BDEW: The Leading Association of the German Energy and Water Industries

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1 Seite 1 Integrated Pollution Control and Cooling of Power Plants Eurelectric Workshop: Blueprint to safeguard Europe s Waters: the Role of the Power Sector Brussels, 20 September 2012 Martin Ruhrberg (German Association of Energy and Water Industries) BDEW: The Leading Association of the German Energy and Water Industries 1,800 member companies representing 90% 90% 65% 80% 30% 95 % 95 % of electricity sales of natural gas sales of local and district heat supply of drinking water abstraction of wastewater disposal of the persons employed in the energy and water industries of the investments of the energy and water industries The total sector stands for a turnover of 130 billion Euros.** * Data for 2010; ** Turnover from electricity and drinking water sales to end consumers as well as from end consumers wastewater disposal Seite 2

2 Seite 2 The German Public Electricity Sector Facts and Figures (2011) Electricity generation: 528 TWh el Installed net capacity: 156,700 MW Number of employees: 132,400 Annual Turnover: 70,000 million Euros Annual Investments: 10,000 million Euros Source: BDEW Seite 3 Thermal Generation Capacity (German Public Sector 2011) Major water users for: cooling process/steam cycle flue gas cleaning Medium water users for: process/steam cycle flue gas cleaning Minor or not relevant water users, e.g. for: NOx-abatement (water injection) Sources: DESTATIS,BDEW Seite 4

3 Seite 3 Regulatory Framework for Power Sector (other than Water Policy) Energy Efficiency Directive Nuclear policy Cooling tower Once through cooling Process water Flue gas cleaning water Industrial Emissions Directive Renewable Directive Seite 5 Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (IED) Prevention of pollution and, if not feasible, reduction to achieve a high level of protection for the environment as a whole Permit needs to contain permit conditions including emission limit values (ELVs) for pollutants based on the use of best available techniques (BAT) Art. 13 (5): Adoption of BAT conclusions by the European Commission through comitology (Art. 75 IED Committee) Art. 14 (3): BAT conclusions are the reference for setting permit conditions Art. 15 (3): Permit must contain ELVs to ensure that emissions do not exceed BAT associated emission levels (BAT AELs) Art. 15 (4): Limited scope for derogations (disproportionate cost) Art. 21 (3): Permit reconsideration: 4 years maximum after new BAT conclusions are published for the main activity Seite 6

4 Seite 4 European IPPC Bureau: The Sevilla Process Industry TWG kick-off meeting Member States + EFTA and Accession Countries Draft 1 (D1) Bulk of info needed filled-in questionnaires reports Source: case studies other EIPPC Bureau 2011 info mapping sheets Draft 2 (D2) Final TWG meeting Final draft BREF BAT conclusions Comments Forum opinion on BREF Adoption of BAT conclusions through IED committee BAT conclusions Seite 7 BREF Large Combustion Plants (LCP)

5 Seite 5 Workflow for the Revision of the BREF Large Combustion Plants (LCP) Reactivation of Technical Working Group (TWG) Feb Kick-Off-Meeting Oct Template/Data collection for potential BAT candidates 2012 First draft / Second draft BREF 2013/2014 Final TWG Meeting: Final draft BREF 2014 Seite 9 BREF LCP: Draft Structure 1. General information 2. Common processes and techniques for energy generation 3. Common/general processes and techniques applied to prevent/reduce emissions and consumptions Fuel/process specific chapters: Gasification/liquification/pyrolysis of fuels Combustion of solid/liquid/gaseous fuels Multi-fuel combustion and waste co-incineration 9. Emerging techniques 10. BAT Conclusions 11. Concluding remarks and recommendations for future work Seite 10

6 Seite 6 BREF LCP: Water-specific Issues 3. Common/general processes and techniques applied to prevent/reduce emissions and consumptions Techniques to control releases to water Waste water from water treatment plants Waste water from cooling circuit systems Waste water from steam generation processes Waste water from flue gas cleaning systems Sanitary waste water Waste water treatment techniques Other waste waters Cooling techniques Seite 11 BREF LCP: Fuel-specific Chapters (Example) 5.1 Combustion of coal and lignite Applied processes and techniques Water and waste water treatment 5.1.3Current consumption and emission levels Emissions to water (coal / lignite) 5.1.4Techniques to consider in the determination of BAT for the combustion of coal and lignite Techniques for the prevention and control of water pollution Seite 12

