Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology

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1 Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology Gerhard Stryi-Hipp Managing Director BSW - Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.v. German Solar Industry Associa Stralauer Platz 34, Berlin Tel , Fax

2 BSW - Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft German Solar Industry Association TASK Representing German solar branch in the solar thermal energy and photovoltaics sectors VISION A worldwide sustainable energy supply using solar energy ACTIVITIES Lobbying, political advice, public relations, market observation, standardization TIME Over 25 years of activity in the solar energy sector MEMBERS More than 600 solar producers, suppliers, wholesalers, installers and other companies active in the solar field HEADQUARTERS Berlin BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 2

3 Use of Photovoltaics in Germany More than 200,000 PV systems have already been installed 98% of systems are connected to the grid 10 kwp - 1 MWp > 1 MWp 10% ground mounted large PV systems > 1 MWp 50% multi family houses, public and social buildings, farms, commercial plants kwp 2-10 kwp 40% small PV systems on private residential homes 1-10 kwp Image: Voltwerk Image: Solarwatt Image: Solarwatt BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 3

4 Grid-Connection of PV Systems in Germany Every kwh of solar electricity produced is fed into the grid, sold to the utility and payed with a fixed price Photovoltaic modules Feed-in electricity meter Inverter DC/AC Consumption meter BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 4

5 Examples of Off-Grid Systems Thousands of off-grid (standalone) systems have been installed in Germany, e.g. in the traffic and tourism sector: Parking meters Traffic lights Holiday homes Boats and mobile homes Garden lighting Pocket calculators Cigarette machines... BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 5

6 Data German Solar Market 2005 Newly installed power Newly installed solar area Total installed power Total installed solar area No. of newly installed systems No. of total systems installed Turnover 2004 Employees Market growth 2004 Market growth 2005 Solar Thermal 665 MW (therm) m² MW (therm) 6.7 Mio m² Mio % +20%-30% Photovoltaics* 600 MWp (el) m² MWp (el) 13.5 Mio m² Mio % +10%-20% *grid-connected BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 6

7 History of the German PV Market 1991: Electricity Feed-In Act Right of (1) of grid access, (2) feed-in of solar electricity and (3) refund payment at fixed prices (approx. ct8.5 [$ct11] per kwh) : 1,000 Roofs Program Verification of PV systems grid compatibility : Consolidation Only regional support programs, demo plants, development of the cost-covering refund payment system : 100,000 Roofs Program Low-interest loans for 300 MWp of installed capacity 1/4/2000: Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) Solar electricity feed-in tariff of ct51 [$ct64] per kwh 1/1/2004: Amendment to EEG Feed-in tariff of ct [$ct57 78] per kwh annually installed power in MWp German PV market development PV power installed annually and as total total installed power in MWp annually installed grid-connected annually installed off-grid total installed BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 7

8 Subsidy Programs and Market Development in Germany ,000 roofs program: Low-interest loans - Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG): Feed-in tariff [ ct/$ct per kwh] ct 8.5/$ct 10.6 Annually installed PV capacity 5-10 MWp Annual market growth I % interest ct 8.5/$ct MWp % ct 50.6/$ct MWp + 233% II % ct 50.6/$ct MWp + 95% % ct 48.1/$ct MWp + 3% % ct 45.7/$ct MWp + 88% III ct $ct MWp + 233% ct $ct MWp + 20% ct $ct MWp + 10% BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 8

9 How the feed-in law (EEG) is working Principles Every PV system has to be connected to the grid by the utility Every solar kwh which is offered has to be bought by the utility Every solar kwh has to be payed with a fixed price over 20 years The feed-in tariff is reduced every year by 5% for new installed PV-systems Who has to pay the higher PV costs? The costs for PV electricity are covered by all rate payers: 0.56 TWh solar electricity sold for mio 283 [mio$ 340] (appr. 50ct per kwh) (data 2004) Fossil and nuclear electricity (and other renewables) utilities Consumption of 487 TWh Price private consumer: appr. 20ct per kwh Including 0.05ct for PV consumer Price increase for consumer: 0.25% BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 9

