverters Photovoltaic Energy Perspectives on a Realistic Alternative Uffe Borup, Ph.D Senior Technology Manager Danfoss Solar Inverters Agenda Solar energy

More information

Examples for financing of biogas projects in Italy

Examples for financing of biogas projects in Italy IEE Project BiogasIN Examples for financing of biogas projects in Italy D.3.2., WP3 - Henning Hahn, Dominik Rutz, Erik Ferber, Franz Kirchmayer - November 2010 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. Basics of

More information

Solar systems provide a range of flexible heating

Solar systems provide a range of flexible heating f a c t s h e e t 7 Solar Power Production photo by Alex Nikada Why solar? Solar systems provide a range of flexible heating and electricity options and are particularly wellsuited to remote or off-grid

More information

Synopsis of Questionnaire on Legislations, Business Situation & Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewables in Malta

Synopsis of Questionnaire on Legislations, Business Situation & Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewables in Malta Synopsis of Questionnaire on Legislations, Business Situation & Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewables in Malta Malta Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies Association (M.E.E.R.E.A.) Business Categories

More information

Danish-German Energy Efficiency Summit. Cost effective policy instruments Obligations on Energy Companies

Danish-German Energy Efficiency Summit. Cost effective policy instruments Obligations on Energy Companies Danish-German Energy Efficiency Summit Cost effective policy instruments Obligations on Energy Companies Eoin Lees Senior Advisor RAP Europe 8 th February 2012 The Regulatory Assistance Project 48 Rue

More information

France s Advanced Renewable Tariffs

France s Advanced Renewable Tariffs Green Energy Act Alliance Design Elements of Feed-in Tariffs: Spain, Germany, France and Ontario France s Advanced Renewable Tariffs Bernard CHABOT Renewable Energy Consultant and Trainer bechabot@wanadoo.fr

More information

COMPETING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR

COMPETING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR COMPETING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR ON THE ROAD TO COMPETITIVENESS SEPTEMBER 2011 COMPETING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR ON THE ROAD TO COMPETITIVENESS Solar Photovoltaics Competing in the Energy Sector On the road

More information

Solar urban planning. The National state of the art in Sweden

Solar urban planning. The National state of the art in Sweden Solar urban planning The National state of the art in Sweden Entity Lund University Developers Elisabeth Kjellsson Date 2009-11-15 1 INDICE Solar urban planning...1 1. Political, Legal and economic framework...3

More information

GREEN ENERGY FOR THE BLUE PLANET.

GREEN ENERGY FOR THE BLUE PLANET. 1 GREEN ENERGY FOR THE BLUE PLANET. ECOLOGY & ECONOMY SOLAR POWER HAS MANY SUNNY SIDES. THE SUN IS NOT ONLY THE SOURCE OF ALL LIFE ON EARTH, IT IS ALSO THE LARGEST SOURCE OF ENERGY. ITS OUTPUT IS UNLIMITED

More information

Solar Power HourSM. Solar educa on for your community.

Solar Power HourSM. Solar educa on for your community. Solar Power HourSM Solar educa on for your community. 1 Contents About. 1 Commonly Asked Questions.. 2-3 The Solar Site Assessment.. 3-4 Selecting a Solar Installer. 5-7 Certified Installers by State.

More information

Energy Agencies for the Promotion of Energy Efficiency and RES

Energy Agencies for the Promotion of Energy Efficiency and RES Energy Agencies for the Promotion of Energy Efficiency and RES Best Practice Berlin Speaker: Achim Neuhäuser Event: Buildings Energy Efficiency Policies, Paris Date: 16 March 2012 Contents Energy Agencies

More information

Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology

Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology Gerhard Stryi-Hipp Managing Director BSW - Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.v. German Solar Industry

More information

Trade in Environmental Goods & Services Solar Energy in Kenya

Trade in Environmental Goods & Services Solar Energy in Kenya Trade in Environmental Goods & Services Solar Energy in Kenya Dr. Moses Ikiara Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis WTO Workshop, Geneva, Switzerland September 23 25, 2009 Outline Introduction

More information

The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System

The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System 15th Czech Energy Congress 14.-15. April 2015 Peter Fischer Deputy Director-General for Globalisation, Energy and Climate Policy Federal

More information

ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEON. Abstract: The development of renewable energy is a key factor in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon

ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEON. Abstract: The development of renewable energy is a key factor in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN CASTILLA Y LEON Abstract: The development of renewable energy is a key factor in the changing landscape of Castilla y Leon Renewable energies: They occur on an ongoing basis and are

More information

Today s Topic. Plano Solar Advocates. www.planosolar.org Non-profit grassroots volunteer group. North Texas Renewable Energy Group

Today s Topic. Plano Solar Advocates. www.planosolar.org Non-profit grassroots volunteer group. North Texas Renewable Energy Group Today s Topic Rooftop Solar in Texas Right Place, Right Time! Plano Solar Advocates www.planosolar.org Non-profit grassroots volunteer group North Texas Renewable Energy Group www.ntreg.org Non-profit

More information

Il fotovoltaico dopo il V Conto Energia verso la grid parity

Il fotovoltaico dopo il V Conto Energia verso la grid parity Il fotovoltaico dopo il V Conto Energia verso la grid parity Niccolò Cusumano Università Bocconi, IEFE Bolzano, 19/09/2013 03 Good old times? USA 48 billion $ China 51 Germany 3129 Italy billion $ 12 India

More information

Allianz offers customers an increasing number of Green Solutions

Allianz offers customers an increasing number of Green Solutions Allianz offers customers an increasing number of Green Solutions page 1/5 Climate change is mainly caused by human-activity induced (anthropogenic) global warming and poses a major challenge to the global

