STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE LEARNING IN BUSINESS COURSES AT UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA, INDONESIA. Maya Maria, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia

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1 STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE LEARNING IN BUSINESS COURSES AT UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA, INDONESIA Maya Maria, Uiversitas Terbuka, Idoesia Co-author: Amiuddi Zuhairi, Uiversitas Terbuka, Idoesia Kuria Edah Riaa, Uiversitas Terbuka, Idoesia Summary This paper presets fidigs of a research o participatio i four olie learig courses offered by UT Faculty of Ecoomics. The purpose of the study is to have a uderstadig of how distace studets participate ad which factors ifluece participatio i olie tutorials. Olie tutorial has bee used by Uiversitas Terbuka (UT) to provide two-way commuicatio chael for distace studets, facilitate learig process, ad assist them i preparig for examiatio. The fidigs of the research idicate that there is low participatio of studets i olie tutorials, i terms of studets cotributio to olie discussio forum ad to work o assigmets. Fidigs of the questioaire survey idicate that most respodets perceive that tutors have addressed studets questios o topics appropriately ad give motivatio to studets to lear. Oe costrait i olie tutorials relates to slow feedback from tutors to studets, while access, costs, ad computer skills do ot hamper studets participatio i olie tutorials. Some recommedatios are preseted. First, tutors are advised to give feedback immediately to respod to studets queries o . Secod, topics o curret issues should be preseted i the form of case studies Itroductio Bates (i Siahaa, 200) ad Simamora (2003) idetified several beefits of iteret usage as a learig medium. Oe of them is its ability to create both real time (chattig, audio/videomulticastig) ad o real time ( , bulletig board, mailiglist) iteractio. Belawati (2003) stated that iteret techology is imperative for distace learig istitutio to overcome separatio of time da place which is oe of distace learig characteristics. Studets ca access learig material as well as commuicate with tutors ay time ad ay place usig computer ad iteret media. There are some factors ifluecig studet participatio i tutorial olie, such as techology ad characteristic of iterface, cotet-area experiece, studets role ad task, ad iformatio overload. There are three categories of olie tutorial participatio, amely those who have active participatio, those who read messages but ever post the message (lurkers), ad those who do ot take part at all. This has also bee suggested by Taylor (2002) who categorized olie participatio ito three groups which were workers, group which were participatig actively i olie tutorial ad regularly visitig class ; lurkers, the

2 group who sometimes participated but usually oly read; ad shirkers, the group who did the least postig ad visitig class. Research o olie tutorial coducted i Uiversitas Terbuka (UT) showed that most of studets participatig i olie discussio were passive (8%) or oly readig learig materials give by tutors ad commets of other participats (Belawati, 2003). Mulyato (i Uiversitas Terbuka Report, 2007) also stated that oly 37.8% studets of UT Mathematics ad Sciece Faculty had accessed iteret, ad 26.7% had ot accessed iteret. However, Zaidi et.al. (i Adriai, 200) said that iterest level of UT studets i olie learig was relatively high (73.07%). Olie tutorial has bee used by UT to provide two-way commuicatio chael for distace studets, facilitate learig process, ad assist them i preparig for examiatio. UT provides Guidelies for Olie Tutorial for tutor, describig the techical aspects of coductig olie tutorial activities. It is stated i the Guidelie that olie tutorials are to be coducted for 8 weeks, begiig after course registratio. Olie tutorial activities cosist of iitiatio materials from tutors to studets, assigmets, ad olie discussios facilitated by tutors. This paper presets fidigs of a research o participatio i four olie learig courses offered by UT Faculty of Ecoomics. It aims to observe how studets participate i olie tutorials, ad factors that ifluece studet participatio o olie tutorials ad their participatio i olie discussio. Research Method This research is descriptive usig a case study desig. There are four cases of olie courses ivestigated i this research, amely Itroductory Accoutig, Budgetig, Corporate Orgaizatio, ad Itroductio to Busiess. All of them are courses offered i the secod semester o 2007 at UT Faculty of Maagemet. Data collectio was carried out by observig olie tutorials of these four courses. I additio, questioaires were also set via to 910 studets who registered to olie tutorials for these four courses. Oly 30 questioaires were filled out ad set back for aalysis, meaig that there was oly a 3.3% of respose rate. Results of the Study Studet Participatio i Olie Tutorial Data o studet participatio i four olie courses is summarized i Table 1. The table compares percetage of studet participatio i each course ad the average of studet participatio of each course. Table 1 Studet participatio i olie tutorial of the four courses N o Course 1. Accouti g Itroductio Studet s Activities i Olie Tutorial Regi s-ter Logi % Acti ve , 3 % Pa ssi ve % No Logi % Work o Assi gm et 49 18, 26 9, , ,8 %