10 EEG: Photovoltaic Feed-in Tariffs Feed-in tariffs for PV systems installed in 2006, payed over 20 years Feed-in tariff per kwh up to 30 kwp kwp from 100 kwp on buildings and noise protection walls ct $ct 64.8 ct $ct 61.6 ct 48,74 $ct 60.9 Façade-integrated + ct 5 / $ct 6.25 Open land (ground-mounted) ct / $ct 51.0 BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 10

11 Façade-integrated PV systems Solar Facades BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 11

12 Image:Solar-Fabrik Large Roof-Mounted PV-Systems Image: BP 400 kwp on the Freiburg Trade Fair Building 3.7 MWp on a factory building in Dingolfing BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 12

13 Successful PV Market and Industry Development Increased market volume to 600 MWp $ 10 billion invested in PV systems More than $ 1 billion invested in manufacturing plants for PV components About 40 companies produce silicon, wafers, cells, modules and inverters Modern and automated production lines Strong technological development and increased R&D activities Strengthened photovoltaics market structures 30,000 jobs have been created and secured Drop in costs for PV systems of approx. 25% from 1999 to 2003 and 60% from 1991 to 2003 Increased export ability through increased production capacity Image: Q-Cells Image: Solon BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 13

14 Why is Solar Energy Being Used in Germany? Germans know that the fast growing oil price shows that energy supply is limited due to the growing effects of the climate change we have to drastically reduce CO 2 emissions Solar energy has to be developed today because only renewable energy is sustainable solar energy is available everywhere solar energy is needed in the future energy mix the price will be reduced dramatically by mass production solar industry is offering future-oriented jobs solar energy will be a big worldwide bussiness Hurricane Katrina 2005 => We have to start the development of PV-technology and PV-industry today in order to have enough solar technology available in 1-2 decades at a competitive price BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 14

15 Status of the Use of Solar Thermal Energy in Germany Operations in Germany systems in single/double-family homes More than 600 public swimming pools are solar heated Several large solar thermal systems for industrial applications Several solar district heating systems with and without seasonal storage Some solar cooling systems BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 15

16 Standard System for Domestic Hot Water Production Typical data Flat-plate or vacuum tube collector for 4-person household: 5-6m² collector area l. solar storage tank Costs ~ 4,000 5,000 [$5,000 6,250] incl. installation 99% forced circulated system Solar station with controls and circulation pump Water storage tank Water boiler: oil, gas new: wood pellets seldom: elec. power Market share: 55% Cold water inlet BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 16

17 DHW system with flat-plate collectors on a single-family home BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 17

18 DHW system with vacuum tubes mounted on the façade BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 18

19 Typical Solar Thermal Energy Combined System for DHW and room heating support Solar station with controls and circulation pump Flat-plate or vacuum-tube collector Combined solar thermal system 8-15m² collector area 500-1,000 liter combined storage tank Costs ~ 10,000 15,000 [$12,500 18,500] Forced circulated system Market share: 45% Buffer storage Dom. hot water storage Heating circles Cold water inlet Boiler BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 19

20 Combined solar thermal system for DHW and room heating support on a single-family home (right, left: PV system) BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 20

21 30 Years of Solar Thermal Experience 70s: Oil crisis, first boom 80s: Recession on solar market 90s: Steadily growing market with an annual growth rate of 35% New motivation Environmental protection: Waldsterben, Chernobyl Security of energy supply 910 Climate protection Fascination of simple active 700 principle Tenfold increase in installed 490 collector area from 90,000m² in to 900,000m² in Market crash in Recovery since 2002, growing market Heat power [Megawatt] German Solar Thermal market development power installed annually and as total * flat plate coll vakuum tube coll trend 18% growth annually Coll area [1,000 m²] BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 21

22 The future: Solar Thermal Roof BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 22

23 Private house, 100% heated by renewables, 70% by solar BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 23

24 Conclusions The German PV market is growing very fast Driver of the German market is the feed-in tariff for solar electricity German companies are investing a lot in new production facilities The limitation of PV modules is caused by limited Silicon availability, new Silicon production lines are under construction Solar Thermal market is growing since 15 years, German companies are market leader in Europe Today there is a strong demand on Solar Thermal Systems due to the oil price increase Solar Assisted Cooling is under development Vision: 100% solar-heated homes BSW 2006 Solar from Germany 24

25 Thank you very much for your attention Image: BSW 2006 SMA Solar from Germany 25

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