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1 Professioal Developmet Coferece for Egieers ad Scietists CUSTOMER CASE STUDY BOOKLET This booklet cotais a broad rage of customer-writte case studies, icludig a selectio of the best submissios to the NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest. These examples show how customers are haressig the power of graphical system desig ad virtual istrumetatio to iovate i virtually every idustry ad across may applicatios, lowerig costs ad icreasig productivity. Lear more at i.com/uk/casestudies i.com/uk/idays i.com/uk/casestudies

2 NIDays 2009 PAPER CONTEST This techical paper cotest showcases the most iovative uses of virtual istrumetatio ad Graphical System Desig i teachig or research as well as from egieers i idustry. NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Wier British Atarctic Survey Airbore Ice-Soudig Radar Usig LabVIEW ad NI PXI Compay: British Atarctic Survey Author: Carl N Robiso Read the paper i full o page 4. Ruers-Up Cotrollig a Dual-Robot System to Provide Upper Limb Therapeutic Exercise to Stroke Patiets Compay: Mechaical Egieerig, Uiversity of Leeds Author: Marti Levesley - Director of the Istitute of Egieerig Systems ad Desig Read the paper i full o page 64. ISIS Proto Sychrotro Beam Data Acquisitio ad Aalysis Usig PXI ad LabVIEW Compay: ISIS - Sciece ad Techology Facilities Coucil Authors: Brya Joes ad Sarah Whitehead Read the paper i full o page 18. NIDays 2010 Paper Cotest The NIDays 2010 Paper Cotest is ow ope. For details of how to eter, please visit i.com/uk/papercotest Grad Prize Oe ticket to NIWeek 2011 i Austi, Texas, i August 2011, icludig flights ad accommodatio, ad a LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT 2.0 (NI will book your flights ad accommodatio). Ruers-Up LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT 2.0 ad a NI Wireless Sesor Network (WSN) Starter Kit. i.com/uk/papercotest i.com/uk/casestudies

3 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Academic/Research British Atarctic Survey Airbore Ice-Soudig Radar Usig LabVIEW ad NI PXI NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Wier British Atarctic Survey 4 Visual Aalysis of Past Climate Data from Atarctic Ice Cores British Atarctic Survey 6 Custom I/O for LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT Usig LabVIEW Cork Istitute of Techology 8 Developig the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT to LogIT Sesor Adaptor Usig LabVIEW DCP Microdevelopmets Ltd. 10 Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Moitorig with LabVIEW Dubli City Uiversity 12 Dyamic Characterisatio of High Velocity Ball Impacts with NI LabVIEW, NI IMAQ Software ad NI PCIe Hardware Dubli City Uiversity 14 Flow Characterisatio of a Resoat Pipe Flow Loughborough Uiversity 16 ISIS Proto Sychrotro Beam Data Acquisitio ad Aalysis Usig PXI ad LabVIEW NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Ruer Up Sciece ad Techology Facilities Coucil 18 Wireless Next Geeratio Car Alarm ad Security System Staffordshire Uiversity 20 Developig a Ultrastable Atomic Force Microscope Based o FPGA Cotrol 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Uiversity of Colorado 22 Aerospace/Defece Developig a Ifrared Detector Cotrol System with NI LabVIEW ad CompactRIO 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Uiversity of Marylad/NASA Goddard Space Flight Ceter, Global Sciece ad Techology Ic. ad Mik Hollow Systems 24 Automotive Testig Clutch Drive Plate Productio with LabVIEW ad NI Hardware NIDays 2008 Paper Cotest Ruer Up NI Tools Keep Ford at the Forefrot of Iovatio 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Applicatio of the Year, Category Wier ad Gree Egieerig Award Computer Cotrolled Solutios Limited 26 Ford Motor Compay 28 High Performace Prototype Cotrol Systems for Formula Studet Race Car Oxford Brookes Uiversity 30 High Performace Electroics for a Formula Studet Race Car Uiversity of Machester 32 Biotechology/Life Scieces NI Helps Flies Watch Movies ad Drive Robots ETH Zürich, Imperial College Lodo, Tufts Uiversity 34 Developig a Novel, Portable Itelliget Greehouse Usig Graphical System Desig 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Moterrey Istitute of Techology 36 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet i.com/uk/idays

4 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Commuicatios/Wireless Developig a Explosive Detectio System Usig Nuclear Quadrupole Resoace, NI LabVIEW ad PXI Hardware 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Natioal Maritime Research Istitute 38 Embedded Desig Usig Graphical System Desig to Help Premature Ifats Lear to Oral Feed 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier ad Humaitaria Award KC BioMediX Ic. 40 Automatic FPGA Reprogrammig i a Expadable Data Acquisitio System Product Techology Parters Ltd. 42 Idustrial Measuremets ad Cotrol Eergy Maagemet ad Real Time Eergy Moitorig System Austi Cosultats Ltd. 44 Materials Laboratories (Creep Test) Data Logger with CompactRIO Austi Cosultats Ltd. 47 Developig a Supercritical Steam Test Facility with NI Software ad Hardware 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Aalysig Olie Images with LabVIEW for Papermakig Formatio Cotrol NIDays 2008 Paper Cotest Wier Developig a Model-based Predictive Cotrol System for Paperboard Refiig Captroic Systems Pvt. Ltd. 48 Iggesud Workigto Mill 50 Iggesud Paperboard Ltd. 54 Creatig a LabVIEW Driver Library for Gree Eergy Techologies (GET) Split-Pi Power Cotroller Ispectio Istrumetatio & Techology Services (IITS) Ltd. 56 LOWSTIR Developig a Reduced Cost Frictio Stir Weldig System Sigmapi Systems Ltd. 58 Precisio Servo-Hydraulic Cotrol Usig LabVIEW FPGA ad PXI Hardware NIDays 2008 Paper Cotest Ruer Up 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Fialist Product Techology Parters Ltd. 60 Remote Moitorig of Cliics Deployed i Malawi, Africa Uiversity of the West of Scotlad 62 Mechatroics/Robotics/Cotrol Cotrollig a Dual-Robot System to Provide Upper Limb Therapeutic Exercise to Stroke Patiets 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier ad Editors Choice Award, NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Ruer Up Uiversity of Leeds Leeds Primary Care NHS Trust 64 Smart ROV Latis : Flexible Survey Platform for Surface ad Uderwater Operatios Uiversity of Limerick 66 2 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet i.com/uk/idays

5 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Productio Automated Test Equipmet (ATE) Automated Audio Amplifier Maufacturig Test System Usig NI LabVIEW ad TestStad Buildig a Recofigurable Motor Life Test System for Medical Device Test Powered by FPGA 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Beetel Ltd., Irelad 68 Cal-Bay Systems Ic. 70 Geeric CCD Acquisitio Program with Exteral Equipmet Cotrol E2V Techologies (UK) 72 Usig LabVIEW Scriptig to Eforce Good Programmig Practice Structured Software Desig Cosultats (SSDC) 76 Prototype/Validatio Test Developmet of a Electroic Stability Program (ESP) Hardware-i-the-Loop (HIL) Simulatio Based o NI PXI ad CompactRIO 2009 Graphical System Desig Achievemet Awards Category Wier Tsighua Uiversity 78 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet i.com/uk/idays 3

