Perspectives for ESS in Germany and Europe legal situation and applications StoREgio energy storage system association

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1 Perspectives for ESS in Germany and Europe legal situation and applications StoREgio energy storage system association Dr. Peter Eckerle Managing Director

2 Topics Who is StoREgio? Summary of legal situation for energy storage systems (ESS) in Europe and Germany Perspectives for applications of ESS in Germany 2

3 StoREgio is a non-profit association supporting the application of energy storage systems Established member organizations Application of stationary energy storage systems as flexibility tool in smart grids Focus on projects in the following areas: 3

4 The EU legislation is designed to create a single European Electricity Market Guidelines for EU legislation Single European Electricity Market Unbundling Common Market European Grid Rules &Standards Separate legal entities for: Energy generation Grid operation Supply/sales of energy Free competition in generation and supply Removal of trade barriers Adaption of tax instruments, subsidies etc. Uniform market instruments (e.g. EEX) Single pricing zone Extension of transmission grid, esp. crossborder interconnections European copper plate Establish common (international) standards Common rules for safety&security, environmental protection, consumer protection etc. Grid as neutral infrastructure 4

5 Due to the change towards renewable energies Germany s legal frameworks need to be revised Current situation in Germany Renewables grew faster than expected to around 30% by 2015 Old feed-in tariff (FIT) regulation has led to increasing electricity prices > 50% of end consumer electricity price arising from FIT, taxes and other charges Conventional energy generation hardly profitable due to competition from RE with low variable cost Market instruments and processes to balance generation and demand designed for centralized, top-down energy system ESS as new flexibility instruments not legally defined, currently treated as consumers and producers of energy Applicable regulations limit the number of economically attractive applications Several energy relevant legal frameworks under revision 5

6 The renewable energy law has been revised 2014 to limit increasing electricity prices Capacity addition of PV and wind [MW] EEG* 2012 EEG ,4-2,6 GW p.a. EEG 2014 key changes Target corridor for capacity addition of PV and wind onshore Clear FIT-reduction process based on real capacity addition Bidding process for large PV and wind projects FIT payed as bidden Other new EE capacities >100kW without FIT energy to be sold on the market New PV capacity New wind capacity The new regulation has been designed to reduce FIT and put RE into free competition * EEG: Renewable Energy Law 6

7 Renewable energies have changed the electricity market situation completely Price building mechanism and consequences Wholesale electricity prices fixed at Electricity EXchange (EEX) based on merit order effect RE put on the market based on variable cost, making conventional plants increasingly unprofitable Var. cost of generation Wholesale price Demand Fluctuating generation, however, requires conventional plants be maintained as backup EE Nucl. Brown coal Hard coal Gas Oil Capacity Two alternatives under discussion to reimburse operators of conventional power plants Capacity market Operator earns money for available capacity Var. cost of generation Wholesale price Demand Energy only market Operator earns money only for energy generated Capacity 7

8 Germany is heading for a market driven Energy Only Market (EOM) Key points of first draft of new energy market law RE to increasingly get in free competition with conventional generation Free electricity price building prices should always reflect dynamic balance of generation and demand Unlimited price fluctuations intended as incentive to create flexibility products and new business models (dynamic price setting and load based tariffs to be expected mid term also for small customers) All flexibility options (incl. ESS) to compete on a technology neutral basis, no special incentives for ESS TSOs responsible for overall grid stability, DSOs with increasing contribution by regional flexibility management In total, 20 measures to be taken to create free and fair market competition, while securing supply and grid stability 8

9 Power [kw] Profitable applications of ESS are still very scarce Application areas for energy storage systems Minutes Hours Days kw Local Power storage Voltage, frequency control Peak shaving UPS Energy storage Self consumption Grid upgrade deferral Long term energy storage Energy [kwh] Small off-grid systems MW Decentralized Voltage, frequency control Peak shaving UPS Back-up Systems Grid upgrade deferral Intraday balancing Island systems Local autarky Back-up Systems GW Centralized? Balancing energy Intraday balancing Regional autarky Seasonal balancing Electrochemical storage systems Pumped hydro, CAES Chemical storage systems Source: StoREgio 9

10 Residential PV-storage combinations are getting increasingly popular, starting a big wave Residential ESS for self consumption ct/kwh FIT end customer price wholesale price Cost of generation, PV Increasing spread provides incentive for self consumption? ESS allow increasing self consumption rate from ~20% to ~60% Small scale PV (<10kWp) exempted from EEG-charges, above 40% of EEG Behind the meter applications exempted from grid fees and taxes Good feeling to become self-supplied > residential ESS installed in 2015 Utilities get under pressure to offer alternatives reinventing their business models Community storage systems expected as one possible answer! 10