7 Seite 7 BREF LCP: Data Collection for ~ 550 potential BAT Reference Plants Energy Efficiency Air emissions Water emissions Solid residues Water use Cooling Point of release, T, ph, emissions, origin and quantity of waste water, monitoring system etc. Raw water treatment facility, water flows, water recycling etc. Local conditions, cooling techniques, coolant etc. etc. Seite 13 BREF Industrial Cooling Systems (ICS)

8 Seite 8 Industrial Cooling Systems (ICS) Scope of BREF ICS from 2001: once-through cooling systems (with or without cooling towers) open recirculating cooling systems (wet cooling towers) closed circuit cooling systems air-cooled cooling systems closed circuit wet cooling systems combined wet/dry (hybrid) cooling systems open hybrid cooling towers Review expected to start in 2015 Proposal to merge the BREFs Energy Efficiency (ENE) and Industrial Cooling Systems (ICS) into a BREF ''Resource Efficiency'' Seite 15 Environmental Requirements Associated with the Design of Cooling Systems minimisation of energy use minimisation of heat emissions minimisation of large plume emissions minimisation of emissions to water minimisation of noise emissions minimisation of emissions to soil and terrestrial habitats The aspects are cross-linked and each choice potentially has its consequences for one of the other aspects. Source: BREF Industrial Cooling Systems Seite 16

9 Seite 9 Site-specific Selection and Design of the Cooling System (Environmental) thermal output, waste heat emissions and water flow rate quantity, quality and costs of cooling medium available effect on the availability and quality of water and on aquatic organisms effect on the quality of air meteorological effects / visible plume (shading) discharges of chemical substances noise/acoustic emissions aesthetic aspects of building and infrastructure (height etc.) STEAG Voerde power plant Seite 17 Site-specific Selection and Design of the Cooling System (Economics) available size (area, height, weight of cooling installations) operating parameters such as minimum service life, annual operating time, average load investment costs operating costs for pumps, fans and water treatment as well as maintenance and repair environmental costs such as taxes and costs for water use, waste water discharges or waste disposal operating requirements such as systems availability and flexibility for power plants: plant efficiency losses, capital expenditure to compensate power output losses, plant lifetime and energy revenue losses due to lower plant efficiency Seite 18

10 Seite 10 Environmental Aspects of once-through Cooling Systems the use of large amounts of water heat emission the risk of fish intake sensitivity to bio-fouling, scaling or corrosion the use of additives and the resulting emissions to water energy consumption, mainly for pumps the risk of leakage from the process stream and the silting-up of sieves at water intake Source: BREF Industrial Cooling Systems Seite 19 Case Study for the German Public Power Sector

11 Seite 11 Water Use for Cooling in 2007 (German Public Electricity Sector) (a) (b) Sources: BDEW (a), DESTATIS (b) Seite 21 Cooling Technology Applied at German Public Thermal Power Plants Source: BDEW elaboration Seite 22

12 Seite 12 Water Use in the German Power Sector for once-through Cooling (a) (b) Sources: DESTATIS (a) BDEW estimate (b) Seite 23 Anticipated Impact of Energy Policy on Water Use for Cooling in Germany Sources: DESTATIS (2007), BDEW est. (2020) Seite 24

13 Seite 13 Conclusions Water use of the power sector is dominated by uses for oncethrough and circuit cooling of condensing and extraction turbines. Selection and design of cooling systems for power plants is complex and site-specific. Water use and emissions to water of the power sector are mainly driven by energy and climate policy developments. Water policy aimed at the power sector must consider cobenefits and draw-backs of energy and climate policy. IED and BREFs developed through the Sevilla process provide a readily available framework for addressing water-related impacts associated with thermal electricity generation. Seite 25

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