6 Academic/Research NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Wier British Atarctic Survey Airbore Ice-Soudig Radar Usig LabVIEW ad NI PXI Carl N Robiso, British Atarctic Survey The Challege Ivestigate the ier workigs of glaciers ad ice sheets by studyig the ature of the ice. A ew system was required that utilised moder acquisitio ad processig to improve the depth soudig capabilities as well as vertical ad spatial resolutio to facilitate high-quality sciece. The Solutio The LabVIEW graphical programmig eviromet was used to desig the user iterface, acquire data, maage system cofiguratio, record the radar ice depth soudigs ad provide a real-time display. LabVIEW, combied with PXI modular istrumetatio ad some third party compoets, provided the flexibility to deliver ot oly a stable radar platform, but also a glaciological research tool. Products: LabVIEW 8.2 Soud ad Vibratio Order Aalysis Toolkit NI 8-bit, 100 MHz Digitizer Sice it became apparet i the 1960s that radar could be used to ivestigate the ier workigs of glaciers ad ice sheets, the UK has bee at the forefrot of developig techologies that facilitate high-quality sciece. Curret programmes require kowledge of what lies withi ad beeath the ice sheet. Specifics iclude studyig the ature of the ice, surveyig isochroal layers, the effect of the structure ad orietatio of ice crystals o flow dyamics ad the role of subglacial water ad bedrock roughess o fast glacier flow. The previous BAS radar system had become out dated, uable to provide the data scietists eeded. A ew system was required that utilised moder digital acquisitio ad processig to improve the depth soudig capabilities ad provide improved vertical ad spatial resolutio so that aperture sythesis could be performed. Usig LabVIEW, PXI Modular Istrumetatio ad third party compoets, otably a Radstoe board utilisig a custom FPGA, the ew radar was created. The LabVIEW graphical programmig eviromet was used to desig the user iterface, acquire data, maage system cofiguratio, record the radar ice depth soudigs ad provide real-time data display. The resultig system uses PXI modular hardware, closely itegrated with software, to replace the radar system developed i the 90s. LabVIEW provides the flexibility to deliver ot oly a stable radar platform, but also a glaciological research tool. The British Atarctic Survey (BAS) Cambridge-based British Atarctic Survey (BAS), a compoet of the Natural Eviromet Research Coucil, is a world leader i research ito global evirometal issues. With a aual budget of aroud 45 millio, five Atarctic Research Statios, two Royal Research Ships ad five aircraft, BAS udertakes a iterdiscipliary research programme ad plays a active ad ifluetial role i Atarctic affairs. BAS has joit research projects with over 40 UK uiversities ad has more tha 120 atioal ad iteratioal collaboratios. More iformatio about the work of the Survey ca be foud at: Atarctica the Last Frotier o Earth Atarctica is oe of the least uderstood cotiets o Earth. It is the coldest, widiest, highest cotiet with over 99% of its surface submerged beeath thick ice. There is icreasig iteratioal awareess of the pivotal role that Atarctica plays i the global climate ad geodyamic systems. The stability of the Atarctic ice sheet i a warmig climate is of sigificat societal relevace because of its repercussios o global sea-level rise. If all the ice melted, the sea level would rise by over 60 metres. Atarctica Aerogeophysics Research Airbore geophysics is a prime tool to explore ice sheets, image subglacial eviromets ad to study associated geological features. The British Atarctic Survey is at the forefrot i airbore geophysical survey, havig developed a ehaced aerogeophysical platform, comprisig ice-soudig radar, aeromagetic ad aerogravity sesors. The platform is istalled i a ski equipped De Havillad DH-6 Twi Otter which is capable of operatig from remote field camps off u-groomed ruways. The ew i-house radar (PASIN) utilises LabVIEW ad is capable of surveyig ice surface, ice thickess, bedrock cofiguratios, iteral ice layerig ad subglacial lakes. The radar system has successfully explored three key regios of Atarctica as part of major iteratioal projects with the US ad Italia Atarctic Programmes: the Amudse Sea Embaymet, the Wilkes Subglacial Basi ad the Gamburtsev Subglacial Moutais. Durig the AGAP seaso the PXI chassis rugged desig survived the harsh Atarctic eviromet. The Atarctica s Gamburtsev Provice (AGAP) project was oe of the most ambitious, challegig ad adveturous deep field Atarctic missios of the Iteratioal Polar Year. The Gamburtsev subglacial moutais are thought to be the birthplace of the vast East Atarctic Ice Sheet that covers 10 millio km2 of our plaet greater tha the area of the USA. Workig for weeks at high altitude, the sciece teams worked i some of the harshest coditios imagiable. Seve atios pooled their resources to support the project the British team acquired almost 80,000 lie kilometres of data, the equivalet of two trips aroud the globe. 4 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet British Atarctic Survey

7 Academic/Research Durig the AGAP seaso, the PXI chassis rugged desig survived the harsh Atarctic eviromet overcomig the -30 C ambiet temperatures ad high vibratio levels from the aircraft. With oly a short weather widow of three weeks, the team worked aroud the clock. The PXI-based measuremet system performed flawlessly; 8 Terabytes of data were collected. To cover the large dyamic rage of the received echoes, the flexible radar desig trasmits a sequece of pulses of differet amplitudes ad codig. O receptio these are sorted ad processed. The coheret system operates at a cetre frequecy of 150 MHz ad 12 MHz badwidth ad is capable of either covetioal or polarimetric operatio. Data badwidth of 20 Mbytes/sec gives a alog-track samplig of 20 cm, allowig SAR post-processig to give a spatial resolutio of 1m. Depth resolutio is govered by pulse type, period ad badwidth ad with this system is typically 8 m. Data is stored o dual-redudat removable media. A 4.5 hour flight covers aroud 1,000 km ad will geerate aroud 150 GB of data. Advaced radar post-processig is carried out back at Cambridge o Su data servers, to produce corrected, compesated, calibrated ad georefereced radar data. East Atarctic Ice Sheet Radar Data LabVIEW-Based Radar LabVIEW was chose because of its ability to itegrate cuttigedge electroics easily ito the radar system. A Alliace member was cosulted to lay the programmig foudatios ad this allowed us to quickly develop the radar ad easily optimise the setup to achieve the best results. The radar system is comprised of a arbitrary waveform geeratio (AWG) card, cofigured usig LabVIEW. A chirp waveform is geerated by the AWG ad the trasmitted to the four ateas o the port wig via a four chael trasmitter LabVIEW became very apparet with ability to do high-speed samplig ad achieve a very good sigal-to-oise ratio, meaig we ca study locatios beeath thick ice. operatig at 150 MHz. Four aerials o the starboard wig of the aircraft receive the reflected radio waves from the ice surface, iteral layers ad the bed beeath the ice. A high-gai stable RF amplifier amplifies the retured sigal prior to digital sigal processig. A software-radio desig was implemeted i the digital receiver board ad a customised FPGA performed sigal stackig ad dow coversio. All the required sychroised clocks are produced by a i-house developed card. Oce the sigal has bee coverted ito the digital domai, LabVIEW streams the data to hard drives ad performs fast digital sigal processig to produce a real-time waterfall display ad a aalogue scope to show the surface, bed ad some of the stroger iterals. Throughout the developmet stages ad testig, the beefits of LabVIEW became very apparet with ability to do high-speed samplig ad achieve a very good sigal-to-oise ratio, meaig we ca study locatios beeath thick ice. To date the radar has souded through 4,560 metres of ice. Advatage of a NI Solutio LabVIEW provided our egieers ad scietists with a programmig eviromet that allowed software to be developed quickly ad easily. Itegratio with existig ad ew scietific equipmet is quick ad effective. The support ad expertise NI has provided has proved ivaluable, savig hours of testig ad redesigs ad allowig the system to be ready at the seaso s start. LabVIEW was chose because of its ability to itegrate cuttigedge electroics easily ito the radar system Usig NI PXI ad LabVIEW, PASIN ca be easily maitaied ad updated to the latest samplig techiques ad CompactPCl boards to keep the radar platform curret. The use of NI equipmet ad LabVIEW has exteded beyod the airbore survey radar applicatio ad is used also for groud based radars, magetic ad GPS base statios, BAS s metrological airbore survey system, data coversio ad other scietific istrumets at BAS. The future itroductio of FlexRIO will allow the developmet of the radar system to keep pace with the sciece requiremets. For more iformatio, cotact: Carl N Robiso British Atarctic Survey High Cross Madigley Road Cambridge, UK Tel: Web: British Atarctic Survey i.com/uk/idays 5