11 PV-storage combination still more expensive than PV alone, but cheaper than total grid supply Profitability analysis residential ESS Typical residential situation: 4000kWh/a consumption; Excess production; 590kWh 5,4kWp PV; 850kWh/kWp; FIT - CoG 4590kWh/a PV-generation 6kWh ESS VAT Profit margin Electricity tax Other charges Grid-charges EEG-charges Purchase price 0,26 /kwh Price +3% p.a. Cost of electricity over 20 years [values in Euro] Δ Storage reinvest after 10y 40%; 1600kWh 0,35/kWh av. grid supply %; 1600kWh 0,39/kWh CoG*+CoS 20%; 800kWh 0,10/kWh CoG* Electricity price (resid. customer) Total grid supply Total PV-storage FIT Grid supply Stored PV Direct PV * CoG cost of generation ** CoS cost of storage 11

12 Local utilities have to find new business models adapted to the market trends Position of typical local utility (>800 across Germany) Challenges: Strong dependence on local customers Increasing self-consumption in households and enterprises leads to shrinking sales Peak feed-in of PV leads to higher cost Chances: Strong customer relationship Cross selling of electricity, gas, heat, communication Little complexity! Sale of kwh increasingly unattractive New business models have to focus on value added services Learn from experiences in telecommunication industry 12

13 The Electricity bank business model is currently examined in a pilot project Business model Electricity bank Feed in balance increase Electricity bank Customer accounts Consumption balance decrease + - Virtual unlimited storage Account fees instead of kwh-prices Advantage to customer 100% self consumption Fixed cost of electricity No ESS needed (maintenance, safety, ) Advantage to utility Long term customer bonding Service based business model Additional financial services possible savings / debits interest rates cash machine (electric vehicle) 13

14 Critical question: Will advantages of community ESS outweigh additional fees and charges? Business model Electricity bank qualitative evaluation Residential ESS: Electricity bank with community ESS + No taxes and fees for self consumption + Local backup option Only 60% self consumption High investment, little usage Hidden cost (financing, maintenance, reinvestment, insurance fees, )? + Smaller ESS needed + Less energy loss (Fewer energy stored) + Less ongoing cost + Better opportunity for secondary use Fees and taxes apply (partially) From the national economy perspective community ESS should be preferred 14

15 With further decreasing cost of ESS the account model should become the preferred option Relative accumulated electricity cost over 20 years, depending on starting year 120% 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Reinvestment of ESS after 10 years Grid supply PV without ESS PV with ESS Electricity account Starting year 15

16 The evaluation is preliminary and based on many assumptions! Assumptions taken for evaluation of Electricity bank model Consumer: 4 MWh p.a. consumption 20% direct self consumption 60% self consumption with res. ESS PV-plant: 5,4 kwp 1600 /kwp Price decrease 5% p.a. 850 kwh/kwp Market: FIT: 12 ct/kwh; -6% p.a. until 4 ct/kwh Price: 26 ct/kwh; +3% p.a. Residential ESS: 4 kw, 6kWh 1200 /kwh Reinvest after 10 years Price decrease 8% p.a. 250 full cycles p.a Community ESS: Cost advantage 40% compared to res. ESS per kwh (investment, ongoing cost) Fees and charges : 8 ct/kwh 16

17 The use of ESS for frequency regulation is another potentially attractive application ESS application in control energy markets Principles of frequency control Control energy products 49,8 49,99-100% P/P nom [%] 100% 50,01 50,2 Frequency [Hz] Power Mass inertia Frequency control Secondary control Minute reserve 30s 5min 15min 1h Balancing group compensation Time Control energy products are managed by TSO (4 in Germany)* Frequency control is currently provided by mass inertia and power plants Remuneration purely based on power, not on energy With conventional power plants shutting down, other instruments for frequency control needed Battery systems ideally positioned due to very fast reaction times * For specific information refer to (English version available) 17

18 The use of ESS for frequency regulation is another potentially attractive application Evaluation of ESS application in frequency control First 5MW / 5MWh battery power plant installed in 2014 by Younicos Business case profitable based on historical market data and existing regulation however TSOs are putting specific requirements on battery power plants (BPP) Stand alone BPP would have to provide frequency control over 30min instead of 15min 30min frequency control has to be possible independent of starting SOC of ESS Required capacity of BPP doubles without additional remuneration Business case not profitable under these conditions Requirements by TSOs currently under dispute 18

19 Summary Clear objective from EU to create a single European energy market Clear objective in Germany to limit cost of energy to industry and private customers Several legal frameworks have be or will be revised until end of 2016 Energy Only Market expected in Germany with largely unrestricted competition subsidies for RE to be reduced continuously No subsidies for storage systems but fair treatment compared to other flexibility options First profitable ESS application in residential self consumption Next wave expected in community storage ESS for ancillary services depending on final legislation Successful ESS providers need to offer full system solution including sophisticated operating and control systems 19

20 StoREgio energy storage system association Thank you for your attention

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