3 2. Budgetig , 49 24,2 11, , 7 3, Orgaizati , 46 2,3 13 7, ,6 7 3,8 o 4 4. Busiess ,6 9 3, 146,9 1 19, The average 227, 77,2 33, 6 62, 27,1 14,7 6,4 10, ,7 9,8 9 Table 1 shows that the average of studets registered i oe course is aroud 227 studets. Aroud 33,6% of those who registered logged i to the olie tutorial of each course. Oly 6,4% of all registered studets i the olie courses participated actively, ad oly 9,89% worked o their olie tutorial assigmets. Meawhile, there is sizeable percetage of studet participatig passively (27,1%). Compariso betwee active studets ad passive studets raises a questio whether olie tutorial has bee utilized by studets effectively. To aswer the questio o how studets participate i olie tutorial, the researchers observe olie tutorials of these four courses focusig o iteractio patter occurred i discussio forum ad tutor performace i coductig olie tutorials. Further ivestigatio was coducted to observe the iteractio patter of studets actively participatig olie discussios. The result of the observatio o the iteractio patter of discussio forum demostrates that there are differeces i presetatio ad maagemet of discussio forum coducted by tutors. As UT has olie tutorial guidelies, it shows those tutors do ot utilize it. Data regardig the umber of tutors postig shows that tutors do ot actively respod to studets. Further aalysis of studets activities o discussio forum shows that there is variatio of studets questios cocerig olie learig materials ad the cotet of prited learig prited, completio of assigmets, ad other techical aspects related to participatio i olie tutorials. Questios regardig techical problem were foud i olie tutorial of Itroductory of Accoutig ad Itroductio to Busiess which showed that studets did ot uderstad how to post assigmet reports correctly. There were a umber of studets who posted assigmet reports i discussio forum that could be accessed by other studets. Assigmet is usually idividual task, which should be set through task widow or directly to tutor via . Observatio of studet participatio o discussio forum showed that there was quite low studet postig i olie tutorial of Budgetig ad Corporate Orgaizatio courses. I additio, studet activities o these courses teded to be decreasig every week i terms of frequecies ad itesities. I order to observe tutor preparatio, the researchers utilize istructioal desig criteria for olie tutorial cosistig of the followig elemets: provisio of learig material, timetable, learig guidelie, feedback, assigmet, learig material erichmet, ad motivatio from tutor (Belawati, 2003). Observatio results could be described as the followig. First, all courses provide eight learig material, which are requiremets for olie tutorial guidelies i UT. Secod, all of courses provide a schedule that cotais outlie of material ad assigmets. Third, oly two courses provide techical istructio o how to participate i olie tutorial process, amely Corporate Orgaizatio ad Itroductory Accoutig. Fourth, all courses provide feedback for studet to aswer their questios ad to motivate studets participatig i olie tutorial. Feedback give o time is prove to start up discussio. Fifth, two courses give three assigmets as required i UT olie tutorial guidelies. Sixth, all courses provide learig materials erichmet, yet they are ot diverse ad deep eough to address the discussed topics. Learig material erichmet is pivotal i olie tutorial, because through this medium distace educatio course maager ca provide additioal learig material with less cost. Seveth, all courses have give motivatio to studets i order to participate actively i olie tutorial. However, there are differeces i degree of tutor effort to motivate studets. Motivatio is importat to overcome low ivolvemet i olie tutorial participatio. There are some methods utilized to motivate studets, the simplest oe is greetig, askig whether or ot they ca follow discussio well,