8 Academic/Research Visual Aalysis of Past Climate Data from Atarctic Ice Cores Mr Jack Triest, Ice Core Drillig Egieer British Atarctic Survey, UK The Challege Accurately obtai ad combie differet raw datasets ad images from ice cores, for comprehesive scietific aalysis i order to better uderstad past climate ad climate chage. The Solutio Iovative suite of LabVIEW programs, usig VISA, GPIB, DAQ ad IMAQ, for semi-automatic maipulatio ad visualizatio of dielectric data ad images from 650 ice cores to quickly form a easy to uderstad ad accurate dataset for scietific aalysiswhich is fully customizable ad easy to distribute at low cost. Products: LabVIEW 8.2 GPIB-USB-HS USB 9211A NIDAQ-mx NI GPIB NI VISA NI IMAQ Visio Itroductio to Ice Core Research Ice cores are drilled i may locatios throughout the world with the aim to gai a better uderstadig of ice sheet behaviour ad to uravel the itricacies of Earths past climate. They provide a fasciatig ad detailed record of our palaeo-climate, i cases goig back some yrs, which is determied by measurig, amogst other thigs, desity, electrical properties ad chemical compositio. These properties vary greatly with depth ad are largely determied by the formatio of idividual ice crystals as show i Figure 1. of the data ad is leadig to ew scietific isights. The followig paragraphs highlight three of the programs that were developed for the differet tasks. Dielectric Profilig Istrumetatio Dielectric profilig measures the AC capacitace ad iductace of the ice. These properties vary with the bulk soluble chemical cotet, ad show both seasoal ad loger term treds, particularly the cotrast betwee ice deposited i warm ad i glacial climates. Figure 2 is showig the user iterface for a custom oe-off developed istrumet to measure the dielectric properties of the ice cores i a repeatable ad automatic way. It ca be easily operated by ay user ad is developed i such a way that it virtually elimiates user error. The istrumet is usig the followig key compoets: GPIB : Cotrol of Agilet HP 4284A Precisio LCR meter. VISA : Cotrol of RS232 cotrolled stepper motor cotroller (TechoSoft). DAQ : Plug ad play cotrol of temperature measuremets with USB9211A series. The istrumet was developed with limited LabVIEW kowledge ad with a small budget ad time costrait yet has prove to be reliable ad accurate eve after measurig 365 m of ice core. Figure 1. Thi sectio ice crystals uder polarized light The most recet British Atarctic Survey (BAS) ice corig project successfully completed drillig a 365 m deep ice core o James Ross Islad, situated of the orther tip of the Atarctic Peisula. This ice, totallig 650 idividual ice core sectios, each 55 cm log, was trasported back to the UK for further processig ad detailed aalysis i collaboratio with several Europea Istitutes. This paper outlies a iovative suite of LabVIEW based programs which are specifically developed to obtai, work up ad combie the various datasets i a very accurate, efficiet ad cost-effective maer. It is crucial that the data obtaied from the ice cores is meticulously orgaized, checked ad documeted for i-depth scietific iterpretatio. There are may idividual files to be opeed, maipulated, combied, archived ad visualised. The ability to very quickly develop custom tools with LabVIEW, eve with very little LabVIEW experiece, was key to performig these tasks to a ew level of accuracy with speed ad ease. The iovative method of automatically displayig the data graphs o top of the relevat ice core image, at the correct scale, with a sigle click from the user iterface, eabled better uderstadig Figure 2. Dielectric Profilig Istrumet User Iterface Greyscale Aalysis Software High resolutio lie-sca images from ice core slabs were take at the Alfred Weger Istitute, Bremerhave, Germay. These images were the semi-automatically cropped ad adjusted usig the IMAQ 6 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet British Atarctic Survey

9 Academic/Research Visio tools to esure cosistet use i the automatic Greyscale Aalysis Software as show below i Figure 3. This is a custom program to detect ad quatify melt-layers i the ice core images. Its is usig several iovative methods such as: Adjustable scaig resolutios to allow for better cotrol of the results. Scaled graph display over the image esures accurate ad The graph i Figure 4 is showig the origial, accurately positioed, DEP data (red lie) together with the origial (yellow) ad redistributed (blue) ECM data. The user ca accurately set the crop positio usig the mouse cotrolled cross-hairs ad the software automatically crops ad redistributes the data poits of the ECM data to match the DEP data ad saves the file. istat verificatio of the data. Combiig pixel lie averagig with multiple sca agles to detect thi layers eve whe at a agle. Batch scaig of all or a set umber of files with the data automatically writte to txt or xls file types. Figure 3. Greyscale Lie Average Tool User Iterface showig data plot o top of ice core image. The most recet British Atarctic Survey (BAS) ice corig project successfully completed drillig a 365 m deep ice core o James Ross Islad, situated of the orther tip of the Atarctic Peisula. Electrical Coductivity ad DEP Data Software I additio to dielectric measuremets, as detailed above, electrical coductivity data is also obtaied from the freshly cut ice cores. This techique measures the DC coductivity flowig across a pair of electrodes uder a potetial of 1000 V ad respods particularly to the seasoal acidic compoets that are foud at the ice grai boudaries, givig a o-destructive way of displayig a seasoal sigal for datig the core by layer coutig. These measuremets are ormally take with a had-held istrumet ad the data is stored i txt files. For a full uderstadig of the electrical properties of the ice the two differet datasets eed to be combied i a accurate ad cosistet maer for each of the 650 cores. The ECM Data Redistributio Tool allows for automatic opeig of the relevat data files with a sigle click ad displays the data over the ice core lie-sca image which is resultig i a better uderstadig of the data ad allows for accurate croppig of the ECM data (which cotai may o-relevat data poits at both the start ad the ed). Figure 4. Data Redistributio Tool showig the iovative crop fuctio by usig the cross hairs. This software eabled the 650 idividual files to be accurately cropped withi a few hours, a task which before would have takig sigificatly loger if the time was take i the first place. The ease of performig this task with this software is already leadig to ew isights ad scietific queries. Aother major beefit is the clear locatio of breaks i the ice core which ca be easily idetified ad the accordig data tagged as NaN therefore miimisig aomalies i the dataset. I additio to the above, other smaller programs have bee writte to automatically reame files, check for duplicates, check for missig data ad to visualise the data i a variety of ways. This is resultig i miimal mistakes ad is opeig up itriguig ew isights as a result of more reliable detail. This suite of programs is a great example of the versatility ad ease of usig the graphical system desig i particular for: Ease of software distributio. Plug ad play for rapid developmet. Allows for easy use ad adaptatio of older existig software. Ca be used for hardware cotrol through to data presetatio. Prompt ad focused support from NI egieers ad users of the iteret forum. Wide rage of developmet tools (USB, Motio Cotrol RS232, GPIB, VISA, IMAQ, DAQ). Ease to alterate ad expad or adapt i the future eve by other, o-egieers, i-house. For more iformatio, cotact: Jack Triest, British Atarctic Survey Cambridge, Uited Kigdom British Atarctic Survey i.com/uk/idays 7