More information

Turkey: Solar Power Market in Turkey

Turkey: Solar Power Market in Turkey Turkey: Solar Power Market in Turkey Solar Power Market in Turkey 2011 Page 1 of 5 Solar Energy in Turkey Serdar Cetinkaya, U.S. Commercial Service Turkey September 2013 Turkey s geographical location

More information

Solar energy: prepare for impact. Wim Sinke ECN Solar Energy, Utrecht University & European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

Solar energy: prepare for impact. Wim Sinke ECN Solar Energy, Utrecht University & European Photovoltaic Technology Platform Solar energy: prepare for impact Wim Sinke ECN Solar Energy, Utrecht University & European Photovoltaic Technology Platform Content Solar energy for heat, electricity and fuels Solar electricity: what

More information

Sanja Popovska-Vasilevska

Sanja Popovska-Vasilevska STATE OF SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN MACEDONIA Sanja Popovska-Vasilevska Introduction 1. Availability of Solar Energy in Macedonia 2. Solar Energy Application in Macedonia 3. Solar Energy Treatment in

More information

IEA EBC Annex56 vision for cost effective energy and carbon emissions optimization in building renovation

IEA EBC Annex56 vision for cost effective energy and carbon emissions optimization in building renovation Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Energy Procedia 00 (2015) 000 000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015 IEA EBC Annex56 vision

More information

Everything you wanted to know (in simple language) about

Everything you wanted to know (in simple language) about DYSON E S We s e t E R t h e N E R G V I C E Y S s t a n d a r d s Everything you wanted to know (in simple language) about Solar Energy but were too afraid to ask This is your perfect little ray of sunshine

More information

Photovoltaic Solar Power Uptake in New Zealand

Photovoltaic Solar Power Uptake in New Zealand Photovoltaic Solar Power Uptake in New Zealand Allan Miller* 1, John Williams 2, Alan Wood 3, David Santos-Martin 1, Scott Lemon 1, Neville Watson 3, Shreejan Pandey 1 1 Electric Power Engineering Centre,

More information

Suffolk's independent guide to The Clean Energy Cash-back scheme

Suffolk's independent guide to The Clean Energy Cash-back scheme Suffolk's independent guide to The Clean Energy Cash-back scheme Did you know the Government s Clean Energy Cash-back scheme pays you to be green? Householders, community groups and businesses can get

More information

Grow your business via Västerbotten

Grow your business via Västerbotten Grow your business via Västerbotten Solar Power opportunities in Västerbotten Why Sweden One of the world s most globalized and competitive nations Meeting-point for Scandinavia and Northern Europe The

More information

Photo Kirklees IS SOLAR ENERGY FOR ME? A guide to going solar

Photo Kirklees IS SOLAR ENERGY FOR ME? A guide to going solar Photo Kirklees IS SOLAR ENERGY FOR ME? A guide to going solar WHY SOLAR? Economics Solar energy can reduce bills, earn you money and protect you from rising energy prices. Solar is a free source of energy

More information

TWR2009- Project Assignment 1 Jen Hadley. Solar Panels: A Clean and Efficient Alternative in Energy Production

TWR2009- Project Assignment 1 Jen Hadley. Solar Panels: A Clean and Efficient Alternative in Energy Production Solar Panels: A Clean and Efficient Alternative in Energy Production TWR2009- Project Assignment 1 November 7, 2011 1 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Market Drivers... 3 The Solution: Renewable Natural

More information

Deep Dive Think Tank: Energy Costs and Strategies for Reduction

Deep Dive Think Tank: Energy Costs and Strategies for Reduction Deep Dive Think Tank: Energy Costs and Strategies for Reduction Andrew Donoghue European research manager, Datacenter Technologies 1 Discussion points Does energy cost really matter or does uptime still

More information

Dr. Ahmad Houri Lebanese American University Lebanese Solar Energy Society

Dr. Ahmad Houri Lebanese American University Lebanese Solar Energy Society Dr. Ahmad Houri Lebanese American University Lebanese Solar Energy Society Scaling up the use of Renewable Energy in rural areas in ESCWA Member Countries Workshop 1-2 February 2012, UN House, Beirut-Lebanon

More information

SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS

SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS The United States generates over 4,110 TWh of electricity each year, costing $400 billion and emitting 2.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide (Yildiz,

More information

Local Solar. bikeriderlondon / Shutterstock.com. Local Solar Power

Local Solar. bikeriderlondon / Shutterstock.com. Local Solar Power bikeriderlondon / Shutterstock.com Local Solar Power Production of electricity from fossil fuels creates pollution, including smog and green house gas emissions. Combining the abundance of sunshine our

More information

welcome! Turkish Renewable Energy Market Rome 29 th April 2015 Levent Çelepçi

welcome! Turkish Renewable Energy Market Rome 29 th April 2015 Levent Çelepçi welcome! Turkish Renewable Energy Market Rome 29 th April 2015 Levent Çelepçi Turkish Map 65,000,000,000 Dollars Current Deficit Overview Turkish Electricity Market-Growth Potential Turkey s importance

More information

Renewable energy policy in Turkey

Renewable energy policy in Turkey Renewable energy policy in Turkey S.Kucukali 1,*, K.Baris 2 1 Cankaya University, Department of Civil Engineering, Balgat, 06530 Ankara, Turkey 2 Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, Turkey * Corresponding

More information

LET S RENEW WWF dismantles the myths of renewable energies in Spain

LET S RENEW WWF dismantles the myths of renewable energies in Spain LET S RENEW WWF dismantles the myths of renewable energies in Spain Subvencionado por: INTRODUCTION Climate change threatens ecosystems and human lives. Energy production and use from fossil fuels are

More information