4 whether they uderstad material preseted by tutor, or whether they have difficulties i completig assigmets. Besides observatio, there were a umber of other fidigs revealed from questioaires set to olie tutorial participats. First, a large proportio of respodets (40%) had strog iterests i olie tutorial as idicated by frequet access to olie tutorials o every day basis, while 33% accessed olie tutorials o a three-day basis. Secod, respodets stated the importace of olie tutorial schedule as a guidelie for participatig i olie tutorial activities. Third, 40% of respodets stated that olie tutorials gave beefits to erichig their learig process. Factors Ifluecig Studet Participatio i Olie Tutorial Factors ifluecig studet participatio i olie tutorials are divided ito two categories, amely techical ad o-techical aspects. Techical aspect is cocered with UT iteret etwork ad studets computer skills. Meawhile, o-techical aspect is cocered with expeses ad tutor promptess i givig feedback ad motivatio to studets. A summary of factors ifluecig studets participatio i olie tutorial is show i Table 2. Table 2. Factor Ifluecig Studet Participatio i Olie Tutorial ad Discussio Forum o Four Courses at Registratio Term 07.2 No. Factors Ifluece 1 Expeses Isufficietly ifluetial (70%) 2 Studets computer skill Isufficietly ifluetial (83%) 3 Iteret access poit Isufficietly ifluetial (office: 77%) 4 UT's iteret etwork accessibility Isufficietly ifluetial (87%) Prompt feedback Sometimes fast subtracted (73%) 6 Accuracy feedback give to studets Duly (63%) 7 Motivatio by tutor Adequately active (70%) Factors that were isufficietly ifluetial to participatio i olie tutorial iclude cost, studets computer skills, access poits, ad ease of access to UT website. Cost factors are ot costraits because of most of the studets access the iteret from the workplace (77%). Computer skill factor is ot a sigificat costrait because most of studets have the skills i usig the computer (83%). Meawhile access to UT website is perceived by easy eough by a cosiderable umber of studets (87%), idicatig UT techical readiess to provide olie tutorial services. Meawhile, oe factor sigificatly ifluetial to studets active participatio i olie discussio forum is tutors promptess i givig feedback. A large proportio of studets (73%) declare that tutors sometimes do ot give prompt respose to studets queries. However, may studets thik that tutors give accurate feedback to studets despite the fact that the feedback has bee somewhat delayed (63%), ad the feedback is also cosidered to be motivatig by studets (70%). This research has also foud out factors that are ifluetial i improvig studet participatio i olie discussio through providig discussio material preseted i short ad topical cases. That data poits out that 7% of studets wat discussio material i short cases, ad 3% of studets wat discussio topics o curret issues. Coclusios

5 The fidigs of the research o participatio i four olie learig courses offered by UT Faculty of Ecoomics idicate that there is low participatio of studets i olie tutorials. Oly 6,4% participated actively ad 9,89% who did their olie tutorial assigmets. Meawhile, there is sizeable percetage of studet participatig passively (27,1%). Observatio result o iteractio patter of discussio forum demostrates that there are differeces o presetatio ad maagemet of discussio forum coducted by tutors. As UT has olie tutorial guidelies for tutors, the fidig of the research also shows that ot all tutors do utilize it. I order to observe tutor preparatio, the researchers utilize istructioal desig criteria for olie tutorial which icludes provisio of learig material, timetable, learig guidelie, feedback, assigmet, learig material erichmet, ad motivatio from tutor (Belawati, 2003). Observatio result shows that ot every tutor provides tutorial istructioal desig criteria. Data regardig the umber of tutor postig shows that tutor does ot actively respod to studets. Meawhile, fidigs of the questioaire survey idicate that most respodets perceive that tutors have addressed studets questios o topics appropriately ad give motivatio to studets to lear. However, tutors still eed to focus attetio o discussio format usig short cases ad o topics of curret issues. Fidigs of the research also idicate the pricipal factor ifluecig studet participatio i tutorial olie is the slow feedback from tutors to studets, meawhile techology ad characteristics of iterface such as access, costs, ad computer skills do ot hamper studets participatio i olie tutorials. Limitatio of the research is that it has low respose rate to the questioaire. Some recommedatios are preseted. First, tutors eed to be traied i desigig istructioal system for olie tutorials. Secod, tutors are advised to give feedback immediately to respod to studets queries o . Fially, based o fidigs the research, topics o curret issues should be preseted i the form of case studies. Refereces Adriai, Durri (200). S2's college studet o distace learig system: Iteret exploit ad studyig help. Jural Pedidika Terbuka da Jarak Jauh, 6 (2 ), Belawati, Tia (2003). Implemet e-learig i distace learig at Idoesia. Cakrawala Pedidika: E-learig dalam Pedidika, Siahaa, Sudirma (200). Towards Iterets techological exploit for learig. Jural Pedidika Terbuka da Jarak Jauh,7 (1 ), Simamora, Lambot (2003). E Learig: cocept ad its supportive techology developig. Cakrawala Pedidika: E-learig dalam Pedidika, Taylor, J. C. (2002). Teachig ad learig olie: the workers, the lurkers ad the shirkers. Paper preseted at the Coferece o Research i distace & Adult Learig I Asia.

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