10 Academic/Research Custom I/O for LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT Usig LabVIEW Emmet O Brie Cork Istitute of Techology, Irelad Doal O Doova Cork Istitute of Techology, Irelad The Challege Itroduce udergraduate studets from various disciplies to the cocepts of embedded systems developmet ad mobile robotics i a egagig ad ejoyable fashio usig a problembased learig approach. The Solutio NI LabVIEW ad LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT were adopted as a rapid prototypig platform. The rage of potetial problems that may be posed to the studets was icreased by developig iterface circuitry uder direct LabVIEW cotrol that allowed custom electroic sesor ad driver circuits to be iterfaced to the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT brick. Products: LabVIEW LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT The objective is to desig a robotics module to itroduce udergraduate studets from various egieerig ad computer sciece disciplies to the cocepts ad skills required for the developmet of embedded systems solutios i a egagig maer. The ultimate goal of the module is to expose the studets to the fudametal cocepts of cotrol theory ad artificial itelligece. The module is iteded for studets from a rage of disciplies with varyig degrees of computer programmig skills. So, it is importat that the techology platform adopted is sufficietly ituitive to be leared quickly but also possesses the ability to permit the abstract cocepts ivolved to be implemeted. Similarly, the level of structural skills possessed by the studets also varies broadly. Havig cosidered a umber of hardware/software platforms, it was decided to adopt LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT ad Natioal Istrumets LabVIEW as the techological platform of the module. This combiatio permits the emphasis of the module to be focused o the egieerig cocepts ivolved. The modularity of the LEGO platform ad the ituitive ature of the graphical iterface of LabVIEW fulfil these requiremets. Project Goal Durig the module s delivery it became apparet that the rage of potetial projects that may be proposed to the studets could be icreased if custom sesors ad drive circuitry, which are ot supplied as stadard with the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT kit, could be attached to the NXT cotroller brick. Thus, the project goal is to develop a series of electroic iterfaces that expad the NXT brick s ability to commuicate with custom aalogue ad digital sesor ad drive circuits usig existig work as a basis. The LEGO NXT Iterface The LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT was released i It is a ehaced versio of the Robot Ivetio System released by LEGO i There are four sesor ports o the NXT brick that allow aalogue ad digital iformatio to be passed to ad from the brick. Each sesor port cosists of six wires. The fuctio associated with each wire is summarised i Table 1. Pi Number Name Fuctio 1 ANA Aalogue I/O 2 GND Groud 3 GND Groud 4 POWER 4.3V supply 5 DIGIO Serial Clock Lie-SCL 6 DIGIO Serial Data Lie-SDA Table1. Pi-out cofiguratio for a typical NXT sesor port Pi 1 ca be used as a aalogue iput or as a 9 V power supply to the old RCX sesors. If used as a iput the sigal is coected to a 10-bit ADC. Pis 2 ad 3 are groud pis ad all sigals are measured with referece to these pis. Pi 4 is the 4.3 V power supply ad is the mai supply for the sesors ad the sesor iterface IC s. A total curret of 180 ma may be supplied, which is divided across the seve ports. So, each port receives approximately 25 ma o average. However, curret cosumptio may be icreased o a particular port if aother port cosumes less. If a sesor eeds more curret the a exteral power source is ecessary. Pis 5 ad 6 are the digital I/O pis ad are coected to the microprocessor. They are primarily used for I2C commuicatios, they correspod to the SDA ad SCL lies. The custom I/O coectors used by the NXT. A/D Iterface The Philips PCF8591 itegrated circuit (IC) is a 8-bit A/D ad D/A coverter. It is a sigle chip, sigle supply low power data acquisitio device. It has four aalogue iputs, oe aalogue output ad a serial I2C bus iterface (SDA, SCL). A umeric cotrol is used to select the NXT iput ports to be used. While the sub-vi output cotais the result of the voltage o iput AI0 from the 10K pot o the ADC sesor iterface. D/A Iterface The TDA8444 IC is a octuple, 6-bit DAC from Philips. Each DAC may be programmed separately by a 6-bit data word to 64 values (0-63) so the outputs smallest chage is 3 V/64=0.046 V. At powerup, all the DAC s will be at their lowest value of 0.27 V. The serial I2C lies are pis 3 (SDA) ad 4 ad (SCL). Digital I/O Iterface The PCF8574 IC is a I2C, 8-bit quasi bi-directioal port. It is a remote I/O expader; the IC has eight pis that are programmable as iputs ad outputs (P0-P7). The IC also has three programmable address bits A0, A1 ad A2 via the I2C iterface. The IC is powered 8 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Cork Istitute of Techology

11 Academic/Research Havig cosidered a umber of hardware/software platforms, it was decided to adopt LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT ad Natioal Istrumets LabVIEW as the techological platform of the module. from the NXT s 4.3V pi ad the groud pis. The pis P0-P7 may be programmed separately as iputs or outputs. a b c Implemetatios of (a) digital I/O (b) ADC ad (c) DAC iterfaces usig the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT brick ad LabVIEW 7.1 Results The followig images demostrate the operatio of various circuits usig the LabVIEW sub-vis. Coclusios Experiece i the lab has demostrated that the LabVIEW graphical eviromet i cojuctio with LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT is a effective ad egagig toolset for itroducig udergraduate studets to embedded systems programmig techiques ad mobile robotics cocepts. The ability to coect electroic circuits to the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT brick usig the A/D, D/A ad digital I/O iterface modules discussed above permits the rage of problems that may be posed to studets to be expaded. For more iformatio, cotact: Doal O Doova Cork Istitute of Techology Cork, Irelad Cork Istitute of Techology i.com/uk/idays 9

12 Academic/Research Developig the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT to LogIT Sesor Adaptor Usig NI LabVIEW Mark Fich DCP Microdevelopmets Ltd. The Challege To produce a adaptor for the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT cotroller allowig the coectio of the LogIT Microsese rage of sesors. This is to eable the use of both robotics ad data loggig as supported by the LEGO MINDSTORMS program. The Solutio The solutio was to make use of the I 2 C protocol to commuicate the sesor ID ad raw umerical value from the Microsese sesor to the NXT. The request for this iformatio would be programmed i a coveiet LEGO NXT sesor block, costructed usig the NXT toolkit withi LabVIEW. Products: NI LabVIEW NXT Developmet kit LEGO MINDSTORMS Versio 2.0 The LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT talks to the LogIT NXT adapter via I2C commads. Iside the adapter is a microcotroller that performs various fuctios depedig o the commads received, such as what sesor has bee plugged i to the adaptor ad what is the value beig measured. The LabVIEW solutio builds o the basic sesor template supplied withi the NXT toolkit. The major chages beig i the sesor sub VI, Draw sesor VI, Cofig sesor VI ad the additio of various VI s to eable the LEGO MINDSTORMS data loggig solutio to fuctio. New VI s iclude readig from the adaptors microcotroller ad formattig the data to appear o the NXT s LCD scree with suitable uits ad sesor descriptio. What was foud extremely useful at this stage was workig through the Creatig LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT Software Blocks booklet available from Natioal Istrumets LEGO site ad also the LabVIEW Toolkit for LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT Programmig Guide agai available from Natioal Istrumets as a dowload. These were dowloaded from i.com/academic/midstorms. DCP had previously bee ivolved with the LEGO RCX data brick ad so it was a atural progressio to produce a versio to work with the ew NXT. Iitial trials bega by usig the aalogue to digital lies used by the NXT. It quickly became apparet that Oce the adaptor s microcotroller was programmed to respod to specific istructios, the sesor block could be costructed withi LabVIEW. This meat the ed user does ot eed to calibrate the sesors before use. this could cause iaccuracy problems due to differet referece voltages used by each system with the NXT usig 0 to 5 volts ad DCP s Microsese system usig 0 to 2.5 volts. The solutio was to use the I2C digital lies so that the adaptor would referece 0 to 2.5 volts ad the NXT would the simply request the values from the adaptor whe required. Oce the adaptor s microcotroller was programmed to respod to specific istructios, the sesor block could be costructed withi LabVIEW. This meat the ed user does ot eed to calibrate the sesors before use. The sesor block templates supplied withi the NXT module were modified for use with the adaptor but all compatibility with NXT show with LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT to LogIT sesor adaptor ad Humidity sesor. the LEGO MINDSTORMS program was retaied allowig full itegratio with other LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT blocks. The dataloggig applicatio i versio 2.0 of LEGO MINDSTORMS also was seamlessly itegrated usig LabVIEW. This offers educatioal establishmets the opportuity to perform both Robotic ivestigatios ad data loggig with oe package. Oce the basic format of the sesor block had bee decided upo, the ext problem was figurig out what outputs would be required by ed users to eable the highest level of flexibility ad usability. The output requiremets for the sesor blocks. The first requiremet from the sesor block was some form of Formatted Text output of the sesors data. This would eable the sesors idetity, uits ad value to be displayed o the NXT LCD scree without first havig to covert the umeric ito text. This was doe usig a sub VI which was passed the sesors uit ame eg. Temp for temperature, the uits of measure eg. OC ad the umber of decimal poits the sesor produces. We have sesors which produce decimal poits i the rage of 0 to 4 ad so the ability of the sub VI to hadle a rage of decimal poits was importat. I additio to displayig the sesor values, the sub VI is fed the rage values for the sesor. This eables a suitable rage error message to be displayed should the sesors data fall outside specificatio. The ext requiremet was for a simple umerical output of the sesor value. This could be used to cotrol Robots but also for use with the data loggig part of the LEGO MINDSTORMS 10 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet DCP Microdevelopmets Ltd.

13 Academic/Research program. After obtaiig the data bits from the adaptors micro, a simple set of mathematical coversios are performed (each will deped o the sesor that the block is desiged for) ad the umerical value outputted from the block. This umerical output ca be used for compariso fuctios ad forms part of the NXT s Boolea logic programmig. Electrosmog sesor coected to NXT Robot. Whilst our sesor adaptor has bee desiged to fuctio with ay of the Microsese rage, the blocks are desiged for specific sesors. This preseted a challege i that if a temperature block is used with a humidity sesor for example, the at best a rage error is displayed or at worst the wrog values are recorded. To provide a fuctioal solutio for the NXT user, a Boolea fuctio was required which idetifies the plugged i sesor ad with a quick compariso withi the LabVIEW code, ca state if the correct sesor is beig used with the correct sesor block. This was achieved by usig the uique idetity code which all Microsese sesors have to idetify themselves. This code is simply read usig the microcotroller from the sesor ad the a compariso with the kow ID code performed i LabVIEW. A simple Boolea SesorOK logic idicator is subsequetly used. I additio to the Boolea sesor check, we also implemeted a simple umeric sesor ID which outputted the uique umeric umber of the sesor. Each block will have this ID umber to idicate the sesor beig used ad the user ca the use this iformatio for projects such as makig the NXT emit a warig if the wrog sesor is plugged i. This we hope will be a useful feature i educatio to make sure studets use the correct sesor ad block. The additioal iput ad output cotrols for the sesor block are stadard LEGO MINDSTORMS block requiremets. These are the port umber, Trigger poit ad greater/less/yes/o comparisos. For more iformatio, cotact: Mark Fich DCP Microdevelopmets Ltd. Bryo Court Bow Street Great Elligham Norfolk NR17 1JB Tel: DCP Microdevelopmets Ltd. i.com/uk/idays 11

14 Academic/Research Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Moitorig with LabVIEW Dr. Vic J Law Natioal Ceter of Plasma Sciece ad Techology, Dubli City Uiversity The Challege To develop a o-ivasive electrical ad acoustic measuremet techiques to capture i real-time atmospheric pressure plasma process iformatio durig ormal operatio. Here the challege is to use Pricipal Compoet Aalysis (PCA) as a method to trasform (codesed) data sets ito multi-dimesioal space (Loadig plot ad spectrograms): where the ew multi-dimesioal plots ecompass the essece of the process with trasparet outcomes which the observer ca easy uderstad. The Solutio Dr. Law has bee workig i field of low pressure plasma processig for 25 years. I the last few years he has bee ivestigatig atmospheric pressure plasma process at Dubli City Uiversity, Uiversity College Dubli, Quees Uiversity Belfast, ad Loughborough Uiversity. This was mad possible by the support of Eterprise Irelad. This case study looks at the deploymet of LabVIEW 8.2 o a portable laptop computer with hardware (NI 8-bit, 100 MHz digitizer) products to capture the plasma geerated iformatio. Durig this project the ability to quickly reprogram the real-time PCA acquisitio software (Soud ad Vibratio, ad Order aalysis toolkit) at each research site has eabled atmospheric pressure plasma metrology to make coectios betwee the electrical ad acoustic plasma properties ad the plasma process. Products: LabVIEW 8.2 Soud ad Vibratio Order Aalysis Toolkit NI 8-bit, 100 MHz digitizer The iformatio obtaied from plasma geerated electrical ad acoustic datasets eed to iform decisios that ca adequately cotrol process output factors like surface chemistry, coatig thickess ad morphology. Maufacturig ad material egieerig based o atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) techology is ow producig high value plastic materials for the food packagig market (see your microwave meal at the supermarket) ad withi cosumer products: such as the metallizatio o the plastic screes used i plasma screes. Oe of the reasos for this icrease is that o costly vacuum pumpig equipmet is required i the implemetatio of APP as compared to low pressure plasmas that are foud i semicoductor fabricatio facilities. I both cases high product yield at low maufacturig costs are a requiremet ad performace moitorig, quality cotrol, ad traceability metrics have to be deployed. This aspect of APP processig is becomig more importat as both reelto-reel plasma systems ad plasma jets fid additioal commercially viable applicatios. With the icrease i applicatios, the developmet of real-time o-ivasive metrology eeds to complemet existig ad ew processes. To keep the metrology tools dow i umber whilst coverig the wide rage of plasma processes software complexity is evitable. The iformatio obtaied from plasma geerated electrical ad acoustic datasets eed to iform decisios that ca adequately cotrol process output factors like surface chemistry, coatig thickess ad morphology. It has bee kow for over a ceteary ow that APP ready supports acoustic pressure waves (50 Hz to ~20 khz) ad ultrasoud pressure waves (~20 khz to ~600 khz). The soud eergy geerated withi the plasma productio zoe origiates from the repetitive electrical drive frequecy power source. Here the geerated plasma gas expads whilst absorbig electrical eergy, ad cotracts as the Figure 1. Helium Plasma Loadig Plot Drive at 500 W as a Fuctio of Time plasma gas cools whe leavig the plasma productio zoe. Where there is more tha oe site of plasma geeratio (as i the case of large area reel-to-reel plasma systems) may local pressure waves may be geerated causig a combiatio or itermodulated sigals to appear aroud the origial repetitive drive sigal ad it overtoes: the overtoe is similar to a electrical harmoic, but differs i that the iteger multiple frequecies ca vary due to the variatio i plasma desity i which the soud eergy travels through. A complex mixture of the listed pheomeo is also possible due gas flow ad plasma spices ad plasma device topology. The oe-liear dyamic load impedace of APP highly distorts the applied voltage ad curret of the power drive circuit, ad traditioally the amplitude of these electrical sigals are used to classify the APP mode of operatio. These are: the geerative curret ad voltage waveforms; drive oscillator phase oise plasma ad electrical oise-floor. The task of cross referecig acoustic datasets with the geerative electrical waveforms ad operatig frequecy datasets presets may challeges, these iclude: the maagemet for differet size ad format of datasets, the trasformatio of datasets from the time-domai to the frequecy-domai, data display sychroisatio, refresh of process sapshots ad the presetatio 12 UK NIDays Case Study Booklet Dubli City Uiversity

15 Academic/Research of process time-evolvig iformatio. Maagig these tasks i realtime the data eeds to be processed ad reduced so that the most relevat determiistic data is preseted. To be accepted i both research ad idustry the software must be flexible across a umber of commercial available frot-ed probes (microphoes, audio iterface, digitizers ad oscilloscopes) ad user friedly i its implemetatio. Addressig Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Metrology with Labview For ease of use, reduced equipmet cost, ad portability, the software is placed withi a Dell Precisio M90 laptop computer with frot-ed probes coected through USB 2.0 ports ad a i-lie microphoe sockets. The APP-M software is divided ito 3 separate page programs: oe pure acoustics page ad two electro-acoustic pages. Each page is accessed by tabbig betwee the pages with oe page operatioal at ay oe time. I the case of acoustic metrology page, the basic methodology of the Short-Term Fourier Trasform is used to extract N samples of the acoustic sigal by widowig ad computig the Discrete Fourier Trasform of the sigal without sigificat spectral leakage. Here a Gaussia widowig fuctio is used because we are detectig a repetitive sigal, rather tha speech patters. The widow legth is This program cuts the recorded soud ito frames ad rebuilds them ito a block of frames. Real-time Pricipal Compoet aalysis is performed o the curret ad voltage waveforms ad displays them i the form of a Loadig plot [1]. The X-axis voltage score ad the Y-axis curret score are costructed from the rms values of curret ad voltage waveforms plus the additio of the frequecy i uit of khz. This process is represeted i equatios 1 ad 2. The high dimesioal space of the PCA Loadig plot is used to track the plasma performace. Curret waveform I rms I rms + f = score (1) Voltage waveform V rms V rms + f = score (2) The software is routiely used at Dubli City Uiversity ad Uiversity College Dubli o both reel-to-reel plasma systems ad plasma jets. The data beig collected eables researchers to capture previously uattaiable iformatio o plasma mode chage which last for 10s of secods. This time period is of iterest as may surface coatigs process have exposure times of similar time duratios. Results Figure 1 shows a reel-to-reel helium plasma at 500 W as viewed by the PCA loadig plot. The process starts at the bottom left ad progresses to the top right with data poits added at a rate of 1 poit per 0.5 secod. The red-lie highlights the trajectory betwee the clusters poits. Here it is see that two clusters are formed, the clusters elogate i the directio of the arrow ad process time. Figure 2 preset the acoustic spectrum of these two plasma modes (clusters). A toe aalysis of the acoustic spectrums reveals that the fudametal drive frequecies are slightly differet at (f 0 = 24.5 = bottom cluster (b), ad 25 khz = top cluster (a), respectively). Secodly combiatios (or, itermodulatio distortio) are preset but ot the same. This should be is excepted as soud eergy, rather tha electromaget eergy is beig measured. Mathematically, to a first approximatio, this ca be expressed as f 0 ±f 1-3 to geerate a comb of sums ad differece combiatio toes aroud f 0. Figure 2. Plasma acoustic spectrum of same plasma for each cluster. Figure 3 preset a acoustic waterfall spectrogram depictig a similar plasma uder a mode trasitio: the frame time resolutio is 10 frames, each havig sample duratio of 1 secod. Figure 3. Acoustic waterfall display revealig trasitios betwee two plasma clusters. Coclusios Visually, there is o distiguishig betwee the two plasma modes, each is characterised by a uiform although spatially ohomogeeous plasma, with visible features called colum micro discharge. The electro-acoustic cross-correlatio measuremets, however, does detect two time-varyig modes where the acoustic emissio spectral desity profile is sychroised with the idividual PCA clusters. [1] Visualizatio of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Electrical Parameters. V J Law, N O Coor, B Twomey, D P Dowlig ad S Daiels. Topics of Chaotic Systems: Selected Papers of Chaos 2008 Iteratioal Coferece. Ed. C H Skiadas, I Dimotikalis ad C Skiadas. (World Scietific Publishig. Co, Pte, Ltd 2009). ISBN For more iformatio, cotact: Dr. Vic Law NCPST Dubli City Uiversity Collis Ave, Glasevi Dubli 9, Irelad Tel: Dubli City Uiversity i.com/uk/idays 13

16 Academic/Research Dyamic Characterisatio of High Velocity Ball Impacts with NI LabVIEW, NI IMAQ Software ad NI PCIe Hardware Fiachra Collis, Dubli City Uiversity The Challege With the aim of stadardisig the sliotar, the ball used i the Irish sport Hurlig, it was ecessary to evaluate the impact characteristics of the curretly approved brads. I order for the testig to be represetative of the coditios occurrig i the sport, the characterisatio would require impact velocities of up to 86 mph. Impact duratios i the regio of 2 millisecods ecessitated high data acquisitio rates for data capture ad aalysis. The Solutio A custom-desiged peumatic system, cotrolled with millisecod accuracy, was used to project the ball with precise aim ad without impartig spi at velocities betwee 5 ad 38 ms-1 (11-86 mph). Data acquisitio, via NI PCIe hardware, was sychroised to record data from a high speed camera ruig at 5000 fps ad a compressio load-cell itegrated ito the impact plate. This data was aalysed to evaluate the ball s deformatio ad eergy loss impact characteristics. Various sesors moitorig the status of the system commuicate via the LabVIEW cotrol program to allow automated batch testig. Products: LabVIEW 8.6 NI IMAQ Visio NI PCIe-1429 NI PCIe-6251 SCB-68 I recet years, variability i behaviour of the sliotar had become evidet i champioship matches. The resultig cotroversy amogst players ad the media had led the Gaelic Athletic Associatio, the goverig body for the sport, to decide to adopt a sigle stadardised core for the sliotar. I order to produce a core with cosistetly desirable playig performace, characterisatio of the dyamic impact properties of curretly approved sliotar cores was ecessary. Properties measured ad characterised to this ed icluded the coefficiet of restitutio (ratio of velocities before ad after impact), impact force, deformatio characteristics, dyamic stiffess ad cotact time. System Overview A automated test system was desiged ad developed to evaluate dyamic impact characteristics. I this system, the propulsio is provided by peumatic system usig a modified actuator with large ports ad a light polymer pisto. A air reservoir actig as a buffer is located immediately before directioal cotrol valves to avoid restrictive choked flow developig i the arrow apertures of the peumatic system. Cotrolled by LabVIEW via a NI PCIe-6251 multifuctio card ad SCB-68 breakout box, the peumatic system projects the ball vertically upwards with precise aim ad zero spi to strike a impact plate. The steel impact plate is firmly supported to esure a egligible cotributio to the eergy loss of the impact, thus providig data that is itrisic to the ball itself. The impact plate is iclied at 4 to esure that the ball does ot reboud back dow the barrel ito the firig area. The impact characteristics are measured from data acquired from a compressio load-cell via a NI PCIe-6251 ad from a high speed camera via a NI PCIe-1429 frame-grabber card. Due to the short exposure times associated with high speed footage, the impact area is illumiated by 400 W of haloge light, with a coolig fa istalled beside the impact plate to reduce the temperature rise resultig from the bulbs. After impact, the ball rebouds withi a eclosed frame ad rolls ito the water coditioig uit. This allows the testig of balls uder wet Test system for high velocity impact characterisatio coditios to ivestigate the effect of rai o the ball performace. The ball fially rolls ito a feeder chael that ca accommodate up to 14 balls that ca be tested cotiuously i a cycle. A mechaism at the base of the feeder chael allows a sigle ball at a time ito the firig area. Positio sesors aliged alog the chael iform the cotrol program of the umber of balls i the system ad idicates whe the ball returs so that the ext ball ca be fired. System Cotrol The etire system is cotrolled by a user-friedly iterface, ivolvig the sychroized use of ie LabVIEW Virtual Istrumet (VI) programs. The top-level VI allows the iput of the ball idetificatio ames ad the desired projectio velocity, executes the subvis i the correct sequece ad displays the impact characteristics followig aalysis of the acquired data. Usig LabVIEW to cotrol the pressure i the reservoir ad the triggerig sigals to the directioal cotrol soleoid valves, the actuator ca accelerate up to 38 m/s i 12 ms. The timigs of the directioal cotrol valves are crucial, to allow the maximum use of the extesio stroke to accelerate the ball, yet deceleratig the pisto before it strikes ad fractures agaist the ed of the stroke. High-speed footage of the impact is acquired from a Mikrotro MC1302 high-speed camera via a base CameraLik coectio to the NI PCIe This camera has a full frame resolutio of 1280 x 1024 pixels at 100 frames per secod (fps) higher frame-rates 14 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Dubli City Uiversity

17 Academic/Research (icreased data resolutio) are obtaied at the expese of reduced pixel resolutio (reduced dimesioal accuracy) fps at 220 x 110 pixels proved to be optimal settigs for recordig the impact duratio. The frame-rate, resolutio ad exposure settigs of the camera are specified by serial commads withi LabVIEW. High-speed image acquisitio is achieved by the use of a LL rig buffer algorithm, which creates the memory allocatio for the frames before the acquisitio, allowig the rapid savig of each frame i a ucompressed AVI codec for subsequet image processig. To prevet excessive use of CPU ad disk space, ad to reduce the time take for the image processig, the duratio of acquisitio is set to 90 millisecods. This requires the triggerig of the camera at a precise time after the ball is projected, so that the small acquisitio widow coicides with the impact. The sigal voltage from the compressio load-cell is amplified to the 0 10 volt rage by a RPD DR7DC trasducer amplifier. This voltage is acquired at 10 khz by a high-rate aalogue iput ad coverted to the force readig by the calibratio built ito the program. Data Aalysis I the iterval of time betwee impact ad the ball re-eterig the feeder chael, the data acquired at impact is aalysed, displayed for the user, ad saved i spreadsheet format. The top-level VI passes the path of the AVI to the image processig algorithm, which uses NI IMAQ visio software to perform a variety of fuctios to threshold, filter ad sharpe the image. This ultimately isolates the ball from the backgroud ad tracks the cetre co-ordiates ad pixel area from frame to frame via shift register, thus measurig the velocities (ad hece, coefficiet of restitutio), trajectory (icidet ad reboud agles), the deformatio profile (compressio of diameter ormal to impact surface) durig impact ad the circularity before ad after impact. The force readig is aalysed to evaluate the peak force, cotact time ad impulse. The impulse is the chage i mometum of the ball, ad is calculated from the itegral of force with respect to time. The force is plotted agaist the deformatio to produce a hysteresis curve, with the slope correspodig to the dyamic stiffess ad the area eclosed withi the hysteresis loop correspodig to the dyamic eergy loss. Results ad Discussio I the calibratio of the system, it was show to have excellet repeatability with accuracies of ± 0.14 m/s, ± 0.58 mm ad ± 0.7 N for velocity, deformatio ad force measuremets respectively. From aalysis of the data, it is evidet that there is a variatio i performace betwee differet brads ad eve withi the same brads of sliotar cores. This variatio becomes more proouced at higher velocities, as is evidet from the results becomig icreasigly scattered with icreasig impact velocity. This ca be attributed to differet material properties, o-uiform ball costructio (thus, o-uiform mass distributio) ad imperfect sphericity, all of which are as a result of isufficiet quality cotrol i the maufacturig process. This velocity-depedet deviatio i performace would ot be apparet i the curret regulatio testig, thus validatig the eed for high velocity testig to comprehesively characterise a ball impact. I the cotext of the sport, the coefficiet of restitutio is regarded as the liveliess of the ball. To a sportsperso, the deformatio ad cotact time are equivalet to the feel of a ball, ifluecig the cotrol, precisio ad feedback from the strike to the player. The force would be related to the shock felt i catchig or strikig the ball. These performace parameters of a ball are depedet upo the viscoelastic behaviour of the material durig impact. Viscoelastic characteristics, such as the dyamic stiffess ad hysteresis eergy loss, are show to have a oliear velocity-depedet relatioship to the material properties. I order to adjust the performace of the ball, it is ecessary to ivestigate this relatioship, i order to produce a ball with desirable playig performace. Coclusios A automated test system was developed to evaluate the dyamic impact characteristics of the sliotar. Cotrolled by LabVIEW, this system has the capability of propellig a ball at up to 38 ms-1 ad recordig the behaviour of a ball withi its 2 millisecod impact duratio. LabVIEW s ituitive programmig style ad ready compatibility with both NI ad third-party hardware allowed a quick set-up of the system. This system is used to ivestigate the relatioship betwee the material properties ad playig performace to facilitate a appropriate ball stadard to be produced for the sport of Hurlig ad will also allow eforcemet of the stadard by assessmet ad quality cotrol of balls to be used i the sport i the future. For more iformatio, cotact: Fiachra Collis School of Mechaical ad Maufacturig Egieerig, Dubli City Uiversity, Glasevi, Dubli 9, Irelad. Dubli City Uiversity i.com/uk/idays 15

18 Academic/Research Flow Characterisatio of a Resoat Pipe Flow Tom Melia Loughborough Uiversity The Challege There is little cosesus o the effects of heat trasfer i a pipe subjected to a resoat oscillatig flow. The aims of this ivestigatio is to attempt to quatify the chage i the Nusselt umber ad heat trasfer coefficiet at differet coditios whilst aalysig a wide rage of axial locatios withi the pipe. The Solutio Natioal Istrumets LabVIEW, CompactDAQ, SCXI ad Data Acquisitio products were used to develop a scalable, automated data acquisitio system capable of acquirig ad loggig a rage of data parameters. This data was used to idetify key areas of the effects of heat trasfer i a pipe subjected to a resoat oscillatig flow. Products: Multifuctio Data Acquisitio NI cdaq-9172 NI 9263 Sigal Coditioig - SCXI-1000 SCXI-1143 NI LabVIEW 8.6 There is little cosesus o the effects of heat trasfer i a pipe subjected to a resoat oscillatig flow. Previous experimets by scietists ad egieers have show both icreases ad decreases i pipe Nusselt umber for a variety of flow coditios. However, little of this research has dealt with high amplitude oscillatios at frequecies i the Hz rage. To this ed, this ivestigatio is aimig to attempt to quatify the chage i the Nusselt umber ad heat trasfer coefficiet at differet coditios whilst aalysig a wide rage of axial locatios withi the pipe. Havig all of the DAQ ad output parameters cotrollable from oe iterface will dramatically speed up the acquisitio of data. Facilities The lab cosists of a acoustically treated eclosure with exits for wirig. Iside the eclosure sits the rig which cosists of a 0.95 m log pipe maufactured i sectios of varyig legths to allow for the axial movemet of sesors. At oe ed of this sits a pisto which is attached to a electro-dyamic shaker used to oscillate the pisto. The s haker is coected to the output of a matched amplifier. The iput of this amplifier is coected to a cdaq slot chassis with the NI chael, 100 ks/s simultaeously updatig aalogue output module to provide a sigal for the shaker. Various sectios of the rig feature pressure trasducers which may be moved axially by movig the sectio to which they are attached. Furthermore, a sectio has also bee maufactured with the express purpose of measurig heat trasfer. Measuremets Measuremets of usteady heat flux, surface temperature, usteady pressure, exit velocity ad pisto displacemet will be acquired. The operatio of the shaker ad thus the pisto was cotrolled by a NI- cdaq-9172 ad NI This eables the user to output a sie wave of give amplitude ad frequecy ad vary the frequecy to Automated data acquisitio system establish the resoat frequecy for a give day. This has bee automated by ruig the pisto through a set of frequecies as defied i the developed LabVIEW program. Whilst this is occurrig, it is possible to also obtai a usteady pressure at various locatios i the pipe. This is acquired through a NI SCXI-1000 chassis coupled with a NI SCXI Chael Lowpass Butterworth Filter Module. Furthermore, a check is performed to esure that the measured wave is the same as the output wave. I time, this will also allow measuremets to be take at differet coditios as well as at may axial locatios withi the pipe. NI Data Acquisitio System Solutio As a resoat pipe produces quite a amout of oise, the whole rig is cotaied withi a acoustic eclosure. Previously, there was little kowledge of the performace of the rig asides from a aalogue sigal geeratio which was oly accurate to +/- 1 Hz or so ad the usteady pressure sigal that this geerated. Hece, small chages i the performace of the rig were difficult to determie ad the resoat coditio was foud maily by ear. The ability of the NI Data Acquisitio System usig the NIcDAQ-9172, NI 9263 ad NI LabVIEW to output a specific sie wave ad the alter this programmatically to fid the resoat poit, will speed up this process ad eable a more accurate solutio to be obtaied. Furthermore, there is also a greater degree of repeatability to the results. Havig all of the DAQ ad output parameters cotrollable from oe iterface will dramatically speed up the acquisitio of data. Furthermore, the time take to set up the system o a give day or at a give coditio is also reduced. 16 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Loughborough Uiversity

19 Academic/Research Automated data acquisitio system iterface Future Developmets Future developmets for this applicatio will be to ehace the system to cotrol the outside temperature of a sectio of the pipe i order to draw a heat flux through the thickess of the pipe. This sectio of the pipe will be istrumeted with thi film heat flux gauges. Part of the problem with doig this is esurig the correct temperature whilst esurig that the Peltier heatig elemet is kept cooled. This will be cotrolled by NI LabVIEW ad the NI- cdaq-9172, NI 9263 which will eable these parameters to be set up remotely ad moitor them. For more iformatio, cotact: Tom Melia, Ph.D Studet Loughborough Uiversity, UK Loughborough Uiversity i.com/uk/idays 17

20 Academic/Research NIDays 2009 Paper Cotest Ruer Up ISIS Proto Sychrotro Beam Data Acquisitio ad Aalysis Usig PXI ad LabVIEW Brya Joes ad Sarah Whitehead, ISIS Sciece ad Techology Facilities Coucil, UK The Challege ISIS is the world-leadig pulsed eutro ad muo source based at the Rutherford Appleto Laboratory i the UK. The facility s 50 Hz sychrotro accelerates proto beams up to 800 MeV, deliverig a mea beam power of 0.24 MW. A recet major expasio of ISIS requires higher beam currets from the sychrotro ad has led to a programme of detailed studies ad upgrades. A key part of this is improvig the beam diagostic systems to better moitor, cotrol ad ultimately improve the accelerator s performace The Solutio Several ew PXI based data acquisitio systems have bee istalled to icrease the quatity, accuracy ad speed of diagostic data obtaied. We report here o the systems used to moitor beam loss, beam positio ad trasverse beam profiles. We chose PXI systems for their compactess ad high-performace data acquisitio ad sychroisatio capabilities. With guidace from NI egieers we rapidly created easy-to-use well-desiged LabVIEW user iterfaces to cotrol the systems ad process ad display data. These PXI based systems have cotributed towards a 20% icrease i accelerator performace. Products: LabVIEW 8.6 Iteret Toolkit 6.0 PXI-1044/1000B/1042Q/1045 PXI-8196/8186/8105 PXI-6133 PXI-6651 PXI-6533 PXI-5414/5124/5412 The ISIS sychrotro accelerates a beam of 2.8 x 1013 protos to 85% of light speed, fifty times a secod. Each acceleratio cycle lasts 10 millisecods durig which the beam makes revolutios of the 163 m circumferece, with the proto eergy gradually risig from 70 to 800MeV. Beam Loss Moitorig The amout of beam the sychrotro ca accelerate is limited by the proportio of the beam that is lost durig acceleratio i.e. beam that escapes the acceleratig fields ad hits the edge of the vacuum pipe. This lost beam ca cause activatio of the sychrotro compoets which makes hads-o maiteace problematic. Moitorig loss levels is therefore crucial to successful operatio of the facility. There are 39 beam loss moitors distributed aroud the circumferece of the sychrotro. These moitors are 3m log argo-filled gas ioisatio tubes which idirectly detect protos strikig the edge of the beampipe. Previously, the loss levels have bee displayed i the ISIS cotrol room i a histogram showig total loss i each of the 10 sectios of the sychrotro summed over a acceleratio cycle. A ew PXI based data acquisitio system has allowed us to improve this display; the system cosists of a PXI-1045 chassis housig a PXI-8105 cotroller, a PXI-6651 sychroisatio card ad 5 PXI-6133 digitisers. Data is acquired at 20kS/s ad streamed over the lab etwork usig NI DataSocket software. A LabVIEW applicatio has bee produced to receive ad display this data. This system allows may users to simultaeously access the data ad aalyse it i differet ways. The mai feature of the VI is a ActiveX 3D graph cotrol displayig the loss, Figure 1, this is similar to the existig histogram display with four times the spatial resolutio ad a time axis to show loss at 50 µs itervals. At a glace beam loss ca be idetified o idividual moitors at ay time withi the acceleratio cycle. The GUI also allows the user to prit graphs, save referece data ad view Figure 1. 3D display of beam loss levels idividual moitors or the sum of all moitors. It also recreates the existig histogram display for compariso. Multi-Chael Profile Moitorig The two ew multi-chael profile moitors (MCPMs, Figure 2) each use a array of 40 electro multipliers (chaeltros) to measure real-time trasverse beam profiles withi the ISIS sychrotro. The Figure 2. A Multi-Chael Profile Moitor circulatig proto beam iteracts with the residual gas i the beam pipe to produce positive ios. A high voltage drift field is applied across the beam which directs the ios towards the moitor. The data acquisitio system cosists of a PXI cotroller ad chassis ad five 8-chael PXI-6133 cards which are sampled simultaeously usig a PXI-6651 timig ad sychroisatio card. O every 50 Hz pulse of ISIS each of the 40 chaels are read at a sample rate selected by the user for the acceleratio cycle. From 18 UK NIDays09 Case Study Booklet Sciece ad Techology Facilities Coucil, UK

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